iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry http://www.sisef.it/iforest/ Last Issued: Volume 10, Issue 4 (Year 2017) Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved en http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss PHP 5.0.12 staff@sisef.it (Gabriele Bucci) staff@sisef.it (Gabriele Bucci) 60 iForest Web Site http://www.sisef.it/images/common/iforest@logo.gif http://www.sisef.it/iforest/ Research Articles: Tissue carbon concentration of 175 Mexican forest species http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2421-010 <p><b>Pompa-García M, Sigala-Rodríguez JA, Jurado E, Flores J</b></p><p><b>TISSUE CARBON CONCENTRATION OF 175 MEXICAN FOREST SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Reliable calculations of carbon stocks in forest ecosystems are crucial for proper implementation of global warming mitigation policies. Accurate estimations depend upon applying the correct factor of carbon (C) concentration for different forest species and tissues instead of the often assumed 50% carbon content. Despite the high forest species richness in Mexico and the increasing CO2 emissions, data on carbon concentrations in forest plant tissues are scarce. In this study, we determined variation in C concentration of different tissues for 175 plant species common in Mexican forests. C contents were estimated and contrasted for plant distribution, taxa, and plant structure (main stems, branches, twigs, bark, leaves, buds, fruits, roots and root cuticles). The mean C concentration across species was 44.7%. Species significantly differed in C concentration by tissue, environment and taxa. These multi-species data contribute to improve precision on estimates of C balance in terrestrial ecosystems, reducing the uncertainty in C inventories in Mexico and elsewhere.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon Sink, Plant Tissue C, Multi-species C, Global Warming</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 754-758 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2421-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2421-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2421-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-08-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2421-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Temporal changes of forest species composition studied by compositional data approach http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2187-010 <p><b>Kobal M, Kastelec D, Eler K</b></p><p><b>TEMPORAL CHANGES OF FOREST SPECIES COMPOSITION STUDIED BY COMPOSITIONAL DATA APPROACH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Many ecological data are compositional and different quantitative techniques have been used to analyze such data, albeit some of them being methodologically wrong. The aim of this contribution is to apply the compositional data approach to forestry data and demonstrate the strengths of this method for percentage or relative data with infrequent zero values. Basal areas of three dominant tree species (Abies alba, Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica) in 119 forest compartments in some of the Omphalodo-Fagetum forests in Slovenia in 1954 and 2004 were used to investigate the dynamics of forest species composition over a 50-year period. For the investigated period some additional data about geomorphology and harvesting rates within the compartments were used as explanatory variables of compositional change. The species composition of each forest compartment was subjected to several methods within a compositional analysis framework: descriptive, ternary diagram-based graphical presentations, significance of compositional differences between management classes, significance of perturbation differences (the indicator of forest compositional change) and relation of the compositional change with the explanatory variables by means of compositional linear model. Results indicated that the silver fir was the dominant species in both years, but a clear reduction in silver fir proportion was observed after 50 years. The perturbation differences indicated comparatively large relative increase in the proportion of Norway spruce between 1954 and 2004. Subsequently, the perturbation differences were subjected to isometric log-transformation (ilr) and two derived ilr coordinates were further used as dependent variables in the multivariate linear model. The initial stand structure correlated well with the perturbation differences. These were also significantly correlations with salvage cutting, a consequence of silver fir decline in the 1954-2004 period. This study demonstrated that the compositional data approach can be successfully used to study forest dynamics yielding some insights into data which are not possible or even not valid using some alternative methods.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Percentage Data, Data Transformation, Compositional Change, Compositional Linear Model, Forest Dynamics, Vegetation Shift, Omphalodo-Fagetum</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 729-738 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2187-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2187-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2187-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-08-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2187-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Sampling strategies for high quality time-series of climatic variables in forest resource assessment http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2427-010 <p><b>Ferrara C, Marchi M, Fares S, Salvati L</b></p><p><b>SAMPLING STRATEGIES FOR HIGH QUALITY TIME-SERIES OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES IN FOREST RESOURCE ASSESSMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Many ecological studies require long-term time series of high quality. Missing data may represent a serious problem since they can affect the reliability of measured variables in specific locations. To which extent and according to which methodology a gap in time series should be filled is a major research challenge. In this study, the time-series of meteorological data relative to 13 monitoring sites from the ICP-Forest network in Italy were analysed with the aim to define the minimum number of site-specific observations, which can be considered adequate for further analysis on forest resource management. Three main climatic variables were taken into account in the analysis: air temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation. By using an increasing proportion of available data, descriptive and inferential statistic methods were applied to evaluate the amount of variability along the period of analysis (1998-2013) and associated error of estimation at seasonal level. The relative importance of each factor accounted in our analysis (season, year, variable, plot, sampling proportion) was investigated fitting a Random Forest model on the results of the bootstrapping procedure. Air temperature was the variable with a marked seasonal profile and the easiest to be represented at monthly level on a specific time period. Humidity and precipitation were more stable across the analysed time period. Trends in precipitation showed that a high amount of variability could be detected only when > 80% of valid observations were available. Humidity showed an intermediate pattern, with an exponential increase in the amount of explained variability when using an increased proportion of sampled observations. Random Forest Regression models indicated sampling proportion (i.e., number of available observations) as an important factor for trend analysis of relative air humidity and precipitation. We conclude that monthly or seasonal statistics can be proficiently estimated for both air temperature and relative humidity with a proportion of missing values higher than 50%. Conversely, a reliable analysis of intra-seasonal or intra-monthly precipitation variability requires a much higher amount of observations. In the latter case gap filling represents the only feasible solution.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: ICP-Forests, Sampling Representativeness, Missing Data, Forest Monitoring, Climate</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 739-745 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2427-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2427-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2427-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-08-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2427-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Nearest neighbour relationships in Pinus yunnanensis var. tenuifolia forests along the Nanpan River, China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2405-010 <p><b>Li Y, Hui G, Yu S, Luo Y, Yao X, Ye S</b></p><p><b>NEAREST NEIGHBOUR RELATIONSHIPS IN PINUS YUNNANENSIS VAR. TENUIFOLIA FORESTS ALONG THE NANPAN RIVER, CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest stand structural diversity can be examined at different scales. Small-scale structural changes are the basis of forest structural diversity and habitat heterogeneity, and play a key role in biodiversity conservation. Most research on forest structure has focused mainly at stand level and above, with little attention paid to fine-scale structure and correlations among different forest stand attributes. We set up four permanent plots within a secondary forest community of Pinus yunnanensis var. tenuifolia mixed forests along the Nanpan River in southern China. We analyzed their nearest-neighbor relationships using a bivariate distribution of stand spatial structural parameters (SSSP) with the aim of understanding the processes that drive structural diversity in the development of a secondary forest community. Our results revealed that communities with different disturbance histories and species compositions differed in the level of species mixture. Large, small, and medium-sized trees were well mixed within the community, both conspecific and heterospecificindividual with varying densities. All plots exhibited a uniform size differentiation pattern. Trees with different dominance levels or mixture levels were randomly distributed within the plots, and only few of these displayed clumped or regular distribution. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that distribution patterns may be related to species composition and diameter differentiation, though their relationship was very weak. The results of this study are relevant to optimize forest management activities in the studied stands, and promote tree growth, regeneration and habitat diversity at the fine scale.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bivariate Distribution, Nearest Neighbour Trees, Pinus yunnanensis, Secondary Forest, Structure Diversity</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 746-753 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2405-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2405-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2405-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-08-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2405-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Variability of ant community composition in cork oak woodlands across the Mediterranean region: implications for forest management http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2321-010 <p><b>Verdinelli M, Yakhlef SEB, Cossu CS, Pilia O, Mannu R</b></p><p><b>VARIABILITY OF ANT COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN CORK OAK WOODLANDS ACROSS THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION: IMPLICATIONS FOR FOREST MANAGEMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We evaluated the potential use of ants as a powerful tool for environmental monitoring, together with the applicability of the functional group approach as an alternative method for studying ant communities in cork oak woodlands. Variations in ant community composition, diversity and functional groups were studied in two cork oak forested sites across the Mediterranean region. Ants were sampled using pitfall traps placed along linear transects at 12 sites located in the main cork districts of Italy and Morocco (Gallura in Sardinia, and Maâmora, east of Rabat). A total of 13.501 specimens were collected, belonging to 38 species (five shared species). A distinct separation in the NMDS plots between Gallura and Maâmora ant assemblages was clearly visible. Ant species composition was widely different between the two districts and significant differences were detected within the Gallura district at the species level. Opportunist species were well represented in Gallura (about 27% of average Bray-Curtis similarity) as well as cryptic species (over 23%). In the Maâmora forest, generalized Myrmicinae, hot climate specialists and opportunists contributed equally to the average similarity (together about 53%). Multi-scale ant diversity showed that the true turnover was higher in Gallura than in Maâmora. These findings support the idea that the functional group approach, rather than species diversity per se, could be considered as a valuable tool to detect the response of the ant community to environmental changes in Mediterranean cork oak woodlands. Using ants as bioindicators could help not only in detecting early warning signs of habitat disturbance, but also in defining a useful management strategy to increase the resilience of agroforestry systems under future global change scenarios.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cork Oak, Forest Management, Ants, Bioindicators</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 707-714 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2321-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2321-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2321-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-07-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2321-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Chitosan oligosaccharide addition affects current-year shoot of post-transplant Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus) seedlings under contrasting photoperiods http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2302-010 <p><b>Wang Z, Zhao Y, Wei H</b></p><p><b>CHITOSAN OLIGOSACCHARIDE ADDITION AFFECTS CURRENT-YEAR SHOOT OF POST-TRANSPLANT BUDDHIST PINE (PODOCARPUS MACROPHYLLUS) SEEDLINGS UNDER CONTRASTING PHOTOPERIODS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) have been used as modifiers to promote growth and mineral nutrient utilization in crop plants, but its over-year effect on current-year shoot (CYS) of juvenile trees is still unclear. In this study, Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus) seedlings were cultured under natural and extended photoperiods with or without COS addition for one year. In the following spring, parameters of leaf length, biomass accumulation, and N content in CYS were found to be increased by COS addition under the extended photoperiod. P concentration of COS-treated seedlings was lower under longer photoperiod, but both N and P concentrations were negatively correlated with leaf length and biomass accumulation, suggesting the utilization of N and P for growth demand of CYS. The sole addition of COS mainly resulted in whole-plant P accumulation. However, when combined with the extended photoperiod, COS addition showed over-year effect on biomass accumulation and N content in CYS of transplanted Buddhist pine seedlings. Further studies are needed to confirm these results on other tree species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Photoperiodism, Urban Afforestation, Yew Plum Pine, Marine Oligosaccharide, Fine Root</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 715-721 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2302-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2302-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2302-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-07-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2302-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of soil-applied lead on mineral contents and biomass in Acer cappadocicum, Fraxinus excelsior and Platycladus orientalis seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2251-010 <p><b>Abbasi H, Pourmajidian MR, Hodjati SM, Fallah A, Nath S</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF SOIL-APPLIED LEAD ON MINERAL CONTENTS AND BIOMASS IN ACER CAPPADOCICUM, FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR AND PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Phytoremediation is an effective and affordable approach to extract or remove lead from contaminated soil. An understanding of the physiological responses of different species subjected to heavy metal contamination is necessary before considering their use for environmental clean-up. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lead (Pb) on growth and nutrient uptake in three forest species native to Iran: Cappadocian maple (Acer cappadocicum), European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Oriental aborvitae (Platycladus orientalis). The capability of lead uptake in different organs was studied in one-year-old potted seedlings grown in contaminated soils with Pb concentration ranging from 100 to 500 mg kg-1 for six months in a nursery. Several phytoextraction parameters such as translocation factor (TF), tolerance index (TI) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) were assessed to investigate the phytoremediation potential of these species. Increasing Pb application in the soil caused a gradual decrease in dry weight of leaf and shoot of all species, while the dry weight of root remains unaffected. However, such inhibition was less marked in the conifer (P. orientalis) compared to the two broad-leaf species. Phosphorus uptake of all species slightly declined in contaminated soils. Contrastingly, Pb application did not hinder nitrogen and potassium uptake in seedlings. Atomic absorption thermo electron analysis of Pb-treated plants showed an increasing Pb accumulation in all plant compartments, although the result was more evident in the tissues of P. orientalis. This species also showed the highest values for TF, TI and BCF, indicating this conifer species as a potential candidate for phytoremediation of lead-polluted soils in Iran.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Phytoremediation, Seedling Stage, Growth, Nutrient Uptake, Lead Accumulation, Cappadocian Maple, European Ash, Oriental Arborvitae</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 722-728 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2251-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2251-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2251-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-07-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2251-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Acid atmospheric deposition in a forested mountain catchment http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2319-010 <p><b>Krecek J, Palán L, Stuchlík E</b></p><p><b>ACID ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION IN A FORESTED MOUNTAIN CATCHMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Acid atmospheric deposition is harmful to both forest and aquatic ecosystems. In mountain catchments, acidification also leads to difficulties in water resource management. In 2010-2012, acid atmospheric deposition was analysed in a small forest catchment located in the upper plain of the Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic). Patch observations included monitoring of the canopy interception in two mature stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies) at elevations of 745 and 975 metres a.s.l., and twelve passive fog collectors situated along an elevation gradient between 862 and 994 metres a.s.l. In the studied area, fog (and low cloud) precipitation starts to affect the interception loss of the spruce canopy at elevations above 700 metres. However, fog drip was found to also rise with the canopy area. At the catchment scale, methods of spatial interpolation (ArcGIS 10.2) were used to approximate the aerial atmospheric deposition of water and acidic substances (sulphate, nitrate and ammonia). In the watersheds of two adjacent drinking water reservoirs, Josefuv Dul and Souš, the mean annual fog drip from the canopy was between 88 and 106 mm (i.e., 7-8% of the mean annual gross precipitation, or 10-12% of the mean annual runoff). Simultaneously, this load also deposited 658 kg km-2 of sulphur and 216 kg km-2 of nitrogen (i.e., 55% and 48% of the “open field” bulk amounts). Therefore, in headwater catchments stressed by acidification, the additional precipitation (measured under the canopy) can increase the water yield, but can also contribute to a decline in water quality, particularly in environments of low buffering capacity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mountain Watershed, Spruce Forests, Acid Atmospheric Deposition, Water Resources Recharge</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 680-686 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2319-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2319-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2319-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-07-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2319-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Predicting total and component biomass of Chinese fir using a forecast combination method http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2243-010 <p><b>Zhang X, Cao QV, Xiang C, Duan A, Zhang J</b></p><p><b>PREDICTING TOTAL AND COMPONENT BIOMASS OF CHINESE FIR USING A FORECAST COMBINATION METHOD</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Accurate estimates of tree biomass are critical for forest managers to assess carbon stock. Biomass of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook.) in southern China was assessed by three alternative methods. In the Separate model approach, total and component tree biomass was directly predicted from a regression equation as a function of tree diameter and height. In the Additive model approach, total biomass was predicted as the sum of predictions from all component biomass equations. The Forecast Combination method involved combining predictions from the total biomass equation with the sum of predictions from component biomass equations. Results indicated that the Separate model method outperformed the Additive model method in predicting total and component biomass. The drawback of the Separate model method is that the total is not equal to the sum of its components. The Forecast Combination method provided the overall best prediction for total and component biomass, and still ensured additivity of component biomass predictions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Additivity, Biomass Predictions, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Even-aged Plantations, Tree Allometry</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 687-691 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2243-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2243-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2243-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-07-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2243-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Use of overburden waste for London plane (Platanus × acerifolia) growth: the role of plant growth promoting microbial consortia http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2135-010 <p><b>Karličić V, Radić D, Jovičić-Petrović J, Lalević B, Morina F, Curguz VG, Raičević V</b></p><p><b>USE OF OVERBURDEN WASTE FOR LONDON PLANE (PLATANUS × ACERIFOLIA) GROWTH: THE ROLE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING MICROBIAL CONSORTIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Overburden waste dumps represent a huge threat to environmental quality. The reduction of their negative impact can be achieved by vegetation cover establishment. Usually, this action is complicated due to site-specific characteristics, such as nutrient deficiency, elevated metal concentration, low pH value, lack of moisture and lack of organic matter. Establishment of vegetation can be facilitated by inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) which improve the physicochemical and biological properties of degraded substrates and make them more hospitable for plants. In this study we selected several strains based on the ability to produce ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores and lytic enzymes, and to solubilize inorganic phosphates. This selection resulted in microbial consortia consisting of Serratia liquefaciens Z-I ARV, Ensifer adhaerens 10_ ARV, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D5 ARV and Pseudomonas putida P1 ARV. The effects of PGPB consortia on one-year-old London plane (Platanus × acerifolia [Aiton] Willd.) seedlings replanted into overburden waste from Kolubara Mine Basin were examined. After seven months, inoculated seedlings were 32% higher with 45% wider root collar diameter and over 80% higher total dry biomass compared to uninoculated seedlings grown in Kolubara’s overburden. Inoculation resulted in higher amounts of total soluble proteins, higher chlorophyll and epidermal flavonoids content and higher total antioxidative capacity in the leaves. This study represents a successful search for effective PGPB strains and shows that microbial consortia have an important role in enhancing the growth of seedlings in nutrient deficient and degraded substrates such as overburden waste from open-pit coal mines. Positive response of London plane seedlings suggest that inoculation may help widening the opus of species for reforestation of post mining areas and speed up natural succession processes and recovery of degraded landscapes.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria, London Plane, Overburden Waste, Revegetation</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 692-699 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2135-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2135-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2135-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-07-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2135-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Acoustic evaluation of wood quality with a non-destructive method in standing trees: a first survey in Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2065-010 <p><b>Proto AR, Macrì G, Bernardini V, Russo D, Zimbalatti G</b></p><p><b>ACOUSTIC EVALUATION OF WOOD QUALITY WITH A NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD IN STANDING TREES: A FIRST SURVEY IN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Research and development efforts are currently underway worldwide to examine the potential use of a wide range of non-destructive technologies (NDT) for evaluating wood and wood-based materials, from the assessment of standing trees to in-place structures. For this purpose, acoustic velocity by the Fakopp time of flight (TOF) tool was used to estimate the influence of four thinning treatments performed in Southern Italy. The objective of the study was to determine if the effects of silvicultural practices on wood quality can be identified using acoustic measurement to assess the MOEd of standing trees with non-destructive method in Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. calabrica). Four hundred and fifty standing trees from four sites were non-destructively tested using a time-of-flight acoustic wave technique. The thinning trials were conducted on 60-year-old plantations of Calabrian pine in four plots under different treatments: Control (T), light thinning (A), intermediate thinning (B) and heavy thinning (C). Statistical analysis demonstrated significant stress wave time differences between the stands with moderate thinning (A and B) and those with heavy thinning (C). The results showed that tree diameter has significant influence on acoustic wave measurements and a valid relationship exists between diameter at breast height and tree velocity. The results of these studies proved that the stress wave technique can be successfully applied on standing trees.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Modulus of Elasticity, Wood Density, Thinning, Calabrian Pine</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 700-706 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2065-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2065-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2065-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-07-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2065-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Sensitivity analysis of RapidEye spectral bands and derived vegetation indices for insect defoliation detection in pure Scots pine stands http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1727-010 <p><b>Marx A, Kleinschmit B</b></p><p><b>SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF RAPIDEYE SPECTRAL BANDS AND DERIVED VEGETATION INDICES FOR INSECT DEFOLIATION DETECTION IN PURE SCOTS PINE STANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study investigated the statistical relationship between defoliation in pine forests infested by nun moths (Lymantria monacha) and the spectral bands of the RapidEye sensor, including the derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized difference red-edge index (NDRE). The strength of the relationship between the spectral variables and the ground reference samples of percent remaining foliage (PRF) was assessed over three test years by the Spearman’s ρ correlation coefficient, revealing the following ranking order (from high to low ρ): NDRE, NDVI, red, NIR, green, blue, and red-edge. A special focus was directed at the vegetation indices. In both discriminant analyses and decision tree classification, the NDRE yielded higher classification accuracy in the defoliation classes containing none to moderate levels of defoliation, whereas the NDVI yielded higher classification accuracy in the defoliation classes representing severe or complete defoliation. We concluded that the NDRE and the NDVI respond very similarly to changes in the amount of foliage, but exhibit particular strengths at different defoliation levels. Combining the NDRE and the NDVI in one discriminant function, the average gain of overall accuracy amounted to 7.8 percentage points compared to the NDRE only, and 7.4 percentage points compared to the NDVI only. Using both vegetation indices in a machine-learning-based decision tree classifier, the overall accuracy further improved and reached 81% for the test year 2012, 71% for 2013, and 79% for the test year 2014.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Health, Discriminant Analysis, Pine Defoliation, Normalized Difference Red-edge Index, Decision Tree Classification</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 659-668 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1727-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1727-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1727-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-07-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1727-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of Pinus sylvestris wood at five sites in Portugal http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2254-010 <p><b>Fernandes C, Gaspar MJ, Pires J, Alves A, Simões R, Rodrigues JC, Silva ME, Carvalho A, Brito JE, Lousada JL</b></p><p><b>PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS WOOD AT FIVE SITES IN PORTUGAL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The reduction of resinous species in Portuguese forest areas has caused constraints to wood industry supplies. Portugal represents the extreme southwest of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) natural distribution and large gaps exist in the knowledge of its wood-quality characteristics. Understanding the relationship between these traits is important for recognizing which combination of wood properties is the most suitable for specific uses. To address these questions, we assessed wood-quality traits, namely, wood-density components (microdensitometric analysis), chemical composition (NIR spectrometry) and mechanical properties (bending tests) of wood samples collected at five representative forest sites in Portugal. Our results showed that Portuguese Pinus sylvestris has good radial growth and denser wood, higher extractive content and higher stiffness and strength than northern European provenances. The lignin content was within the range attributed to softwoods. Among the Portuguese stands, trees growing at lower-altitude sites exhibited denser wood and higher mechanical properties, while trees from high-elevations showed higher amounts of lignin. Ring density was more strongly correlated with earlywood than latewood density. A negative, non-significant correlation was found between ring density and width, supporting the assumption that the higher radial growth (ring width) does not negatively affect wood quality (density). In general, chemical properties had a weak relationship with physical and mechanical properties (MOE and MOR). Both mechanical traits were positively correlated with density and growth components, supporting the assumption that trees with high radial growth do not exhibit poorer mechanical performances.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bending Tests, Correlations, Mechanical Traits, NIR Spectrometry, Scots Pine, Wood-Density Components, Wood Quality, X-ray Microdensitometry</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 669-679 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2254-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2254-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2254-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-07-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2254-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Short-time effect of harvesting methods on soil respiration dynamics in a beech forest in southern Mediterranean Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2032-010 <p><b>Coletta V, Pellicone G, Bernardini V, De Cinti B, Froio R, Marziliano PA, Matteucci G, Ricca N, Turco R, Veltri A</b></p><p><b>SHORT-TIME EFFECT OF HARVESTING METHODS ON SOIL RESPIRATION DYNAMICS IN A BEECH FOREST IN SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: CO2 fluxes from soil, together with soil water content and temperature have been measured over one solar year in an even-aged beech forest (Fagus Sylvatica L.) in southern Italy. We investigated the effects of three different harvested biomass removal treatments (traditional, innovative, unharvested control) on soil respiration (Rs) in three plots from May 2014 to April 2015, with the aim to evaluate the effects of such silvicultural practices on the CO2 respired from the forest floor. The influence of soil temperature and soil moisture on soil respiration was also analysed. Rs showed large variations among the treatments, with the innovative treatment resulting in significantly higher soil respiration than control and traditional treatments. There were no significant differences in soil temperature between the treatments, whereas soil water content was statistically different only in the innovative treatment. The study showed that the mean soil respiration increased with thinning intensity, confirming that after harvesting, residues remaining on the forest floor and decomposing roots may contribute to raise soil respiration, due to the higher microbial activity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Respiration, CO2, Forest Management, Beech Forest</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 645-651 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2032-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2032-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2032-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-06-20 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2032-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Long-term effects of single-tree selection cutting management on coarse woody debris in natural mixed beech stands in the Caspian forest (Iran) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2091-010 <p><b>Tavankar F, Nikooy M, Picchio R, Venanzi R, Lo Monaco A</b></p><p><b>LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF SINGLE-TREE SELECTION CUTTING MANAGEMENT ON COARSE WOODY DEBRIS IN NATURAL MIXED BEECH STANDS IN THE CASPIAN FOREST (IRAN)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Coarse woody debris (CWD) has a wide range of ecological and conservation values such as maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Each forest management method can have a detrimental effect on stand structure and CWD. We analyzed the volume and density of live trees and CWD (snags and downed logs) over a long-term (30 years) selection-logging managed compartment (harvested), and compared these with values obtained from an unlogged compartment (control) in the Iranian Caspian forests. Results showed that the volume and density of live trees and CWD in the harvested area was significantly lower than in the control area, especially large size trees and CWD, very decayed CWD, and rare tree species. The ratio of snags volume to total standing volume (RSS) was significantly higher in the control (7.9%) than in the harvested area (5.2%), and the ratio of downed logs volume to trees volume (RDT) in the control area (6.3%) was significantly higher than in the harvested area (4.6%), while the ratio of downed logs volume to snags volume (RDS) was significantly higher in the harvested area (83.6%) than in the control (74%). Based on the obtained results, we recommend selection cutting forests to be managed based on CWD management plans, including appropriate cutting cycles (15-30 years) and retention of large-diameter (DBH > 75 cm) and cavity trees as a suitable habitat for many wildlife species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Coarse Woody Debris, Snag, Biodiversity, Selective Logging, Caspian Forest</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 652-658 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2091-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2091-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2091-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-06-20 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2091-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Seeing trees from space: above-ground biomass estimates of intact and degraded montane rainforests from high-resolution optical imagery http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2204-010 <p><b>Phua MH, Ling ZY, Coomes DA, Wong W, Korom A, Tsuyuki S, Ioki K, Hirata Y, Saito H, Takao G</b></p><p><b>SEEING TREES FROM SPACE: ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS ESTIMATES OF INTACT AND DEGRADED MONTANE RAINFORESTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION OPTICAL IMAGERY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Accurately quantifying the above-ground carbon stock of tropical rainforest trees is the core component of “Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation-plus” (REDD+) projects and is important for evaluating the effects of anthropogenic global change. We used high-resolution optical imagery (IKONOS-2) to identify individual tree crowns in intact and degraded rainforests in the mountains of Northern Borneo, comparing our results with 50 ground-based plots dispersed in intact and degraded forests, within which all stems > 10 cm in diameter were measured and identified to species or genus. We used the dimensions of tree crowns detected in the imagery to estimate above-ground biomasses (AGBs) of individual trees and plots. To this purpose, preprocessed IKONOS imagery was segmented using a watershed algorithm; stem diameter values were then estimated from the cross-sectional crown areas of these trees using regression relationships obtained from ground-based measurements. Finally, we calculated the biomass of each tree (AGBT, in kg), and the AGB of plots by summation (AGBP, in Mg ha-1). Remotely sensed estimates of mean AGBT were similar to ground-based estimates in intact and degraded forests, even though small trees could not be detected from space-borne sensors. The intact and degraded forests not only had different AGB but were also dissimilar in biodiversity. A tree-centric approach to carbon mapping based on high-resolution optical imagery, could be a cheap alternative to airborne laser-scanning.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass Estimation, Crown Area, IKONOS-2, Tree Community Similarity, Sabah</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 625-634 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2204-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2204-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2204-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-06-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2204-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessment of cadmium tolerance and phytoextraction ability in young Populus deltoides L. and Populus × euramericana plants through morpho-anatomical and physiological responses to growth in cadmium enriched soil http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2165-010 <p><b>Nikolić N, Zorić L, Cvetković I, Pajević S, Borišev M, Orlović S, Pilipović A</b></p><p><b>ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM TOLERANCE AND PHYTOEXTRACTION ABILITY IN YOUNG POPULUS DELTOIDES L. AND POPULUS × EURAMERICANA PLANTS THROUGH MORPHO-ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO GROWTH IN CADMIUM ENRICHED SOIL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Fast growing woody plants represent effective tools for cadmium (Cd) extraction during remediation of low to medium Cd contaminated soils. Poplars are good candidates for this task because of their rapid growth rate, high biomass yield, and adaptability, as well as the availability of well-characterized clones/ genotypes with various anatomical and physiological traits. The present study evaluates the potential of Populus deltoides (clone B-81) and Populus × euramericana (clone Pannonia) for phytoremediation of Cd contamination in soil. Poplar clones were analyzed for (1) plant growth response to Cd contamination, (2) Cd accumulation, translocation, and partitioning between plant organs, and (3) morphological, anatomical and physiological responses to Cd stress as a function of biomass production. Plants were cultivated in soil moderately contaminated with Cd (8.14 mg kg-1 soil) under semi-controlled conditions for six weeks. Our results suggest that P. × euramericana and P. deltoides clones respond differently to Cd contamination. Biomass production and morphological characteristics were more negatively affected in P. × euramericana than in P. deltoides plants. However, most examined leaf structural parameters were not significantly affected by Cd. In most cases, photosynthetic characteristics and gas exchange parameters were affected by Cd treatment, but the levels and patterns of changes depended on the clone. High tolerance to applied Cd levels, as estimated by the tolerance index, was observed in both clones, but was higher in P. deltoides than P. × euramericana (82.2 vs. 66.5, respectively). We suspect that the higher tolerance to Cd toxicity observed in P. deltoides could be related to unchanged proline content and undisturbed nitrogen metabolism. Following treatment, 58.0 and 46.7% of the total Cd content was accumulated in the roots of P. × euramericana and P. deltoides, respectively, with the remainder in the stems (18.2 and 39.9%) and leaves (23.8 and 13.4%). In summary, P. deltoides displayed better phytoextraction performance under Cd exposure than P. × euramericana, suggesting its potential not only for Cd phytostabilization, but also phytoextraction projects.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cadmium, Phytoextraction, Poplars, Tolerance, Toxicity</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 635-644 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2165-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2165-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2165-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-06-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2165-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Canopy temperature variability in a tropical rainforest, subtropical evergreen forest, and savanna forest in Southwest China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2223-010 <p><b>Song Q-H, Zhang Y-P, Sha L-Q, Deng X-B, Deng Y, Wu C-S, Lu Z-Y, Chen A-G, Zhang S-B, Li P-G, Zhou W-J, Liu Y-T</b></p><p><b>CANOPY TEMPERATURE VARIABILITY IN A TROPICAL RAINFOREST, SUBTROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST, AND SAVANNA FOREST IN SOUTHWEST CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Canopy temperature (Tc) measurements with infrared thermometry have been widely used to assess plant water status. Here, we evaluated Tc and its controlling factors in a primary tropical rainforest (TRF), subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (STF) and valley savanna forest (SAF) in southwestern China. We found differences between Tc and air temperature (Ta) of as much as 2.2 °C between the dry and wet seasons in the TRF. However, the canopy-to-air temperature difference (Tc-Ta) was only 0.3 °C between the dry and wet seasons in the STF. Solar radiation (SR) was the dominant factor in Tc-Ta variations during the dry and wet seasons at the three sites. The increased heating in the canopy leaves was likely the result of low stomatal conductance leading to low transpiration cooling. Changes in Tc-Ta in the TRF were highly sensitive to the degree of stomatal closure. The change in Tc-Ta was controlled by the climate, but inherent plant traits, such as stomatal conductance, also played an important controlling role.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Canopy Temperature, Drought Stress, Microclimate, Transpiration, Leaf Energy Balance</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 611-617 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2223-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2223-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2223-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2223-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Adjustment of photosynthetic carbon assimilation to higher growth irradiance in three-year-old seedlings of two Tunisian provenances of Cork Oak (Quercus suber L.) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2105-010 <p><b>Rzigui T, Cherif J, Zorrig W, Khaldi A, Nasr Z</b></p><p><b>ADJUSTMENT OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CARBON ASSIMILATION TO HIGHER GROWTH IRRADIANCE IN THREE-YEAR-OLD SEEDLINGS OF TWO TUNISIAN PROVENANCES OF CORK OAK (QUERCUS SUBER L.)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Three-year-old seedlings of two Tunisian provenances of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) differing in climatic conditions at their geographical origin were subjected to increasing light intensities. Ga’four was the provenance from the driest site and Feija from the wettest site. Low-light adapted seedlings from both provenances were exposed to two light treatments: full sunlight (HL) and low light (LL, 15% sunlight) for 40 days. The CO2-response curve of leaf net photosynthesis (An-Ci curve) established under saturated photon flux density was used to compare photosynthetic parameters between leaves subjected to continuous low light (LL leaves) and leaves transferred from low to high light (HL leaves). Transfer from low to high light significantly increased net photosynthesis (An) and dark respiration (Rd) in Ga’four provenance but not in Feija. After transfer to high irradiance, specific leaf area (SLA) did not change in either provenance. This suggested that the increase in photosynthetic capacity on a leaf area basis in HL leaves of Ga’four provenance was not due to increased leaf thickness. Only the seedlings from the Ga’four provenance were able to acclimate to high light by increasing Vcmax and Jmax.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Quercus suber, Photosynthesis, Vcmax, Jmax, Stomatal Limitation</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 618-624 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2105-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2105-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2105-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2105-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimation of aboveground forest biomass in Galicia (NW Spain) by the combined use of LiDAR, LANDSAT ETM+ and National Forest Inventory data http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1989-010 <p><b>Jiménez E, Vega JA, Fernández-Alonso JM, Vega-Nieva D, Ortiz L, López-Serrano PM, López-Sánchez CA</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATION OF ABOVEGROUND FOREST BIOMASS IN GALICIA (NW SPAIN) BY THE COMBINED USE OF LIDAR, LANDSAT ETM+ AND NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORY DATA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Assessing biomass is critical for accounting bioenergy potentials and monitoring forest ecosystem responses to global change and disturbances. Remote sensing, especially Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data combined with field data, is being increasingly used for forest inventory purposes. We evaluated the feasibility of the combined use of freely available data, both remote sensing (LiDAR data provided by the Spanish National Plan for Aerial Ortophotography - PNOA - and Landsat vegetation spectral indices) and field data (from the National Forest Inventory) to estimate stand dendrometric and aboveground biomass variables of the most productive tree species in a pilot area in Galicia (northwestern Spain). The results suggest that the models can accurately predict dendrometric and biomass variables at plot level with an R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.65 for basal area, from 0.65 to 0.95 for dominant height, from 0.48 to 0.68 for crown biomass and from 0.55 to 0.82 for stem biomass. Our results support the use of this approach to reduce the cost of forest inventories and provide a useful tool for stakeholders to map forest stand variables and biomass stocks.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass Maps, Forest Inventory, LiDAR, Landsat Vegetation Indices</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 590-596 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1989-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1989-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1989-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-15 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1989-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Canopy Chamber: a useful tool to monitor the CO2 exchange dynamics of shrubland http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2209-010 <p><b>Guidolotti G, De Dato G, Liberati D, De Angelis P</b></p><p><b>CANOPY CHAMBER: A USEFUL TOOL TO MONITOR THE CO2 EXCHANGE DYNAMICS OF SHRUBLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A transient state canopy-chamber was developed to monitor CO2 exchange of shrubland ecosystems. The chamber covered 0.64 m2 and it was modular with a variable height. Several tests were carried out to check the potential errors in the flux estimates due to leakages and the environment modifications during the measurements inside the chamber. The laboratory leakages test showed an error below 1% of the flux; the temperature increases inside the chamber were below 1.3 °C at different light intensity and small pressure changes. The radial blowers inside the chamber created different wind speed at different chamber height, with faster speed at the top of the chamber and the minimum wind speed that was recorded at soil level, preventing detectable effects on soil CO2 emission rates. Moreover, the chamber was tested for two years in a semi-arid Mediterranean garrigue, identifying a strong seasonality of CO2 fluxes with the highest rates during spring and lowest rates recorded during the hot dry non-vegetative summer.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Canopy Chamber, CO2 fluxes, Cistus monspeliensis, Shrubland, Semiarid Ecosystems, Mediterranean Garrigue</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 597-604 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2209-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2209-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2209-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Reports 2017-05-15 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2209-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Analysis and evaluation of the impact of stand age on the occurrence and metamorphosis of red heartwood http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2116-010 <p><b>Trenčiansky M, Lieskovský M, Merganič J, Šulek R</b></p><p><b>ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF STAND AGE ON THE OCCURRENCE AND METAMORPHOSIS OF RED HEARTWOOD</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The red heartwood of beech is responsible for decreasing the market value of the most important deciduous tree species of central Europe. The aims of this study were: (i) to verify the hypothesis that stand age affects the occurrence and metamorphosis of red heartwood in beech; and (ii) to quantify the economic loss due the sale price reduction of timber affected by red heartwood. Seven even-aged beech stands of different age (87, 100, 105, 110, 115, 132, and 145 years) were selected in Slovakia, and 213 trees were cut into 961 pieces of assortments which were evaluated for the presence, form and extension of red heartwood. The economic loss caused by red heartwood was determined as the difference in price between the actual and the potential quality grades of assortments. The results confirmed that stand age significantly influence the occurrence, development, and metamorphosis of red heartwood. The average loss in timber sale price caused by red heartwood varied between 0.76 and 28.04 € m-3, depending on age and form of red heartwood, with more severe losses in stands older than 110 years. To reduce the incidence of beech red heartwood in Central Europe, a reduction of the rotation period should be considered, as well as the adoption of suitable silvicultural practices in aged beech stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Red Heartwood, Economics of Beech, Timber Quality, Timber Prices</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 605-610 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2116-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2116-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2116-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-15 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2116-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Compatible taper-volume models of Quercus variabilis Blume forests in north China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2114-010 <p><b>Zheng C, Wang Y, Jia L, Mason EG, We S, Sun C, Duan J</b></p><p><b>COMPATIBLE TAPER-VOLUME MODELS OF QUERCUS VARIABILIS BLUME FORESTS IN NORTH CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Compatible taper and volume models were created for Quercus variabilis Blume (cork oak) forests in North China. 174 trees were felled to obtain stem analysis data. Linear mixed effects analyses were used in modelling. Firstly, a bark thickness model was built. Then diameter at breast height over bark (DBHob) for the inner layers of the 174 trees could be calculated, based on which a total volume model was built. The estimated volume and a specific parameter restriction were then substituted into a polynomial taper model, finally the taper model was fitted and compatible taper and volume models were obtained. Four sets of models based on different data sets were separately built and compared through coefficients of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), value of Akaike’s information criterion (AIC), residuals plots and histograms of residuals. Models based on data of the analyzed stems without ramicorns and simultaneously with relative diameter under 1.5 were chosen as the most precise. Further testing of the chosen models using the jackknife method for the bark thickness and total volume models and a validation data set for the taper model verified that those models can be used to predict bark thickness, diameter at a specific point along the stem, merchantable volume and total stem volume of cork oak forests in North China within specific tree diameter at breast height and height ranges.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Quercus variabilis Blume, Dummy Variable, Box-Cox Transformation, Linear Mixed Effects Models, Compatible Taper-Volume Model</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 567-575 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2114-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2114-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2114-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2114-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Characterization of VOC emission profile of different wood species during moisture cycles http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2259-010 <p><b>Sassoli M, Taiti C, Guidi Nissim W, Costa C, Mancuso S, Menesatti P, Fioravanti M</b></p><p><b>CHARACTERIZATION OF VOC EMISSION PROFILE OF DIFFERENT WOOD SPECIES DURING MOISTURE CYCLES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study addresses the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by samples of 13 different wood species, belonging to both softwoods and hardwoods groups, regularly measured at different intervals of time, after the first measurement on green wood. The same wood specimens were subjected to several cycles of water desorption and adsorption, assuming that moisture variation might play a role in both the formation and emission of VOCs. Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) was used as a tool to characterize the emission of VOCs. Coupled with a multivariate class-modelling approach, this tool was able to discriminate between groups (softwood and hardwood) and in some cases between different species. However, results showed that the discriminant capacity of VOCs emission to separate species and families rapidly decreases after the first cycles of moisture variation in wood. The green wood was characterized by a richness of volatile compounds, whereas, after only the first dry cycle, wood emitted a more restricted group of compounds. We hypothesized that most of these VOCs might have originated from structural changes and degradation processes that involve the main polymers (particularly hemicellulose) constituting the cell wall of wooden cells. The results obtained are in agreement with the physical and chemical modification processes that characterize wood ageing.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wood, VOCs, PTR-TOF-MS, PLSDA, Wood Ageing, Moisture Content</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 576-584 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2259-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2259-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2259-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2259-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Variation in soil carbon stock and nutrient content in sand dunes after afforestation by Prosopis juliflora in the Khuzestan province (Iran) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2137-010 <p><b>Moradi M, Imani F, Naji HR, Moradi Behbahani S, Ahmadi MT</b></p><p><b>VARIATION IN SOIL CARBON STOCK AND NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SAND DUNES AFTER AFFORESTATION BY PROSOPIS JULIFLORA IN THE KHUZESTAN PROVINCE (IRAN)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Prosopis juliflora is one of the suitable tree species used as vegetation cover for sand dunes fixation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of P. juliflora afforestation and its canopy coverage classes on soil carbon (C) stock and nutrient status in sand dunes after 22 years since afforestation. We hypothesized that increasing the canopy coverage would result in higher soil C stocks and nutrient content. We selected two 10-ha afforested sand dunes with 25-50% and more than 75% canopy coverage, respectively, and a 10-ha non-afforested dune (control). At each site, 15 soil samples were taken at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-50 cm). The results indicated a strong increase in the topsoil C stock (from 0.54 to 4.49 tC ha-1 in control and afforested sites, respectively), while a lower change in subsoil C stock was detected (3.0 and 4.6 tC ha-1 in control and afforested sites, respectively). Although, different canopy classes resulted in no significant differences in soil C stock, significant differences were observed for all the soil physico-chemical properties that were studied.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Canopy Coverage, Carbon Stock, Soil Physico-chemical, C/N Ratio</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 585-589 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2137-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2137-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2137-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2017-05-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2137-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Temporal development of collar necroses and butt rot in association with ash dieback http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2407-010 <p><b>Enderle R, Sander F, Metzler B</b></p><p><b>TEMPORAL DEVELOPMENT OF COLLAR NECROSES AND BUTT ROT IN ASSOCIATION WITH ASH DIEBACK</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent years collar necroses and butt rot associated with the ash dieback disease occurred with alarming frequency in Fraxinus excelsior. We analysed tree ring structures to identify the year of necrosis initiation on a set of 507 necroses on 155 stem discs from nine severely diseased south-western German stands. The number of first-time infections of trees was highest from 2010 to 2012 and slightly decreased in 2013 and 2014, whereas the total number of newly emerging individual necroses remained high. Logistic modelling of disease progression suggests that collar rot infection has almost reached its maximum incidence and that a fraction of trees will remain healthy at the root collar. On average, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus was isolated more frequently from younger collar necroses, whereas older necroses were more often colonized by Armillaria spp. Advanced stages of rot that may pose a risk to forest workers, visitors and traffic were observed already in two years-old necroses infected by Armillaria spp.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ash Dieback, Collar Necrosis, Disease Progression, Armillaria, Butt Rot, Epidemiology</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 529-536 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2407-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2407-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2407-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2407-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Phenology of the beech forests in the Western Carpathians from MODIS for 2000-2015 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2062-010 <p><b>Bucha T, Koren M</b></p><p><b>PHENOLOGY OF THE BEECH FORESTS IN THE WESTERN CARPATHIANS FROM MODIS FOR 2000-2015</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The present paper introduces a satellite-based approach to the detection of phenology events in beech forests across Slovakia (the Western Carpathians) using the MOD/MYD09 products. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI) was used for determining the onset of the phenophases in spring and autumn. Double logistic sigmoid function was applied in order to fit the NDVI profile during the year. The satellite-derived phenological metrics was based on calculating the extreme values of the sigmoid function and its derivatives. Between 2000 and 2015, a time-series analysis using the linear regressions models revealed that the onset of leaf unfolding shifted at a rate of 0.8 day per decade, the onset of leaf fall was delayed at a rate of 1.9 day per decade, and the growing season (GS) extended at a rate of 1.1 day per decade. However, at a regional level, the trends were not found to be statistically significant in either case. Leaf unfolding/fall was significantly non-linearly delayed/advanced with the increase of altitude (p<0.01). GS duration varied extensively within the region. Theil-Sen estimation of GS trend revealed the median shift of 1.8 days, the range of shift being from -7.0 to +12.1 days at the 5-95 % quantile for 2000-2015. A significant inverse correlation between GS shift and GS length (p<0.01) was observed. The GS shift was positive in the sites with shorter GS and negative in the sites with longer GS.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: MODIS, NDVI, Beech, Forest Phenology, Growing Season</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 537-546 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2062-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2062-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2062-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2062-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Climatic factors defining the height growth curve of forest species http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2189-010 <p><b>Elli EF, Caron BO, Behling A, Eloy E, Queiróz De Souza V, Schwerz F, Stolzle JR</b></p><p><b>CLIMATIC FACTORS DEFINING THE HEIGHT GROWTH CURVE OF FOREST SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this study was to modify several existing biological models by including several predictive variables that take into account the effect of climatic factors on tree height growth. Tree height was measured from 2007 to 2014 on 18 trees for each of the following species: Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis, Parapiptadenia rigida, Peltophorum dubium, Mimosa scabrella and Schizolobium parahybae. Different existing nonlinear models were fitted to the observed data, and the best fitting models were selected. The inclusion of climatic variables into the selected models (mainly minimum temperature and rainfall) improved their predictions of tree height growth with age, and provided more accurate estimates than those obtained by traditional nonlinear models. Simulations were carried out to explore the variation of tree height growth under different minimum temperature and precipitation regimes. The effects of frost and rainfall variation on height growth curves and their consequences for forest management are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Von Bertalanffy-Richards’ Model, Mean Minimum Temperature, Rainfall, Frost</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 547-553 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2189-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2189-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2189-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2189-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influence of climate on tree health evaluated by defoliation in the ICP level I network (Romania) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2202-009 <p><b>Popa I, Badea O, Silaghi D</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON TREE HEALTH EVALUATED BY DEFOLIATION IN THE ICP LEVEL I NETWORK (ROMANIA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Defoliation is the main parameter for assessing tree crown conditions, and is the result of cumulative interactions among different types of stressors, including climate, air pollution, pests and diseases, and management systems. Here, we evaluated a long-term data series (1992-2013) provided by the ICP-Forests Level I monitoring network (16 × 16 km) in Romania. Specifically, we investigated how climate influences defoliation at different spatial and temporal levels using statistical analyses. Using periodic climatic data (mean temperature and precipitation) derived from a daily grid dataset (ROCADA) with a resolution of 0.1 × 0.1° (10 × 10 km), we quantified how climatic parameters were correlated with defoliation, which was expressed as the mean tree defoliation per plot (DEF), and the proportion of damaged trees (crown defoliation > 25% - fDEF). The cross-correlation (Spearman r) between defoliation indicators and temperature was positive and relatively constant over time for all broadleaves and conifers, combined and separately, except for Fagus sylvatica (European beech), which had a negative cross-correlation coefficient. The correlation obtained for precipitation was similar to that obtained for temperature; however, this relationship was negative (except, again, for beech). The temporal influence of temperature on defoliation was much lower than that of precipitation, which had the greatest influence in dry regions (south and southeast Romania), especially for Quercus species. Furthermore, precipitation had a positive influence in moderate climate regions for conifers that were situated outside their natural distribution ranges. For beech and conifers situated at the upper altitudinal limits, temperature was negatively correlated with defoliation, i.e., temperature had a positive influence on health status.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Climate Change, Defoliation, Tree Species, Forest Health, Temperature, Precipitation, Level I</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 554-560 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2202-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2202-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2202-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2202-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Selection priority for harvested trees according to stand structural indices http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2115-010 <p><b>Li Y, Hui G, Wang H, Zhang G, Ye S</b></p><p><b>SELECTION PRIORITY FOR HARVESTED TREES ACCORDING TO STAND STRUCTURAL INDICES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The selection of trees to be harvested is a core tenet of uneven-aged forest management; however, few studies have focused on the process of tree selection. A set of stand structural parameters (uniform angle index, W; mingling index, M; dominance index, U) based on tree neighbor-spatial relationships, are particularly suitable for expressing the structural characteristics of forest stands. Such indices were used to parameterize thinning in three plots (a-c, each 100 × 100 m2) in a Korean pine broad-leaved forest in northeastern China and one plot (h, 70 × 70 m2) in a pine-oak mixed forest in northwest China. Low-intensity single-tree selection was applied according to the principles of structure-based forest management (SBFM), i.e., to promote high mixture, obvious size differentiation, and random pattern with the aim of improving the overall structure of the managed plots. A group of thinning priority indices (v_ij, k_ij and z_ij) were calculated according to the bivariate distributions of the structural characteristics of harvested trees and stands before harvest. Our results demonstrated that v_ij, k_ij and z_ij adequately describe the spatial relationship between each tree and its nearest neighbors, and their combinations can be efficiently used to set thinning priorities on harvested trees with different structural characteristics. Their application can reduce the subjectivity of the selection process and improve the speed and accuracy of the choice of trees to be harvested in uneven-aged mixed forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dominance Index, Mingling Index, Thinning, SBFM, Silviculture, Uneven-aged Forest, Uniform Angle Index</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 561-566 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2115-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2115-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2115-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-05-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2115-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Selection of optimal conversion path for willow biomass assisted by near infrared spectroscopy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1987-010 <p><b>Sandak A, Sandak J, Waliszewska B, Zborowska M, Mleczek M</b></p><p><b>SELECTION OF OPTIMAL CONVERSION PATH FOR WILLOW BIOMASS ASSISTED BY NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Willow (Salix sp.) is one of the most common hardwood species suitable for short-rotation coppice. It can be converted to different products, including chemicals, fuels, fibers or furniture. It may also be used in agriculture and environmental engineering. Molecular composition of biomass and its physical properties highly influence effectiveness of its chemical, thermo-chemical or mechanical-chemical conversion. Therefore, it is challenging to provide biomass feedstock with optimized properties, best suited for further downstream conversion. The goal of this research was to establish a procedure for determination of the willow biomass optimal use cultivated in four different plantations in Poland. A special attention has been paid to the application of the near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of biomass chemical composition and its physical properties. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) could be an alternative to standard analytical methods supporting the research and development of biomass production technologies. Partial least squares regression models for quantitative prediction of wood chemical components (lignin, cellulose, holocellulose, hemicellulose and extractives) and high heating values were developed. The residual prediction deviation (RPD) values confirm the applicability of chemometric models for screening in breeding programmes (for lignin, cellulose and extractives content) and for research in the case of high heating value. The analysis of NIR spectra highlighted several peculiarities in the chemical composition of the investigated willow clones. Finally, a knowledge-based expert system and a prototype automatic NIR system allowing the computation of a “suitability index” based on PLS models and dedicated to selection of optimal biomass conversion path, was developed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Willows, NIR Spectroscopy, Optimal Conversion, Biomass Feedstock</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 506-514 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1987-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1987-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1987-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-04-20 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1987-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Soil microorganisms at the windthrow plots: the effect of post-disturbance management and the time since disturbance http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2304-010 <p><b>Gömöryová E, Fleischer P, Pichler V, Homolák M, Gere R, Gömöry D</b></p><p><b>SOIL MICROORGANISMS AT THE WINDTHROW PLOTS: THE EFFECT OF POST-DISTURBANCE MANAGEMENT AND THE TIME SINCE DISTURBANCE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Wind disturbance is a major natural driver of forest dynamics in a large part of Europe and can affect soil properties in different ways and for different time. The present study focuses on the effects of post-disturbance management of windthrow plots in the Tatra Mountains, Slovakia, on soil microorganisms ten years after the disturbance. Their comparison with the microbial characteristics at a new windthrow plot caused by strong wind in 2014 was also carried out. Three research plots differing in the way of their management after the windstorm in 2004 (EXT, salvage plot; FIR, salvage plot affected by fire; NEX, unsalvaged plot) and the plot destroyed by strong wind in May 2014 (REX) were used for study. Ten soil samples were taken from the mineral A-horizon (depth: 0-10 cm) at each plot in autumn 2014. In soil samples, soil chemical and microbial characteristics (microbial biomass C, basal and substrate-induced respiration, N-mineralisation, catalase activity, richness and diversity of soil microbial functional groups based on the Biolog approach) were determined. Ten years after the disturbance we still observed significant differences in microbial characteristics between FIR and the other plots, with higher microbial activity at the FIR, while no significant differences were found among the other plots. The results indicate that at a higher altitude the effect of fire on soil microorganisms is more distinct than removing or not removing of fallen trees and persists even over a decade.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Soil, Soil Microorganisms, Windthrow, Fire, Postdisturbance Management</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 515-521 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2304-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2304-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2304-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-04-20 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2304-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Anatomical and genetic aspects of ash dieback: a look at the wood structure http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2080-010 <p><b>Tulik M, Zakrzewski J, Adamczyk J, Tereba A, Yaman B, Nowakowska JA</b></p><p><b>ANATOMICAL AND GENETIC ASPECTS OF ASH DIEBACK: A LOOK AT THE WOOD STRUCTURE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Pathogen diseases are increasingly threatening forest trees under the current climate change, causing a remarkable decrease in the stability of forest ecosystems. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) dieback due to Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has been noted in Poland since 1992 and has spread over many European countries. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ash trees affected by dieback could exhibit a reduced vessel size and density along the trunk, as well as a lowered width of annual wood rings, leading to the weakening of water transport towards the crown. Dead and dying ash trees were sampled in a forest district severely affected by ash decline in southern Poland. Wood samples were collected at different height along the trunk and several wood anatomical characteristics of annual tree rings over the period 2002-2011 were examined. Dead trees showed a stronger reduction in radial growth than dying trees over the period considered. Moreover, the diameter of vessels increased from the crown to the base in both dead and dying trees, while the density decreased. Significant differences between dead and dying trees were detected in size and density of vessels in the period analyzed, as well as in the width of annual rings. DNA extracted from wood samples was analyzed using SSR markers and the main genetic parameters of dead and dying trees were estimated, finding similar levels of polymorphism and only slight non-significant differences between the two health groups. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that pathogens could disrupt the hormonal control of wood formation by interfering with the polar auxin transport, progressively leading to the death of ash trees.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ash Trees, Microsatellites Markers, Tree Decline, Wood, Vessel Size and Density</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 522-528 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2080-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2080-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2080-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-04-20 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2080-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Quantifying forest net primary production: combining eddy flux, inventory and metabolic theory http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2159-010 <p><b>Tan ZH, Hughes A, Sato T, Zhang YP, Han SJ, Kosugi Y, Goulden M, Deng XB, Cao M, Hao ZQ, Hu YH, Yu GR, Ma KP</b></p><p><b>QUANTIFYING FOREST NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION: COMBINING EDDY FLUX, INVENTORY AND METABOLIC THEORY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Net primary production (NPP) is a central and fundamental carbon-related term in global change studies. We proposed a top-down method to quantifying forest NPP which overcomes the deficits of the traditional bottom-up method. The new top-down method combines eddy flux data, climate variables, tree inventory and metabolic theory. Our method was tested in six forests and provides reliable annual NPP estimations which are consistent with bottom-up results. Carbon use efficiency also supports this new method. Taking advantage of fine temporal resolution of our top-down method, we examined whether and confirmed NPP was well correlated with leaf area index at a seasonal scale, as suggested by past studies. The potential value of our new method as a standard NPP method is high because of the world-wide network on eddy tower and inventory plot, however further data of performance of the new method is needed to fully evaluate its performance under different conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon Use Efficiency, Metabolic Theory of Ecology, Autotrophic Respiration, Biomass, Eddy Covariance</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 475-482 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2159-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2159-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2159-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-04-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2159-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Allometric equations to assess biomass, carbon and nitrogen content of black pine and red pine trees in southern Korea http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2164-010 <p><b>Kim C, Yoo BO, Jung SY, Lee KS</b></p><p><b>ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS TO ASSESS BIOMASS, CARBON AND NITROGEN CONTENT OF BLACK PINE AND RED PINE TREES IN SOUTHERN KOREA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A total of 74 Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) and red pine (P. densiflora S. et Z.) trees were destructively sampled in southern Korea, which is severely affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Species-specific allometric equations were developed to estimate the biomass, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of the tree components (i.e., stem wood, stem bark, branches, needles and roots) based on the diameter at breast height (DBH) and stem diameter at 20 cm aboveground (D20). The C concentrations of the various tree components were not correlated with DBH (P > 0.05), except for the C concentration in the stem bark (r = -0.29, P < 0.05) of the black pine and the branches (r = 0.40, P < 0.05) of the red pine. However, the N concentrations in the stem wood (r = -0.53, P < 0.05), stem bark (r = -0.37, P < 0.05) and branches (r = -0.40, P < 0.05) of the black pine were negatively correlated with DBH. The mean C concentrations of the tree components were not significantly different between the black pine and red pine, except for the stem bark, whereas the mean N concentrations were significantly lower in the black pine than in the red pine, except for the stem bark. The allometric equations developed for the biomass, C and N content for all the tree components were significant (P < 0.05). The adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R2) of the DBH allometric equations ranged from 0.66 to 0.97, while the coefficients for the D20 equations were between 0.66 and 0.95. Black pines consistently exhibited more biomass, C and N content in the tree components compared with the red pines with similar DBH or D20. These results suggest that the accuracy of estimates for biomass, C and N stocks in black pine and red pine forests could be improved by specific allometric equations for PWD-disturbed forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass Equations, Black Pine, Carbon Stocks, Nitrogen Stocks, Pine Wilt Disease, Red Pine</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 483-490 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2164-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2164-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2164-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-04-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2164-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Three-dimensional forest stand height map production utilizing airborne laser scanning dense point clouds and precise quality evaluation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2039-010 <p><b>Sefercik UG, Atesoglu A</b></p><p><b>THREE-DIMENSIONAL FOREST STAND HEIGHT MAP PRODUCTION UTILIZING AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DENSE POINT CLOUDS AND PRECISE QUALITY EVALUATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In remote sensing, estimation of the forest stand height is an ever-challenging issue due to the difficulties encountered during the acquisition of data under forest canopies. Stereo optical imaging offers high spatial and spectral resolution; however, the optical correlation is lower in dense forests than in open areas due to an insufficient number of matching points. Therefore, in most cases height information may be missing or faulty. With their long wavelengths of 0.2 to 1.3 m, P-band and L-band synthetic aperture radars are capable of penetrating forest canopies, but their low spatial resolutions restrict the use of single-tree based forest applications. In this study, airborne laser scanning was used as an effective remote sensing technique to produce large-scale maps of forest stand height. This technique produces very high-resolution point clouds and has a high penetration capability that allows for the detection of multiple echoes per laser pulse. A study area with a forest coverage of approximately 60% was selected in Houston, USA, and a three-dimensional color-coded map of forest stands was produced using a normalized digital surface model technique. Rather than being limited to the number of ground control points, the accuracy of the produced map was assessed with a model-to-model approach using terrestrial laser scanning. In the accuracy assessment, the standard deviation was used as the main accuracy indicator in addition to the root mean square error and normalized median absolute deviation. The absolute geo-location accuracy of the generated map was found to be better than 1 cm horizontally and approximately 40 cm in height. Furthermore, the effects of bias and relative standard deviations were determined. The problems encountered during the production of the map, as well as recommended solutions, are also discussed in this paper.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Airborne Laser Scanning, Forest Stand Height Map, First Echo, Last Echo, NDSM</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 491-497 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2039-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2039-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2039-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-04-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2039-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The effect of the calculation method, plot size, and stand density on the accuracy of top height estimation in Norway spruce stands http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2108-010 <p><b>Ochal W, Socha J, Pierzchalski M</b></p><p><b>THE EFFECT OF THE CALCULATION METHOD, PLOT SIZE, AND STAND DENSITY ON THE ACCURACY OF TOP HEIGHT ESTIMATION IN NORWAY SPRUCE STANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this study was to evaluate top height (TH) estimates for Norway spruce stands calculated according to different computational methods, and to assess the effects of stand density and plot size on TH estimation accuracy. Field data were collected from twelve 1 ha research plots located in even-aged spruce stands. Conventional estimates were found to generally overstate TH. The accuracy of TH estimation was dependent on sample plot size. TH estimation error decreased rapidly with increasing sample plot area, but only up to a certain cut-off point. Errors in TH estimation were also related to local stand density, with low and very high density levels leading to decreased accuracy. The most reliable TH estimates were obtained using the U-estimator method, which is resistant to changes in sample plot size.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Inventory, Site Index, Bias, Accuracy, Picea abies</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 498-505 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2108-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2108-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2108-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-04-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2108-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparison of wood volume estimates of young trees from terrestrial laser scan data http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2151-010 <p><b>Kunz M, Hess C, Raumonen P, Bienert A, Hackenberg J, Maas HG, Härdtle W, Fichtner A, von Oheimb G</b></p><p><b>COMPARISON OF WOOD VOLUME ESTIMATES OF YOUNG TREES FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCAN DATA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Many analyses in ecology and forestry require wood volume estimates of trees. However, non-destructive measurements are not straightforward because trees are differing in their three-dimensional structures and shapes. In this paper we compared three methods (one voxel-based and two cylinder-based methods) for wood volume calculation of trees from point clouds obtained by terrestrial laser scanning. We analysed a total of 24 young trees, composed of four different species ranging between 1.79 m to 7.96 m in height, comparing the derived volume estimates from the point clouds with xylometric reference volumes for each tree. We found that both voxel- and cylinder-based approaches are able to compute wood volumes with an average accuracy above 90% when compared to reference volumes. The best results were achieved with the voxel-based method (r2 = 0.98). Cylinder-model based methods (r2 = 0.90 and 0.92 respectively) did perform slightly less well but offer valuable additional opportunities to analyse structural parameters for each tree. We found that the error of volume estimates from point clouds are strongly species-specific. Therefore, species-specific parameter sets for point-cloud based wood volume estimation methods are required for more robust estimates across a number of tree species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mixed Forests, Quantitative Structure Models, Voxel-based, Xylometry</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 451-458 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2151-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2151-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2151-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-04-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2151-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Integration of tree allometry rules to treetops detection and tree crowns delineation using airborne lidar data http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2093-010 <p><b>Sačkov I, Hlásny T, Bucha T, Juriš M</b></p><p><b>INTEGRATION OF TREE ALLOMETRY RULES TO TREETOPS DETECTION AND TREE CROWNS DELINEATION USING AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has recently gained increasing attention in forestry, as ALS data may facilitate the efficient assessment of forest inventory attributes and ecological indicators related to forest stand structure. This paper presents a novel workflow for individual tree detection and tree crown delineation using ALS data. The developed point-based approach included several tree allometry rules on permissible tree heights and crown dimensions to increase the likelihood of detecting the actual tree profiles. The accuracy of the method was assessed in a heterogeneous forest with a complex stand structure in Slovakia (Central Europe). ALS measurements were taken using a RIEGL Q680i scanner at 700 m of height with a point density of 20 echoes per m2. The ground reference data included the measured positions and dimensions of 1332 trees in nine plots distributed across the region. We found that the number of individual trees detected by the algorithm using ALS data was systematically underestimated by 34 ± 15% relative to the reference data. The delineated crown coverage was underestimated by 2 ± 6% as well, but the latter difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tree Allometry, Airborne Laser Scanning, Individual Tree Detection, Point-based Approach</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 459-467 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2093-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2093-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2093-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-04-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2093-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Variation in growth, photosynthesis and water-soluble polysaccharide of Cyclocarya paliurus under different light regimes http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2185-010 <p><b>Yang W, Liu Y, Fang S, Ding H, Zhou M, Shang X</b></p><p><b>VARIATION IN GROWTH, PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER-SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDE OF CYCLOCARYA PALIURUS UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT REGIMES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: As a highly valued and multiple function tree species, Cyclocarya paliurus is planted and managed for timber production and medical use. Responses of growth, photosynthesis and phytochemical accumulation to light environment are useful informations to determine suitable habitat conditions for the cultivation of C. paliurus. A split-plot design with five light quality and three light intensity levels was adopted to compare the variations in plant growth, photosynthesis and water-soluble polysaccharide yield in C. paliurus leaves. Both light intensity and quality treatments significantly affected total biomass, photosynthetic rate and water-soluble polysaccharide yield in C. paliurus leaves. Treatments under red light and blue light with 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 achieved the highest values of biomass growth, photosynthetic rate, specific dry leaf mass per area and accumulation of water-soluble polysaccharide. These results indicate that red light and blue light with higher light intensity level were effective for increasing plant growth, photosynthesis and production of water-soluble polysaccharide in C. paliurus leaves. Manipulating light conditions might be an effective means to improve biomass and achieve higher water-soluble polysaccharide yield in C. paliurus plantations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cyclocarya paliurus, Environmental Factor, Biomass Production, Phytochemicals, Photosynthesis</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 468-474 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2185-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2185-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2185-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2017-04-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2185-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A resource capture efficiency index to compare differences in early growth of four tree species in northern England http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2248-010 <p><b>Leslie AD, Mencuccini M, Perks MP</b></p><p><b>A RESOURCE CAPTURE EFFICIENCY INDEX TO COMPARE DIFFERENCES IN EARLY GROWTH OF FOUR TREE SPECIES IN NORTHERN ENGLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: At a trial established in Cumbria, northern England, significant differences in growth rate between tree species were apparent, with cider gum (Eucalyptus gunnii) and alder (Alnus glutinosa) exhibiting most rapid volume and biomass accumulation. Estimations were made of leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio (based on stem mass not whole tree mass) and length of growing season. These measurements were undertaken to explain tree growth difference and developing a growth potential index based on growing season length and leaf area. The high leaf area of cider gum and alder explained some of their superior growth, while alder also had the longest period in leaf, compared with ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus). The slow growth of ash can be explained by the short period in leaf and also the relatively low leaf area ratio. Leaf area to stem weight also differed between species with that of ash being relatively low. Specific leaf area was also low for ash, a trait shared with cider gum, which suggests that these species invest highly in each unit of leaf area. Of the tree species assessed, the length of the growing season was longest for alder, enabling it to maintain growth for a longer period. By multiplying growing season by leaf area a resource capture index was calculated and this explained 56% of the variation in stem dry weight between trees. The potential and limitations for using this index are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Eucalyptus gunnii, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Resource Capture Efficiency</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 397-405 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2248-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2248-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2248-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-24 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2248-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Damage assessment to subtropical forests following the 2008 Chinese ice storm http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1619-009 <p><b>Zhou B, Wang X, Cao Y, Ge X, Gu L, Meng J</b></p><p><b>DAMAGE ASSESSMENT TO SUBTROPICAL FORESTS FOLLOWING THE 2008 CHINESE ICE STORM</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Ice storm is a major form of extreme climatic event and may occur more frequently in the future under a changing climate. The 2008 Chinese ice storm provided a natural laboratory to study ecosystem responses and feedbacks to climate variability and extreme events. Four typical subtropical forests (Chinese fir plantation, pine plantation, moso bamboo plantation, and secondary mixed broadleaved forest) were selected to assess the damage caused by the ice storm. The ice damage rate of typical subtropical forests varied between 25% and 81%. The secondary broadleaved forest had most extensive damage while the Chinese fir plantation experienced the most severe damage. Exotic pine species (Pinus elliottii Engelm. and Pinus taeda Linn.) were more severely damaged than the native species, Pinus massoniana Lamb. Ice damage was also affected by tree/culm size, age, stand density, site altitude, and management practices. Large-sized trees/culms were more vulnerable to stem breakage, decapitation, and uprooting, while small-sized trees/culms were more vulnerable to bending and leaning. Younger trees/culms had the highest damage rate, and were more susceptible to bending damage. Ice damage rate increased linearly with the stand density, and higher altitude led to a significant increase of stem breakage. Oleoresin tapping aggravated the damage to pine trees. Resistance of trees to ice damage is an emergent consequence of tree attributes, species origin, site conditions, and human disturbance. Forest silviculture and management practices can play significant roles in controlling forest susceptibility to extreme events. Inappropriate utilization of non-timber forest products can reduce trees’ resistance to extreme events. For sustainable forest development, balance needs to be achieved between the high productivity of introduced exotic tree species and the resistance of native species to extreme climatic events.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ice Damage, Secondary Mixed Broadleaved Forest, Chinese Fir, Moso Bamboo, Pine, Forest Management</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 406-415 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1619-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1619-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1619-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-24 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1619-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Analysis of biometric, physiological, and biochemical traits to evaluate the cadmium phytoremediation ability of eucalypt plants under hydroponics http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2129-009 <p><b>Iori V, Pietrini F, Bianconi D, Mughini G, Massacci A, Zacchini M</b></p><p><b>ANALYSIS OF BIOMETRIC, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS TO EVALUATE THE CADMIUM PHYTOREMEDIATION ABILITY OF EUCALYPT PLANTS UNDER HYDROPONICS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Wastewater reclamation and reuse represent a feasible solution to meet the growing demand for safe water. An environmentally sustainable technology such as phytoremediation is targeted for the reclamation of polluted waters. To this end, the capability of different plant species to tolerate and accumulate pollutants has to be investigated. In this work, eucalypt plants were studied by analysing biometric, physiological, and biochemical parameters related to cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation in two clones (“Velino ex 7” and “Viglio ex 358”) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. × E. globulus subsp. bicostata (Maiden, Blakely & J.Simm.) J.B. Kirkp exposed to 50 μM CdSO4 under hydroponics for three weeks. The results indicated that both eucalypt clones have a valuable tolerance to cadmium, expressed as the tolerance index (Ti). Biometric investigations showed that, regardless of the clone, the metal exposure affected most parameters related to biomass allocation and leaf growth. On the contrary, significant differences were found between the clones with respect to the chlorophyll content and the Chl a to Chl b ratio. These findings were also confirmed from the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence transient (OJIP) using the JIP test. Cadmium accumulation occurred in both clones and in particular in the roots, with a poor amount of metal reaching the aerial parts, and the Velino clone showed the highest Cd accumulation. The metal uptake ratio and the phytoextraction efficiency highlight a good Cd phytoremoval ability, especially for the Velino clone. The results are discussed taking into account that, in wastewater phytoremediation systems, root biomass can be completely harvested allowing for the removal of the absorbed metal. Finally, the notable tolerance to submersion and the large environmental adaptability of eucalypt suggest that this plant species represents an interesting candidate for the phytoremediation of Cd-polluted wastewaters.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Heavy Metals, Metal Tolerance, Wastewater, Forest Plants, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Rhizofiltration</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 416-421 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2129-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2129-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2129-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-24 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2129-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Genetic analysis of Latvian Salix alba L. and hybrid populations using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2004-009 <p><b>Rungis D, Laivins M, Gailite A, Korica A, Lazdina D, Skipars V, Veinberga I</b></p><p><b>GENETIC ANALYSIS OF LATVIAN SALIX ALBA L. AND HYBRID POPULATIONS USING NUCLEAR AND CHLOROPLAST DNA MARKERS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Latvia is at the northern border of the species range of S. alba L. in Europe, and there has been some debate whether the Latvian populations of S. alba are autochthonous, as this species has long been planted in Latvia as an ornamental tree in gardens, parks and roadsides. In addition, there is increasing interest in the use of several Salix species (including S. alba) as bioenergy crops. Natural S. alba stands throughout Latvia, as well as stands of possibly hybrid origin were analysed using nuclear and chloroplast markers. Our results showed that S. alba populations are probably natural, and that the rate of vegetative reproduction is low, supporting the evidence that Latvia is within the natural range of S. alba. These results provide the basis for the identification of possibly introduced or artificially regenerated stands of S.alba in Latvia. In addition, our results confirm that S. alba hybridises with S. fragilis, and that natural stands including hybrid individuals can be established. The analysis of chloroplast markers indicated that the predominant hybridisation occurs by fertilisation of S. fragilis by S. alba pollen; however, the extent of haplotype sharing between these two species should be further investigated.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Willow, Population Structure, Autochthonous, Provenance</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 422-429 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2004-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2004-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2004-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-24 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2004-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Heuristic forest planning model for optimizing timber production and carbon sequestration in teak plantations http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1733-009 <p><b>Quintero-Méndez MA, Jerez-Rico M</b></p><p><b>HEURISTIC FOREST PLANNING MODEL FOR OPTIMIZING TIMBER PRODUCTION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN TEAK PLANTATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We developed a forest planning model integrating two operational scales (single-stand and forest levels) for the optimization of timber production and carbon sequestration in forest teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) plantations. At the stand level, growth and yield simulations using a heuristic thinning optimizer provided a set of near-optimal thinning regimes for individual stands differing on initial spacing and site quality, given biological, silvicultural, and financial constraints. The set of near-optimal thinning regimes obtained were then used as input of the forest-level model, which generated optimal harvest plans for the whole plantation by simultaneously maximizing the net present value of merchantable wood and carbon sequestration. The net amount of carbon captured by the biomass and the emissions produced by decomposition of woody debris and timber products after harvest were estimated. The growth and yield model was based on a system of differential equations incorporating heuristics (genetic algorithms) to optimize age and intensity of thinnings. The full model can handle the optimization of harvest schedules for projects up to 10.000 ha and 200 stands and was tested on a validation dataset including teak plantations from Venezuela and other Latin American countries. Results indicated that regimes favoring carbon sequestration reduce the benefits of timber production, and equal profitability of carbon sequestration and timber production was obtained for carbon prices over 40 $US Gg-1. Sensitivity analysis showed that the proposed model is sensible to variation in growth rates, carbon and timber prices, and production quotas, and barely sensible to harvest and transport costs. The developed model has a modular structure that allows its calibration to incorporate data from a wide range of management regimes for teak and other forest species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Planning, Harvest Scheduling, Optimization, Heuristics, Carbon Sequestration, Tectona grandis</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 430-439 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1733-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1733-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1733-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-24 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1733-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Gnomoniopsis castaneae associated with Dryocosmus kuriphilus galls in chestnut stands in Sardinia (Italy) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2064-009 <p><b>Seddaiu S, Cerboneschi A, Sechi C, Mello A</b></p><p><b>GNOMONIOPSIS CASTANEAE ASSOCIATED WITH DRYOCOSMUS KURIPHILUS GALLS IN CHESTNUT STANDS IN SARDINIA (ITALY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Invasive fungal pathogens and pests of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) forests drastically reduce their productivity. The recently described Gnomoniopsis castaneae is one of the main agents involved in the epidemic of brown rot of chestnut nuts worldwide. In 2014, during an investigation aimed at evaluating the health status of chestnut forests in Sardinia, a high incidence of necrotic galls induced by the Asian gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) was observed. Several fungal isolates were consistently isolated from necrotic gall tissues. Based on their morphological characters and analyses of both the ITS and EF1-α-coding gene sequences, all isolates were identified as Gnomoniopsis castaneae.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Galls Necrosis, Brown Nut Rot, Invasive Pests, Forest Pathogens</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 440-445 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2064-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2064-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2064-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-24 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2064-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Shear modulus of old timber http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1787-009 <p><b>Cavalli A, Cibecchini D, Goli G, Togni M</b></p><p><b>SHEAR MODULUS OF OLD TIMBER</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Interest in both the time effect on the timber mechanical properties and the reuse of old solid timbers has prompted many research works since the 1970s, mainly focusing on evaluating bending strength (MOR) and stiffness (MOE). However, only few studies have investigated the effect of aging on shear modulus (G). In this work, transverse vibration test is used to calculate G and MOE of over 80 old timber beams. The MOE/G ratio and the relationship between G and different timber features are investigated. The main outcome of the research confirms that the MOE/G ratio is around 20, close to the value reported in literature for new solid timber. No relationship exists between G and MOE (r2=0.07) or between G and other timber features. When density and knots are used as predictors in a multiple regression model, the G prediction improves (r2=0.22). This work confirms that G is not affected by the age of timber.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Flexural Vibration, Old Timber, Historical Timber Buildings, Reclaimed Timber</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 446-450 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1787-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1787-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1787-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-24 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1787-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Long-term changes in surface-active beetle communities in a post-fire successional gradient in Pinus brutia forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2140-009 <p><b>Kaynas BY</b></p><p><b>LONG-TERM CHANGES IN SURFACE-ACTIVE BEETLE COMMUNITIES IN A POST-FIRE SUCCESSIONAL GRADIENT IN PINUS BRUTIA FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Fire is one of the most important ecological factors for many ecosystem types. Since prehistoric times, synergistic effects of fires and humans have led to changes in Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems. The effects of fire on different trophic levels, particularly regarding plants, have been examined intensively in fire-induced ecosystems. In this study, we aimed to study long-term changes in beetle community structure after fire in Pinus brutia Ten. forests. Five sites burned in different years and a control site unburned for at least 50 years were selected. Beetle sampling was conducted using four pit-fall traps in each of four transects in three replication plots at every successional site and in two plots at the control site. Microhabitat variables related to vegetation structure and litter layer were recorded and associated with abundances of beetles and feeding groups. The results showed that total, wood-eating, and predator beetles showed a decreasing trend of abundance along the successional gradient after fire. In contrast to these groups, herbivores tended to increase towards the late successional stages. Middle and late successional stages were important in terms of species richness, species diversity and evenness of beetle communities and feeding groups. The characteristics of vegetation and litter layer changed with successional gradient, playing a decisive role in the structure of beetle communities at successional sites. According to the data presented here, a mosaic structure consisting of different successional stages is very important to sustain high species diversity in beetle communities.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Fires, Coleoptera, Brutia Pine, Resilience, Autosuccession</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 376-382 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2140-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2140-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2140-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2140-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of thinning and pruning on stem and crown characteristics of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2037-009 <p><b>Fernández MP, Basauri J, Madariaga C, Menéndez-Miguélez M, Olea R, Zubizarreta-Gerendiain A</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF THINNING AND PRUNING ON STEM AND CROWN CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIATA PINE (PINUS RADIATA D. DON)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Simultaneous applications of thinning and pruning are common silvicultural practices in radiata pine (Pinus radiata) forest plantations. Their separate effects on tree growth and wood quality have been well studied, but their combined effect is not clear yet. The aim of this study is to identify how thinning and pruning together affect the stem structure and properties of the pruned but also the unpruned section of the trees (the portions formed immediately after the application of these management efforts). The effects of pruning and thinning on the number of growth units per year, internode length, number of branches, and branch diameters was analyzed in managed and unmanaged stands of radiata pine grown in Chile. When used jointly, these practices generated larger individual tree volumes (135% more) and clear wood in the pruned logs; however, they also reduced the sawn wood quality of the unpruned stem section for some years after the silvicultural interventions. The managed trees showed more growth units per annual shoot and shorter internodes, thus generating more knotty wood. Moreover, managed trees showed more taper. As trees of the managed stand restore the foliar biomass lost due to pruning, managed and unmanaged stands approach the same level of canopy closure, and differences minimize.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Annual Shoot, Silviculture Management, Branching, Knots, Tree Volume, Taper, Wood Quality</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 383-390 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2037-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2037-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2037-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2037-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Successional leaf traits of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, Southwest China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2045-009 <p><b>Liu W, Su J</b></p><p><b>SUCCESSIONAL LEAF TRAITS OF MONSOON EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST, SOUTHWEST CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Understanding the variation of functional traits of plant species along forest successional gradients may provides useful insights into community assemblages. However, species performance during forest succession is controversial. We explored the variation of leaf traits along a forest succession by examining ten leaf traits in four successional stages in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southwest China. Results showed significant differences in all leaf traits except leaf area and leaf carbon content among the successional stages. Five leaf traits were highly correlated to successional stage, while the first principal component showed no correlation with successional stage. The first principal component accounted for 56.1% of the total variation in all ten leaf traits. Almost 50% of the relationships between leaf traits differed along the examined successional gradient, indicating that leaf traits were affected by the successional stage.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Specific Leaf Area, Leaf Chemistry, Maximum Photosynthesis, Successional Stage, Monsoon Evergreen Broadleaved Forest</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 391-396 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2045-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2045-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2045-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2045-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Electrochemical in-situ studies of solar mediated oxygen transport and turnover dynamics in a tree trunk of Tilia cordata http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1681-010 <p><b>Tötzke C, Cermak J, Nadezhdina N, Tributsch H</b></p><p><b>ELECTROCHEMICAL IN-SITU STUDIES OF SOLAR MEDIATED OXYGEN TRANSPORT AND TURNOVER DYNAMICS IN A TREE TRUNK OF TILIA CORDATA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Platinum electrodes were implanted into the xylem of a lime tree (Tilia cordata) stem and solar-induced electrochemical potential differences of up to 120 mV were measured during the vegetative period and up to 30 mV in winter. The time dependent curves were found to be delayed with respect to solar radiation, sap flow activity, temperature and vapor pressure deficit. A general equation for the potential difference was derived and simplified by analyzing the effect of temperature and tensile strength. The potential determining influence of oxygen concentration on the respective location of the platinum electrode was identified as the principal phenomenon measured. A systematic analysis and investigation of the observed periodic oxygen concentration signals promises new information on sap flow, oxygen diffusion through tree tissues and on oxygen consumption related to the energy turnover in tree tissues.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tree Stems, Oxygen Transport, Xylem, Sap Flow, Tree Metabolism, Electrical Potential</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 355-361 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1681-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1681-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1681-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1681-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Tree species diversity of three Ghanaian reserves http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2056-010 <p><b>Cazzolla Gatti R, Vaglio Laurin G, Valentini R</b></p><p><b>TREE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF THREE GHANAIAN RESERVES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Among tropical areas, Africa is considered to be poor in terms of biodiversity as compared with Amazon or South-East Asia, especially with respect to forest diversity. Despite this lower diversity, some African tropical zones, such as Ghana, harbour a plethora of species, particularly of trees. Unfortunately, as a result of anthropogenic impacts, biological diversity in West Africa dramatically decreased in the last decades, with very limited reference to evaluate the amount of the loss. Due to these growing pressure, a collection of relevant biodiversity information in this region seems to be urgent. We surveyed 127 temporary plots randomly distributed within 3 protected areas in Ghana and we collected data on tree (dbh>10 cm) species richness and their abundances. We also performed α, and β diversity analyses, and estimated the effective number of species, adopting various indices and approaches to provide further information on each assemblage. The main goals of this research were: (i) to provide a wide tree species database (abundance-based data), together with some biodiversity analyses; (ii) to estimate the sampling effort needed for next biodiversity surveys in the same and similar regions; and (iii) to calculate some indices useful to monitor the future of these protected areas both in terms of conservation and biodiversity research.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ghana, Protected Areas, Forests, Database</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 362-368 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2056-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2056-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2056-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2056-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Can traditional selective logging secure tree regeneration in cloud forest? http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1937-009 <p><b>Ortiz-Colín P, Toledo-Aceves T, López-Barrera F, Gerez-Fernández P</b></p><p><b>CAN TRADITIONAL SELECTIVE LOGGING SECURE TREE REGENERATION IN CLOUD FOREST?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Unplanned selective logging for charcoal and firewood is a common practice in tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF), a high priority ecosystem for biodiversity conservation at the global scale. However, limited information is available regarding the impact of such logging on forest regeneration. We evaluated the abundance and composition of tree regeneration in four TMCF sites subject to traditional selective logging in southern Mexico. At each site, we calculated a tree extraction index based on the number of stumps, logs and charcoal kilns and established six 200 m2 plots where the abundance of adult, sapling and seedling trees were recorded and canopy cover estimated. Based on the extraction index and estimated basal area values, two sites each were classified as being of low (L) and high (H) logging intensity; the extraction index was three times lower in L (7.5 and 9.2) than in H (35 and 35) sites, while basal area was significantly higher in L than in H sites (80.2 ± 10.2 vs. 41.9 ± 4.96 m2 ha-1, respectively). No significant differences were found among sites in terms of canopy cover, diameter and density of adult trees or in the density of saplings and seedlings (0.72 individuals m-2). In all sites, species of intermediate shade-tolerance dominated the regeneration (76%), followed by the shade-tolerant (23%) and pioneer (1%) species. Regeneration of Quercus spp. (four species) dominated at all sites (50.5%); this is a group of particular interest to the local communities because of its utility for firewood and charcoal. The similarity in composition between adult and regenerating tree species was relatively high in all of the sites (Morisita-Horn Index L1=0.86, L2=0.64, H1=0.69 and H2=0.71). These results indicate that, under the evaluated selective logging intensities, TMCF can sustain sufficient regeneration of Quercus spp. and thus presents an opportunity for sustainable management. The legacy effects of traditional selective logging on TMCF tree regeneration are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Firewood, Forest Management, Mexico, Quercus, Seedlings, Timber Harvesting, Tropical Montane Cloud Forest, Disturbance</p><p><i>iForest 10 (2): 369-375 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1937-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1937-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1937-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-03-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1937-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: High resolution biomass mapping in tropical forests with LiDAR-derived Digital Models: Poás Volcano National Park (Costa Rica) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1744-009 <p><b>Fernández-Landa A, Navarro JA, Condés S, Algeet-Abarquero N, Marchamalo M</b></p><p><b>HIGH RESOLUTION BIOMASS MAPPING IN TROPICAL FORESTS WITH LIDAR-DERIVED DIGITAL MODELS: POáS VOLCANO NATIONAL PARK (COSTA RICA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tropical forests play a key role in global carbon cycle. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) program requires reliable mechanisms for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV). In this regard, new methods must be developed using updated technologies to assess carbon stocks. The combination of LiDAR technology and in situ forest networks allows the estimation of biomass with high resolution in low data environments, such as tropical countries. However, the evaluation of current LiDAR methods of biomass inventory, and the development of new methodologies to reduce uncertainty and increase accuracy, is still needed. Our aim is to evaluate new methodologies of spatially explicit LiDAR biomass inventories based on local and general plot-aggregate allometry. For this purpose, 25 field plots were inventoried, covering the structural and ecological variability of Poás Volcano National Park (Costa Rica). Important differences were detected in the estimation of aboveground biomass (92.74 t ha-1 considering the mean value of plot sample) depending on the chosen tree allometry. We validated the general aboveground biomass plot-aggregate allometry proposed by Asner & Mascaro (2014) in our study area, and we fitted two specific models for Poás forests. Both locals and general models depend on LiDAR top-of-canopy height (TCH), basal area (BA) and wood density. Small deviations in the wood density plot sample (0.60 ± 0.05) indicated that a single wood density constant value could be used throughout the study area. A BA-TCH origin forced linear model was fitted to estimate basal area, as suggested by the general methodology. Poás forest has a larger biomass density for the same THC compared to the rest of the forests previously studied, and shows that the BA-TCH relationship might have different trends in each life zone. Our results confirm that the general plot-aggregate methodology can be easily and reliably applied as aboveground biomass in a new area could be estimated by only measuring BA in field plots to obtain a local BA-TCH regression. For both local and general methods, the estimation of BA is critical. Therefore, the definition of precise basal area field measurement procedures is decisive to achieve reliable results in future studies.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon, Remote Sensing, REDD, LiDAR, Plot-level Allometry, Biomass, Basal Area</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 259-266 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1744-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1744-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1744-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-02-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1744-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparing image-based point clouds and airborne laser scanning data for estimating forest heights http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2077-009 <p><b>Ullah S, Adler P, Dees M, Datta P, Weinacker H, Koch B</b></p><p><b>COMPARING IMAGE-BASED POINT CLOUDS AND AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA FOR ESTIMATING FOREST HEIGHTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Accurate and updated knowledge of forest tree heights is fundamental in the context of forest management. However, measuring canopy height over large forest areas using traditional inventory techniques is laborious, time-consuming and excessively expensive. In this study, image-based point clouds produced from stereo aerial photographs (AP) were used to estimate forest height, and compared to Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data. We generated image-based Canopy Height Models (CHM) using different image-matching algorithms (SGM: Semi-Global Matching; eATE: enhanced Automatic Terrain Extraction), which were compared with a pure ALS-derived CHM. Additionally, plot-level height and density metrics were extracted from CHMs and used as explanatory variables for predicting the Lorey’s mean height (LMH), which was measured at 296 reference points on the ground. CHMSGM and CHMALS showed similar results in predicting LMH at sample plot locations (RMSE% = 8.54 vs. 7.92, respectively), while CHMeATE had lower accuracy (RMSE% = 13.23). Similarly, CHMSGM showed a lower normalized median absolute deviation (NMAD) from CHMALS (0.68 m) compared to CHMeATE (1.1 m). Our study revealed that image-based point clouds using SGM in the presence of high-resolution ALS-derived digital terrain model (DTM) provide comparable results with ALS data, while the performance of image-based point clouds using eATE is poorer than ALS for forest height estimation. The findings of this study provide a viable and cost-effective option for assessing height-related forest structural parameters. The proposed methodology can be usefully applied in all those countries where AP are updated on a regular basis and pre-existing historical ALS-derived DTMs are available.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Inventory, Canopy Height Model, Stereo Aerial Photographs, LiDAR, Semi-Global Matching (SGM), enhanced Automatic Terrain Extraction (eATE)</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 273-280 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2077-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2077-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2077-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-02-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2077-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Biodiversity inventory of trees in a neotropical secondary forest after abandonment of shaded coffee plantation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1901-009 <p><b>Oliveira-Neto NE, Nascimento DR, Carvalho FA</b></p><p><b>BIODIVERSITY INVENTORY OF TREES IN A NEOTROPICAL SECONDARY FOREST AFTER ABANDONMENT OF SHADED COFFEE PLANTATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tree structure and diversity of a secondary Atlantic Forest resulting from the abandonment (ca. 70 years) of a shaded coffee (Coffea arabica) plantation was studied in southeastern Brazil. All trees with DBH ≥ 5 cm (alive and dead) were measured in 25 plots of 20 × 20 m. Out of the 1926 sampled trees, 1837 were living trees belonging to 116 species. The most important species (importance value - IV) in the community were Euterpe edulis (22.9% - present in all plots) and Piptadenia gonoacantha (16.5%). Euterpe edulis is a typical palm tree of high importance value in mature forests, comprising 41.2% of individuals. The results show a more mature tree community in relation to other secondary forests with the same abandonment period in the region, with high richness and diversity of species, high basal area, and low dead tree density. In addition, several endangered species were recorded with high conservation value for the regional flora. The results also showed many typical characteristics of “novel ecosystems” discussed here in order to value these environments, still neglected due to strong environmental human alterations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Forest Succession, Novel Ecosystem, Agroforestry</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 303-308 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1901-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1901-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1901-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2017-02-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1901-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Identification and allelochemical activity of phenolic compounds in extracts from the dominant plant species established in clear-cuts of Scots pine stands http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1791-009 <p><b>Šežiene V, Baležentiene L, Maruška A</b></p><p><b>IDENTIFICATION AND ALLELOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN EXTRACTS FROM THE DOMINANT PLANT SPECIES ESTABLISHED IN CLEAR-CUTS OF SCOTS PINE STANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Dominant plant species established in the understory of clear-cuts may have a strong biochemical influence on pine regeneration process, with important consequences for reforestation management. We evaluated and compared the total phenolic content and the allelopathic activity of acqueous extracts from both roots and shoots of dominant plant species established in 1-yr-old and 2-yr-old clear-cuts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Lituania. The highest total content of phenolic compounds was detected in the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) shoots from 1-yr-old and 2-yr-old clear-cuts, as well as in the common heather (Calluna vulgaris [L.[ Hull) shoots from 1-yr-old clear-cuts. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify the allelochemicals present in the active fraction to determine their possible role in allelopathy. The highest variety and content of phenolic compounds were observed in shoot extracts of the dominant species from both 1-yr-old and 2-yr-old clear-cuts. Scots pine seed germination and seedling growth were significantly and negatively correlated with ρ-coumaric acid and sinapic acid content, while Scots pine seedling growth was significantly and negatively correlated with ferulic, caffeic and hydroxycinnamic acids contents. The highest contents of these phenolic acids were determined in aqueous extracts of C. vulgaris from 1-yr-old clear-cuts and Rumex acetosella L. of 2-yr-old clear-cuts, which exerted a strong phytotoxicity on Scots pine seed germination. Moreover, morphometric parameters of Scots pine seedlings were most sensitive to aqueous extracts of V. vitis-idaea shoots from both 1-yr-old and 2-yr-old clear-cuts and R. acetosella shoots from 2-yr-old clear-cuts.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Phenolics Identification, Allelopathy, Dominant Species, Germination</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 309-314 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1791-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1791-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1791-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-02-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1791-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparing land use registry and sample based inventory to estimate forest area in Podlaskie, Poland http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2078-009 <p><b>Jablonski M, Korhonen KT, Budniak P, Mionskowski M, Zajaczkowski G, Sućko K</b></p><p><b>COMPARING LAND USE REGISTRY AND SAMPLE BASED INVENTORY TO ESTIMATE FOREST AREA IN PODLASKIE, POLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The Land and Property Register (LPR) of Poland contains information on land use for the entire country. Additionally, a sample-based National Forest Inventory (NFI) provides statistical data for forest areas and detailed information on numerous forest parameters. However, until 2014 NFI plots were established only on areas classified as forest in the LPR. In this article, we present results of an estimation of forest area by extending the NFI measurements on all theoretical points in a grid, and compare the results with LPR information for one province (the Podlaskie voivodeship). At each point, we assess land use with recent aerial photographs and verify the ambiguous points in the field. Forest area in Poland is increasing due to afforestation and natural expansion of forest. Delays in the updating process of the LPR, and unwillingness of the owners to agree to reclassification of their land, have led to an underestimation of overall forest area. Our results demonstrate that forest area estimates made by the improved NFI are higher than those based upon the LPR. The modified NFI may be an appropriate tool for monitoring forest area changes in Poland.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Land Cover, Afforestation, Natural Expansion of Trees, Land and Property Register, National Forest Inventory</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 315-321 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2078-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2078-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2078-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-02-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2078-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Use of canopy gap openings to restore coniferous stands in Mediterranean environment http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1983-009 <p><b>Muscolo A, Settineri G, Bagnato S, Mercurio R, Sidari M</b></p><p><b>USE OF CANOPY GAP OPENINGS TO RESTORE CONIFEROUS STANDS IN MEDITERRANEAN ENVIRONMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In Mediterranean regions, climate change increasingly affect tree species distributions. Conifer forests under continuing disturbance show a more rapid shift to dominance by beech and other temperate broadleaves. Thus, there is an urgent need to conserve coniferous vegetation to avoid local extinction. Gap opening has profound effects on the structure and dynamics of most forests and may represent a sustainable way to restore coniferous ecosystems in Mediterranean habitats. What kind of artificial canopy opening is the most sustainable and effective means for restoring coniferous ecosystem functions? We explored the efficacy of artificial gaps in regeneration and dynamics of coniferous in Mediterranean environment. We examined how regeneration of different tree species is associated with soil environmental conditions and how gaps of different sizes influence the ecology and management of Mediterranean forest. Specifically, we analyzed gap disturbance in silver fir and black pine stands, as they dominate central and southern Italian forests. We demonstrated a specificity between gap size and coniferous species regeneration, indicating that small gaps (about 200 m2) favor silver fir regeneration, while black pine, depending on its subspecies, regenerates both in small and medium gaps (about 500 m2). Further, we found that gap characteristics (age and shape) and suitable substrate availability are the primary factors affecting seedling establishment. Our results provide functional information to design a silvicultural system useful to manage the natural regeneration of Mediterranean forest minimizing the environmental and visual impact.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biodiversity, Gap Cutting, Gap Dynamic, Forest Conservation, Forest Restoration</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 322-327 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1983-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1983-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1983-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2017-02-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1983-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Analysis of dust exposure during chainsaw forest operations http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2123-009 <p><b>Marchi E, Neri F, Cambi M, Laschi A, Foderi C, Sciarra G, Fabiano F</b></p><p><b>ANALYSIS OF DUST EXPOSURE DURING CHAINSAW FOREST OPERATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In 1999, the European Union proclaimed hardwood dust carcinogenic based on the classification of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) issued in 1995. The operational exposure limit (OEL) for inhalable wood dust has been set to 5 mg m-3 by EU directives, though in different countries the OEL ranges from 1 to 5 mg m-3. The objective of this study was to determine the exposure to wood dust of forest workers in chainsaw cutting and processing and suggest possible countermeasures. The study took into consideration different silvicultural treatments (coppice clear cut, conifer thinning, conifer pruning, and sanitary cut) and chainsaw fuel (normal two-stroke gasoline mix and two alkylate fuels). All the forest operations were carried out in forests located in Central Italy, on the Apennine mountain range. During the tests, 100 samples were collected by means of personal SKC Button Sampler (one sample per worker per day). The results showed that exposure to wood dust varied widely with forest operation type, while no significant difference were found for different type of chainsaw fuel. The average wood dust concentration was about 1.5 mg m-3 for all operations except coppicing, which showed a mean level of about 2.1 mg m-3. About 93% of the samples showed a concentration lower than 3 mg m-3, and in only two samples (one in conifer pruning and one in clear cut in coppice), the concentration was slightly higher than 5 mg m-3.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Operation, Chainsaw, Inhalable Wood Dust, Wood Dust Exposure, Cancer</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 341-347 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2123-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2123-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2123-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-02-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2123-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Detecting tree water deficit by very low altitude remote sensing http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1690-009 <p><b>Martin H, Labbé S, Baldet P, Archaux F, Philippe G</b></p><p><b>DETECTING TREE WATER DEFICIT BY VERY LOW ALTITUDE REMOTE SENSING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In a context of climate change and expected increasing drought frequency, it is important to select tree species adapted to water deficit. Experimentation in tree nurseries makes it possible to control for various factors such as water supply. We analyzed the spectral responses for two genetic varieties of Douglas fir sapling exposed to different levels of water deficit. Our results show that the mean NDVI derived from remote sensing at very low altitudes clearly differentiated stress levels while genetic varieties were partially distinguished.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Very Low Altitude Remote Sensing, Water Deficit, Variety, Douglas Fir</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 215-219 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1690-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1690-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1690-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Reports 2017-02-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1690-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Combined effects of short-day treatment and fall fertilization on growth, nutrient status, and spring bud break of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2178-009 <p><b>Pan J, Jacobs DF, Li G</b></p><p><b>COMBINED EFFECTS OF SHORT-DAY TREATMENT AND FALL FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH, NUTRIENT STATUS, AND SPRING BUD BREAK OF PINUS TABULAEFORMIS SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Although effects of short-day treatment and fall fertilization on seedling development have been studied independently, their combined influences are not well elucidated. We explored growth, nutrient concentration, and spring bud break of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) seedlings exposed to two photoperiod treatments (short-day consisting of 3 weeks of 18-hr nights in late summer and ambient day length) and three rates of fall N fertilization (0, 12 and 24 mg N per seedling). Seedlings were assessed before fall fertilization and at the end of the growing season. Bud break timing was evaluated the following spring. Increased foliar P concentration concurrent with reduced root P and K concentration occurred in short-day treated seedlings at the conclusion of photoperiod treatment. By the end of the growing season, short-day treatment resulted in greater N and P concentration in the stems, and P concentration in the foliage. It also induced smaller foliage and stem dry mass in both stages. Fall fertilization consistently enhanced tissue N concentration, but interaction effects with short-day treatment were generally non-significant. Short-day treatment curtailed shoot growth, induced terminal bud set, and hastened spring bud break (by only one day) for this mid-latitude seed source (41° N). Thus, short-day treatment or fall fertilization each promoted an increased nutrient concentration, while having only a minor effect on spring bud break.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Photoperiod, Autumn Fertilization, Nutrient Loading, Bud Break</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 242-249 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2178-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2178-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2178-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-02-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2178-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparison of range-wide chloroplast microsatellite and needle trait variation patterns in Pinus mugo Turra (dwarf mountain pine) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1860-009 <p><b>Zukowska WB, Boratynska K, Wachowiak W</b></p><p><b>COMPARISON OF RANGE-WIDE CHLOROPLAST MICROSATELLITE AND NEEDLE TRAIT VARIATION PATTERNS IN PINUS MUGO TURRA (DWARF MOUNTAIN PINE)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this study, range-wide genetic variation was analysed in 553 Pinus mugo Turra (dwarf mountain pine) individuals from 21 locations using 11 chloroplast microsatellites. Our main goal was to assess the spatial distribution of neutral genetic variation. We also used data from a previous study on the morphological variation of needles from 18 stands of P. mugo. In total, 22 needle characteristics were reanalysed and compared to microsatellite data to describe the distribution of morphological variation in the context of neutral genetic variation. We hypothesised that the chloroplast microsatellite and needle trait variation patterns would not entirely overlap. The results indicate the recent divergence of P. mugo populations derived from a formerly larger distribution. We identified 4 genetic and 3 morphological clusters whose spatial distribution overlapped only to some extent. The distribution of genetic variation showed a south-north pattern with signs of admixture in the Alps and Carpathians. Two south-westernmost stands from Italy were evidently isolated from the others. In contrast, morphological variation tended to display a west-east pattern. A separate group based on needle traits was formed mostly by eastern stands and was not observed by microsatellite analysis. In addition, a few needle characteristics significantly correlated with longitude and climate variables. These findings suggest that eastern populations of P. mugo may be of different origin and/or that some needle characteristics may be adaptively important in these locations. The potential roles of past demographic events, phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in shaping the patterns of genetic and morphological variation in P. mugo are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Adaptation, cpSSRs, Genetic Diversity, Morphological Variation, Neutral Genetic Markers, Phenotypic Plasticity</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 250-258 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1860-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1860-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1860-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-02-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1860-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Modelling dasometric attributes of mixed and uneven-aged forests using Landsat-8 OLI spectral data in the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1891-009 <p><b>López-Sánchez CA, García-Ramírez P, Resl R, Hernández-Díaz JC, López-Serrano PM, Wehenkel C</b></p><p><b>MODELLING DASOMETRIC ATTRIBUTES OF MIXED AND UNEVEN-AGED FORESTS USING LANDSAT-8 OLI SPECTRAL DATA IN THE SIERRA MADRE OCCIDENTAL, MEXICO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Remote sensors can be used as a robust and effective means of monitoring isolated or inaccessible forest sites. In the present study, the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique was successfully applied to remotely sensed data collected by the Landsat-8 satellite to estimate mean diameter at breast height (R2 = 0.73), mean crown cover (R2 = 0.55), mean volume (R2 = 0.57) and total volume per plot (R2 = 0.41) in the forest monitoring sites. However, the spectral data yielded poor estimates of tree number per plot (R2 = 0.22), the mean height (R2 = 0.25) and the mean diameter at base (R2 = 0.38). Seven spectral bands (band 1 to band 7), six vegetation indexes and other derived parameters (NDVI, SAVI, LAI, FPAR. ALB and ASR) and eight terrain variables derived from the digital elevation model (elevation, slope, aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, transformed aspect, terrain shape index and wetness index) were used as predictors in the fitted models. To prevent over-parameterization only some of the predictor variables considered were included in each model. The results indicate the MARS technique is potentially suitable for estimating dasometric variables from using spectral data obtained by the Landsat-8 OLI sensor.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, Mixed Forest, Uneven-aged Forest, Stand Variables, Remote Sensing, Terrain Features</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 288-295 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1891-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1891-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1891-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-02-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1891-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A rapid method for estimating the median diameter of the stem profile of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst) trees http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1945-009 <p><b>Vasilescu MM, Teresneu CC, Dinulica F</b></p><p><b>A RAPID METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE MEDIAN DIAMETER OF THE STEM PROFILE OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES KARST) TREES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The median diameter of a longitudinal section of the stem may be used to determine the stem volume. However, to calculate stem volume, many measurements of diameter at different heights along the stem are required. Therefore, this approach is not generally applied because time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose a novel, more rapid method to obtain median diameter using the area of the stem profile. A total of 218 height/diameter classes from more than 5000 spruce trees (Picea abies Karst.) were used to compute the median diameter using the classical method. In parallel, a regression model to assess the median diameter was developed. The strongest predictor of the median diameter for the stem profile was the diameter at breast height (R2 = 0.9985). Statistical analysis revealed that the height of the median diameter on the stem profile was 0.3 × H (tree height). The model was verified on standing and felled trees, revealing that differences between classical computations and the proposed model were less than 2% in most cases (86.24% of trees). The median diameter of the stem profile provides valuable information on stand architecture that could help in advancing our understanding on the mechanical stability of Norway spruce trees (i.e., delineating breakage point), growth model predictions, and competition among trees.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Mensuration, Median Diameter, Stem, Structure, Tree Stability</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 328-333 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1945-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1945-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1945-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-02-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1945-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Adaptive response of Pinus monticola driven by positive selection upon resistance gene analogs (RGAs) of the TIR-NBS-LRR subfamily http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2050-009 <p><b>Zambounis A, Avramidou E, Papadima A, Tsaftaris A, Arzimanoglou I, Barbas E, Madesis P, Aravanopoulos FA</b></p><p><b>ADAPTIVE RESPONSE OF PINUS MONTICOLA DRIVEN BY POSITIVE SELECTION UPON RESISTANCE GENE ANALOGS (RGAS) OF THE TIR-NBS-LRR SUBFAMILY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) is an important forest tree species, which is intensively plagued by the fungus Cronartium ribicola. Resistance gene analogs (RGAs) are the most highly abundant class of potential resistance (R) genes sharing greatly conserved domains and structures. Hence RGAs are crucial components for disease resistance breeding programs on P. monticola serving as useful functional markers. A total of 33 P. monticola RGAs gene homologues were mined from GenBank, encoding for R gene members of the TIR-NBS-LRR subfamily. The existence of positive selection acting upon RGAs was determined using a series of maximum likelihood analyses. Robust evidence of positive selection was showed to be acting widely in three clades across RGA gene phylogeny, both on terminal and ancestral lineages. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that the majority of positively selected residues sites are localized widely across these RGAs sequences, putatively affecting the structures of their ligand-binding domains and offering novel specificities. These results may find immediate application in ongoing disease resistance breeding programs.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fungal Diseases, Genomics-assisted Breeding, Non-synonymous Nucleotide Substitution, Positive Selection, Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs), White Pines</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 237-241 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2050-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2050-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2050-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-02-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2050-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commentaries & Perspectives: Comments to Loewe et al. - Growth of Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) European provenances in central Chile http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0078-010 <p><b>Agrimi M</b></p><p><b>COMMENTS TO LOEWE ET AL. - GROWTH OF STONE PINE (PINUS PINEA L.) EUROPEAN PROVENANCES IN CENTRAL CHILE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The author replies to the article by Loewe Muñoz et al. (2016), published on Aug 29, 2016 in iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, shortly commenting the choice of a Lombardy provenance of Pinus pinea L. used in the field trial experiment test at issue.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Stone pine, Productivity, Growth, Provenances</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 353-354 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0078-010<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0078-010" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0078-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Commentaries & Perspectives 2017-02-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0078-010 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Coping with spring frost-effects on polyamine metabolism of Scots pine seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2003-009 <p><b>Muilu-Mäkelä R, Vuosku J, Saarinen M, Hamberg L, Ruotsalainen S, Häggman H, Sarjala T</b></p><p><b>COPING WITH SPRING FROST-EFFECTS ON POLYAMINE METABOLISM OF SCOTS PINE SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Polyamines (PA) are ubiquitous polycations known to be involved in several phases of plant development as well as in tolerance to abiotic stresses. Phenols are complex secondary metabolites produced via the phenylpropanoid pathway that contain, e.g., cell wall compounds and antioxidants. Phenols are known to enhance chilling tolerance of plants. PA and phenolic pathways are connected via conjugation. In boreal coniferous forests spring frost has been considered to have severe effects on the survival of tree seedlings. Such effects are likely to increase in the future. The present study focuses on the role of PA and phenylpropanoid syntheses in the coping strategies of Scots pine exposed to cold temperatures during the vulnerable early seedling phase in late spring and early summer. We found that spring frost affects the expression of genes regulating PA metabolism and phenylpropanoid synthesis differently in above and below ground parts of the seedlings, whereas PA or phenol contents in tissues were not affected. The results suggest that Scots pine seedlings may not have time to develop metabolite level responses during a short period of freezing stress and, therefore, the originally different PA levels, especially in roots, may influence the tolerance of Scots pine seedlings to spring frost.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Phenylpropanoids, Polyamines, Scots Pine, Spring Frost</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 227-236 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2003-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2003-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2003-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2017-01-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2003-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Integrating area-based and individual tree detection approaches for estimating tree volume in plantation inventory using aerial image and airborne laser scanning data http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1880-009 <p><b>Shinzato ET, Shimabukuro YE, Coops NC, Tompalski P, Gasparoto EA</b></p><p><b>INTEGRATING AREA-BASED AND INDIVIDUAL TREE DETECTION APPROACHES FOR ESTIMATING TREE VOLUME IN PLANTATION INVENTORY USING AERIAL IMAGE AND AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Remote sensing has been increasingly used to assist forest inventory. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) systems can accurately estimate tree height in forests, and are being combined with more traditional optical images that provide further details about the horizontal structure of forests. To predict forest attributes two main techniques are applied to process ALS data: the Area Based Approach (ABA), and the Individual Tree Detection (ITD). The first part of this study was focused on the effectiveness of integrating ALS data and aerial imagery to estimate the wood volume in Eucalyptus urograndis plantations using the ABA approach. To this aim, we analyzed three different approaches: (1) using only ALS points cloud metrics (RMSE = 6.84%); (2) using only the variables derived from aerial images (RMSE = 8.45%); and (3) the integration of both 1 and 2 (RMSE = 5.23%), which underestimated the true volume by 2.98%. To estimate individual tree volumes we first detected individual trees and corrected the density estimate for detecting mean difference, with an error of 0.37 trees per hectare and RMSE of 12.68%. Next, we downscaled the total volume prediction to single tree level. Our approach showed a better result of the overall volume in comparison with the traditional forest inventory. There is a remarkable advantage in using the Individual Tree Detection approach, as it allows for a spatial representation of the number of trees sampled, as well as their volume per unit area - an important metric in the management of forest resources.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Inventory, Airborne Laser Scanning, Treetop Detection, Eucalyptus Plantation, Area-based Approach, LiDAR</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 296-302 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1880-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1880-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1880-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-12-15 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1880-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of altitudinal gradients on leaf area index, soil microbial biomass C and microbial activity in a temperate mixed forest ecosystem of Northwestern Turkey http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1974-009 <p><b>Bolat I, Öztürk M</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF ALTITUDINAL GRADIENTS ON LEAF AREA INDEX, SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS C AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN A TEMPERATE MIXED FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF NORTHWESTERN TURKEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A high leaf area index (LAI) can provide indications of high fertility, such as optimal health and productivity in forest ecosystem. Yet, studying the microbial biomass and inherent activity in any forest ecosystem may enable better understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil quality and nutrient cycling. This study was carried out in the western Black Sea region of Turkey with the aim to determine the influence of elevation on LAI, microbial biomass and activity in a mixed forest ecosystem. Marked differences in the LAI, light transmission, soil temperature, Corg/Ntotal ratio, and microbial properties were found at sites sampled at different elevations along an altitudinal gradient (i.e., 1200, 1300 and 1400 m a.s.l.). The LAI was statistically (P < 0.05) higher at 1300 (3.28 m2 m-2) and 1400 m (3.20 m2 m-2) elevations compared to 1200 m (2.84 m2 m-2) elevation, whereas the light transmission was statistically (P < 0.05) lower at 1300 and 1400 m elevations than that at 1200 m elevation. The amount of microbial biomass C at 1300 m (892.26 µg g-1) and 1400 m (725.99 µg g-1) elevations was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that at 1200 m (650.84 µg g-1) elevation. Basal respiration did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) along the altitudinal gradient. An increase in respiration per unit biomass (i.e., increasing the metabolic quotient - qCO2) was also found in the sampling sites at 1200 m a.s.l. There was a positive relationship between the microbial biomass C and LAI (r = 0.612, P < 0.01) and negative relationship between the qCO2 and LAI (r = - 0.592, P < 0.01). Our results showed that the elevation gradient has a significant influence on the LAI, microbial biomass C and microbial activity in the forest stand type analyzed. A subdivision of the forest stand types into different sub-types according to their productivity and development is advisable and recommended for forest management and administration purposes.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Basal Respiration, Bornmullerian Fir, Cmic/Corg Percentage, Metabolic Quotient (qCO2), Oriental Beech, Soil</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 334-340 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1974-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1974-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1974-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-12-15 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1974-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Inter- and intra-annual patterns of seed rain in the black spruce stands of Quebec, Canada http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2145-009 <p><b>Rossi S, Morin H, Gionest F, Laprise D</b></p><p><b>INTER- AND INTRA-ANNUAL PATTERNS OF SEED RAIN IN THE BLACK SPRUCE STANDS OF QUEBEC, CANADA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Divergent reproductive strategies of tree species generate differences in the dynamics of seed production and dispersion. The spatial and temporal variability in seed rain abundance and viability was monitored during the period 2000-2007 in four boreal stands in Quebec, Canada. The aim was to compare the inter- and intra-annual patterns of seed dispersal between species with diverging adaptive characteristics and reproductive strategies by testing the hypothesis that sympatric species can exhibit different patterns of seed dispersal according to specific ecological adaptations. The coefficient of variation (CV), representing the inter-annual variability in seed rain, was close to or higher than 1 in balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] P. Mill.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and confirmed the mast seeding habit of the two species. In contrast, CV in black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP) ranged between 0.24 and 0.54, indicating a more homogeneous inter-annual amount of seed dispersal because of its semiserotinous cones that preserve seeds for an indefinite period of time. The species showed divergent intra-annual patterns of seed dispersal. Most seed dispersal of the companion species was observed in September-November, while black spruce concentrated seed rain in spring, when the proportion of germinated seeds was higher. Boreal stands experience annual seed rains constituted by a gradual dispersal of seeds of different ages and originating from cones belonging to multiple cohorts. However, asynchronous seed rains in terms of quantity and quality can occur if companion species are associated to the dominant black spruce.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Balsam Fir, Fire, Masting, Regeneration, Reproduction, Seed Viability, Serotiny, White Birch</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 189-195 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2145-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2145-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2145-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-12-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2145-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation: evidence using GMM estimation for OECD and non-OECD regions http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2066-009 <p><b>Joshi P, Beck K</b></p><p><b>ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE FOR DEFORESTATION: EVIDENCE USING GMM ESTIMATION FOR OECD AND NON-OECD REGIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The depletion of the world’s forests in both tropical and temperate regions threatens to cause considerable environmental problems and hamper future economic development. However, some research has suggested that this deforestation might slow or reverse, exhibiting an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Yet previous studies investigating such an EKC have found mixed results. We therefore test for a deforestation EKC using an improved dataset from the World Development Indicators and an enhanced econometric technique Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator. We compare OECD countries with the non-OECD regions of Latin America, Asia, and Africa to determine how various factors like economic growth, population, trade, urbanization, agricultural land conversion, and cereal yield impact deforestation rates. The results show that the OECD countries have an N-shaped curve whereas only the African region experiences an income-based EKC pattern. Population growth tends to create more deforestation as does conversion to agricultural lands. More trade openness and greater urbanization impact the regions differently, but only the OECD countries have less deforestation due to better cereal yields.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Environmental Kuznets Curve, Deforestation, GMM, OECD, Non-OECD</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 196-203 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2066-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2066-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2066-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-12-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2066-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Fertilisation of Quercus seedlings inoculated with Tuber melanosporum: effects on growth and mycorrhization of two host species and two inoculation methods http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2096-009 <p><b>Garcia-Barreda S, Molina-Grau S, Reyna S</b></p><p><b>FERTILISATION OF QUERCUS SEEDLINGS INOCULATED WITH TUBER MELANOSPORUM: EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND MYCORRHIZATION OF TWO HOST SPECIES AND TWO INOCULATION METHODS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Modern truffle cultivation is based on use of inoculated seedlings, which should exhibit highly colonised roots as well as a vegetative quality enhancing field plant performance. However, poor shoot and fine root growth has been a frequent issue in inoculated Quercus seedlings production. Fertilisation is a common solution in forest nurseries, but high fertilisation levels have been found to inhibit the formation of ectomycorrhizas of many fungal species. The influence of slow-release fertilisation (52 mg N, 26 mg P and 36 mg K per seedling) on growth and ectomycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated seedlings was evaluated. Host species Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea and inoculation methods involving root-dipping and root-powdering were tested. Fertilisation increased weight of both host species without significant detrimental effects on ectomycorrhizal colonisation, showing that it can be effectively used in inoculated seedlings production. Both host species showed similar response to fertilisation. The inoculation method affected seedling weight and ectomycorrhizal status, suggesting that some inoculant carriers are able to damage Quercus development and T. melanosporum colonisation. The study provided an important basis for fine-tuning the use of fertilisers in truffle-inoculated seedling production.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fertilisation, Seedling, Nursery, Ectomycorrhizal, Inoculation</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 267-272 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2096-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2096-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2096-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-12-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2096-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Response of artificially defoliated Betula pendula seedlings to additional soil nutrient supply http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2086-009 <p><b>Araminiene V, Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I, Stakenas V</b></p><p><b>RESPONSE OF ARTIFICIALLY DEFOLIATED BETULA PENDULA SEEDLINGS TO ADDITIONAL SOIL NUTRIENT SUPPLY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The impact of leaf damage on the growth of young silver birch seedlings with and without additional nutrient supply was investigated by simulating leaf-insect damage and applying different levels (25%, 50% and 75%) of artificial defoliation. Based on field-practical and cost-effective methods, we determined how fertilization practices compensate for foliage loss, and the combined effect on silver birch seedling growth. The mineral fertilizers applied to the 25-75%-defoliated silver birch seedlings reduced the growth in aboveground biomass compared to the fertilized but undamaged seedlings. Our results showed that when the birch seedlings received more nutrients they did not compensate for the loss of foliar mass. However, the seedlings loosing part of their foliar mass and receiving no additional fertilizers did compensate for the foliage loss and their root growth was not weakened, using soil nutrients more effectively. Mineral fertilization up to optimal nutritional balance could be a beneficial tool for increasing growth rate and biomass accumulation in the short-term period. However, our study demonstrated that additional fertilization does not necessarily lead to growth compensation of partly defoliated young birch trees.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Betula pendula, Artificial Defoliation, Fertilization, Aboveground Biomass, Photosynthesis</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 281-287 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2086-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2086-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2086-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-12-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2086-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influence of soil and topography on defoliation intensity during an extended outbreak of the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2069-009 <p><b>Kosunen M, Kantola T, Starr M, Blomqvist M, Talvitie M, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCE OF SOIL AND TOPOGRAPHY ON DEFOLIATION INTENSITY DURING AN EXTENDED OUTBREAK OF THE COMMON PINE SAWFLY (DIPRION PINI L.)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Insect herbivore disturbances are likely to intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Finland, outbreaks of the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.), which feeds on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles, and resulting damage to forests have already increased. Although drivers of sawfly outbreak dynamics have been investigated, the effects of topography and soil fertility have not been fully elucidated. We studied the effect of elevation, slope and soil properties (carbon and nitrogen contents, C/N ratio, pH, texture and horizon thicknesses) on the defoliation intensity of 28 plots (227-531 m2), located in a 34.5 km2 forested area in eastern Finland suffering from an extended outbreak of D. pini. Plot elevation and slope (relative relief 35 m, maximum elevation 200 m a.s.l.) were derived from a digital elevation model and the soil properties from samples of the humus layer (Of+Oh), (Ah+)E and B horizons of podzol profiles. Defoliation was greater on the more fertile and flatter sites than on less fertile and steeper sites, but independent of elevation. The soil property most strongly correlated to plot mean defoliation was the C/N ratio of the humus layer (Spearman’s ρ = -0.68). However, logistic modelling showed that the thickness of the (Ah+)E-horizon had the highest classification accuracy in predicting the probability of a plot having moderate to severe (>20%) defoliation. Our study showed that forest damage caused by D. pini was related to topography and soil fertility. Taking these factors into account could help in understanding the population dynamics of D. pini, in modeling of insect outbreaks and in forest management planning.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: C/N Balance, Defoliation, Pine Sawfly, Soil, Topography</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 164-171 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2069-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2069-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2069-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-11-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2069-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Terrestrial laser scanning as a tool for assessing tree growth http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2138-009 <p><b>Sheppard J, Morhart C, Hackenberg J, Spiecker H</b></p><p><b>TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING AS A TOOL FOR ASSESSING TREE GROWTH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for assessing tree growth based on time series analysis, as it allows a level of scrutiny not achievable using established destructive techniques. We applied TLS technology to 21 wild cherry trees grown in a research plot near Breisach (southern Germany) in order to build quantitative structure models (QSMs) for each tree. Scans were carried out over three subsequent years (2012-2014), so that three QSMs per each tree were constructed. Using the above approach, we were able to assess the annual growth of the individual wild cherry trees in terms of diameter and height, stem and branch volume, and the merchantable timber fraction. In addition, the growth of single branches of sample trees was detected and quantified. The availability of QSMs based on TLS-derived data allowed the accurate determination of crown length and width, as well as the volume reduction as the result of the tree pruning applied after the first scan (2012). The aboveground biomass (AGB) was assessed for each tree based on the QSM-derived volume and published wood density values for wild cherry, and then compared with AGB values estimated with standard allometric methods, obtaining a very high correlation (r2adj = 0.941). We concluded that the proposed approach is an effective non-destructive technique to accurately assess the increase of tree biomass, and discuss its future application in the forestry sector.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: TLS, Time Series Analysis, Prunus avium L., Wild Cherry, Simpletree, Quantitative Structure Models</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 172-179 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2138-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2138-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2138-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-11-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2138-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Potential for utilization of wood ash on coastal arenosols with limited buffer capacity in KwaZulu-Natal and its effect on eucalypt stand nutrition and growth http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2146-009 <p><b>Scheepers GP, du Toit B</b></p><p><b>POTENTIAL FOR UTILIZATION OF WOOD ASH ON COASTAL ARENOSOLS WITH LIMITED BUFFER CAPACITY IN KWAZULU-NATAL AND ITS EFFECT ON EUCALYPT STAND NUTRITION AND GROWTH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A field trial was established to test the effects of various wood ash and fertilizer application rates on the nutrition and early growth of a clonal Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla stand near Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The trial consisted of wood ash treatments of 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 t ha-1, combined with fertilizer treatments of no fertilizer (control), 150 g tree-1 of conventional ammonium sulphate fertilizer or 320 g tree-1 of controlled release fertilizer mixture containing N, P and a balanced suite of several plant nutrients. The experiment was conducted on a young sandy soil of aeolian origin with a very low buffer capacity. Ash application rates were chosen after a pilot study was conducted to test the effect of CaCO3 on the soil reaction. At 4 and 8 months after treatment, soil heavy metal concentrations for cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) levels were substantially lower than toxic levels. Foliar heavy metal concentrations (for the same elements) were less than 1mg kg-1 at both time intervals. The wood ash induced a temporary liming effect up to 8 months after application. Foliar nutrient assessments revealed sub-optimal nutrient concentrations for phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) at 4 months and K at 8 months of age. The positive growth responses (expressed as a biomass index) at 8 months, ranged between 13% and 683% relative to the untreated control. At 21 months, the growth response to ash and fertilizer combinations ranged from -0.5% to 50% relative to the control. This research demonstrated that 1.2 t ha-1 of wood ash can safely be disposed of on a typical, poorly buffered Zululand coastal sand with little environmental risk and minimal growth suppression, provided that it is balanced with an appropriate NPS plus trace element fertilizer mixture.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wood Ash, Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla, Stand Nutrition, Entisol, Heavy Metals, Fertilizer</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 180-188 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2146-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2146-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2146-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-11-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2146-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Determining Pleiades satellite data capability for tree diversity modeling http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1884-009 <p><b>Akbari H, Kalbi S</b></p><p><b>DETERMINING PLEIADES SATELLITE DATA CAPABILITY FOR TREE DIVERSITY MODELING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Modeling of the spatial distribution of tree species based on survey data has recently been applied to conservation planning. Numerous methods have been developed for building species habitat suitability models. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of Pleiades satellite data for modeling tree species diversity of Hyrcanian forests in northern Iran (Mazandaran Province). One-hundred sample plots were established over an area of 2.600 ha and surveyed for tree diversity, and the Simpson’s index (D), Shannon’s index (H’) and the reciprocal of Simpson’s index (1/D) were calculated for each plot. Spectral variables and several parameters derived by texture analysis were obtained from multispectral images of the study area and used as predictors of tree diversity of sample plots. Two different methods, including generalized additive models (GAMs) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), were used for modeling. The results revealed a fairly good prediction of plot tree diversity obtained using the developed models (adj-R2 = 0.542-0.731). Shannon’s H’ and Simpson’s 1/D indices were more accurately predicted using GAM-based methods, while MARS models were more suitable for predicting Simpson’s D. We concluded that Pleiades satellite data can be conveniently used for estimating, assessing and monitoring tree species diversity in the mixed hardwood Hyrcanian forest of northern Iran.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pleiades, Tree Species Diversity, Modeling, Darabkola Forest</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 348-352 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1884-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1884-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1884-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2016-11-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1884-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Below- and above-ground biomass, structure and patterns in ancient lowland coppices http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1839-009 <p><b>Vrška T, Janík D, Pálková M, Adam D, Trochta J</b></p><p><b>BELOW- AND ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS, STRUCTURE AND PATTERNS IN ANCIENT LOWLAND COPPICES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Ancient coppice woods are areas that reflect long-term human influence and contain high species biodiversity. In this type of forest we aimed to: (i) analyze the below- and above ground biomass of stools and estimate the age of largest stool; (ii) define a “zone of interference” for coppices; (iii) describe and classify variability in the shape and size of coppice stools; (iv) define the specific characteristics of the spatial distribution of stems and stools. The study was conducted in the Podyjí National Park, Czech Republic, where two old oak coppice stands were fully stem mapped: Lipina (3.90 ha) and Šobes (2.37 ha). Cores were processed using TimeTable and PAST4. Below- and above-ground biomass of the largest stools was computed using the data from terrestrial laser scanner. Tree zones of influence were analyzed with V-Late landscape analysis tools using Shape Index. The pair correlation function and L function were used to describe the spatial patterns of trees with DBH ≥ 7 cm, and the null model of Complete Spatial Randomness and Matérn cluster process were tested. For a modeled old stool, we estimated a ratio of 2:1 for above/below ground volume with no reduction of below ground biomass regarding the hollow roots. The age of the largest stool was estimated 825 ± 145 (SE) years. An “Inner Zone of Influence” was defined, with a total area covering 323 m2 ha-1. The median area of this zone in both plots was 0.40 m2 for all trees, 0.23 m2 for singles and 0.87 m2 for stools. The Matérn cluster process was successfully fitted to our empirical data. In this model, the mean cluster radius ranged between 1.9 to 2.1 m and mean number of points per cluster was 1.7 and 1.9. The most prevalent characteristics of these ancient oak coppices were their compact shape and clustered spatial distribution up to 10 m.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Oak, Stools, Spatial Patterns, Root System, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, Ancient Coppices</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 23-31 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1839-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1839-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1839-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-11-06 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1839-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Quantitative simulation of C budgets in a forest in Heilongjiang province, China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1918-009 <p><b>Wang B, Li M, Fan W, Zhang F</b></p><p><b>QUANTITATIVE SIMULATION OF C BUDGETS IN A FOREST IN HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE, CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Recently, forest carbon (C) budgets have been significantly affected by climate variability, nitrogen (N) deposition, an increasing global atmospheric CO2 concentration, and disturbances (i.e., harvests, fires, and insect infestations). In this study, we quantitatively simulated the annual carbon balance of forests in Heilongjiang, China, from 1901 to 2013 using the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon (InTEC) model, which integrated the effects of nondisturbance (i.e., atmospheric CO2 concentration, N deposition, and climate variability) and disturbance factors. The average net primary production (NPP) of Heilongjiang was 284 g C m-2 a-1 in 1901 and increased in 1950 to 339 g C m-2 a-1; a rapid increase occurred after 1980, with an increase of 48% in 2013 compared with the NPP in 1901. The average NPP of the entire Heilongjiang region increased significantly and became more stable in 2013. However, the NPP in the northern region of the Xiaoxing’an Mountains was lower than that in the other regions. The fluctuation in average net ecosystem production (NEP) was relatively large because Heilongjiang was a carbon source for many years before the 1930s and again in the early 21st century, due to serious disturbances and intensified human activities. In recent years, NEP began to increase again, and in 2013 the forests became a large carbon sink (188 g C m-2 a-1). The spatial distribution of the average NEP was similar to that of NPP, though the largest increment in the average NEP from 1901 to 2013 was in the Changbai Mountains.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: InTEC Model, NPP, NEP, C Budgets, Heilongjiang</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 128-135 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1918-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1918-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1918-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-11-06 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1918-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Hygroscopicity of the bark of selected forest tree species http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1979-009 <p><b>Ilek A, Kucza J, Morkisz K</b></p><p><b>HYGROSCOPICITY OF THE BARK OF SELECTED FOREST TREE SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: As the outer layer of trees and shrubs, bark is exposed to the direct action of atmospheric conditions and reacts to changes in relative air humidity. This study focuses on the actual hygroscopicity of the bark, regarded as a component of the total bark retention capability. The main research aims were to: (1) determine the physical properties (specific density, bulk density, total porosity), actual hygroscopicity and maximum water storage capacity of the stem bark at breast height (1.3 m) of eight forest tree species; (2) assess the relationship between bark actual hygroscopicity and its physical properties; (3) determine the share of the actual hygroscopicity of bark in its maximum water storage capacity. Significant differences were observed among the different species considered as a consequence of the variation in physical properties of their bark. Actual hygroscopicity of bark (expressed in balance units), i.e., the maximum water amount that can be absorbed from saturated air by the outer bark layer, showed a significant relationship with bark physical properties. Depending on tree species, actual hygroscopicity may constitute from 10 to 30% of the maximum water storage capacity of bark.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Hydrology, Forest Tree Bark, Bark Actual Hygroscopicity, Bark Water Storage Capacity</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 220-226 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1979-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1979-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1979-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-11-06 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1979-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Wildland fire typologies and extreme temperatures in NE Spain http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1939-009 <p><b>Cardil A, Merenciano D, Molina-Terrén DM</b></p><p><b>WILDLAND FIRE TYPOLOGIES AND EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN NE SPAIN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Understanding instrumental factors dealing with the development of large wildland fires is a need. Fire spread typologies and extreme temperature days were studied in the 1978-2012 period in Aragón (NE Spain). Temperature was examined at 850 hPa to characterize the low troposphere state and wildfires were grouped in three fire spread typologies: convective fires, wind-driven fires and topography-driven fires. The analysis of wildland fire propagation typologies revealed that convective fires burned the majority of total area burned, resulting in the larger and the most closely typology related to high temperature days (HTDs). Drought Code (DC) correlation with HTDs and wildland fire size was weak.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wildland Fire, Fire Spread Patterns, Forestry, Heat Waves, Climate Change</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 9-14 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1939-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1939-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1939-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-11-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1939-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Sap flow, leaf-level gas exchange and spectral responses to drought in Pinus sylvestris, Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1748-009 <p><b>Manzanera JA, Gómez-Garay A, Pintos B, Rodríguez-Rastrero M, Moreda E, Zazo J, Martínez-Falero E, García-Abril A</b></p><p><b>SAP FLOW, LEAF-LEVEL GAS EXCHANGE AND SPECTRAL RESPONSES TO DROUGHT IN PINUS SYLVESTRIS, PINUS PINEA AND PINUS HALEPENSIS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In a climate change scenario, Mediterranean forest species such as pines may be endangered by rising temperatures and reduced precipitation, thus calling for studies on the transpiration and water balance in pines. In this paper, the response of young plants of Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus pinea L. and Pinus halepensis Mill. to different irrigation treatments has been studied. Significant differences were found in water potential, sap flow, leaf-level gas exchange and spectral variables. P. sylvestris had higher pre-dawn and midday water potentials, sap flow rates and leaf-level gas exchange rates compared to the other two species in well-watered conditions. Vapor pressure gradient correlated with stomatal conductance, net assimilation and transpiration, but the association between stomatal conductance and sap flow was weak. The environmental variables more strongly associated with sap flow were solar radiation and reference evapo-transpiration, especially in the well-watered plants, but those associations were weaker in the stressed plants. All three pine species showed the isohydric, drought-avoiding strategy common in the genus Pinus, maintaining relatively high water potentials in dry conditions. Nevertheless, P. halepensis showed a water-saving strategy, with a stomatal closure behavior under drought. Stomatal regulation was less strict in P. sylvestris, closer to a water-spending pattern, while P. pinea showed an intermediate behavior. Significant differences were recorded among species in spectral reflectance in the visible and infra-red regions. Photochemical Reflectance Index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and combinations of other ratios permitted the discrimination among the three pine species. These spectral variables showed association with sap flow rate, water potential and leaf-level gas exchange variables. Both cluster analysis and k-means classification discriminated Scots pine and Aleppo pine in two different groups. On the other hand, Stone pine showed differences in spectral behavior depending on the hydric status of the plants. Well-watered Stone pine plants had the same spectral behavior as Scots pine, while the plants subjected to drought stress were closer to Aleppo pine plants in spectral response. These findings may help to quantify the impacts of early and mid-summer water deficit on Mediterranean pines in future climate regimes.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon Assimilation, Aleppo Pine, Hydric Relations, Reflectance, Scots Pine, Stone Pine, Transpiration</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 204-214 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1748-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1748-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1748-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-11-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1748-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparison of parametric and nonparametric methods for modeling height-diameter relationships http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1928-009 <p><b>Adamec Z, Drápela K</b></p><p><b>COMPARISON OF PARAMETRIC AND NONPARAMETRIC METHODS FOR MODELING HEIGHT-DIAMETER RELATIONSHIPS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper focuses on the problem of regionalization of the height-diameter model at the stand level. To this purpose, we selected two different modeling techniques. As a parametric method, we chose a linear mixed effects model (LME) with calibrated conditional prediction, whose calibration was carried out on randomly selected trees either close to mean diameter or within three diameter intervals throughout the diameter range. As a nonparametric method, the technique of classification and regression trees (CART) was chosen. These two methods were also compared with the local model created by ordinary least squares regression. The results show that LME with calibrated conditional prediction based on measurements of height at three diameter intervals provided results very close to the local model, especially when six to nine trees are measured. We recommend this technique for the regionalization of the global model. The CART method provided worse results than LME, with the exception of parameters of the residual distribution. Nevertheless, the latter approach is very user-friendly, as the regression tree creation and especially its interpretation are relatively simple, and could be recommended when larger deviations are allowed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Calibration, Classification and Regression Trees, Hierarchical Structure, Linear Mixed Effects Model, Spatial Heterogeneity</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 1-8 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1928-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1928-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1928-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-10-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1928-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Twenty years of conversion: from Scots pine plantations to oak dominated multifunctional forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1967-009 <p><b>Vrška T, Ponikelský J, Pavlicová P, Janík D, Adam D</b></p><p><b>TWENTY YEARS OF CONVERSION: FROM SCOTS PINE PLANTATIONS TO OAK DOMINATED MULTIFUNCTIONAL FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A conversion of previously even-aged pine-dominated forests to uneven-aged and multi-functional oak-dominated forests has been ongoing since 1993 in the Pyramida experimental forest (95 ha) situated in the buffer zone of Podyjí National Park, Czech Republic. Based on repeated surveys in 1992, 2003 and 2013, the conversion was assessed according to changes in: (i) the proportion of species; (ii) the distribution of DBH; (iii) the distribution of patches; and (iv) the distribution of forest types. The proportion of conifers decreased from 61.0% to 42.0%, and the proportion of broadleaved species increased accordingly. A sharp decline in the number of trees in the DBH class 70-109 mm was caused by the intense release of understorey broadleaved trees in young Scots pine small pole stage stands. The number of large habitat trees steadily increased in the DBH classes 430+ mm. The mean size of one patch decreased from 0.8 ha (1992) to 0.4 ha (2013). The spatial proportion of the target forest type (uneven-aged oak-dominated forest) increased from 8.5% in 1992 to 45.0% in 2013, and 35.1% of the area was fully converted during the 20 years. We expect 69.1% of the area to be converted after 30 years (2023).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Scots Pine, Conversion, Oak Dominated Forest, Uneven-aged Silviculture, National Park</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 75-82 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1967-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1967-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1967-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-10-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1967-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimating carbon dynamics in forest carbon pools under IPCC standards in South Korea using CBM-CFS3 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2040-009 <p><b>Kim M, Lee WK, Kurz WA, Kwak DA, Morken S, Smyth CE, Ryu D</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATING CARBON DYNAMICS IN FOREST CARBON POOLS UNDER IPCC STANDARDS IN SOUTH KOREA USING CBM-CFS3</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The main objective of this study was to estimate past and future dynamics of forest carbon pools in South Korea, as classified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance (GPG) and to test the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector 3 (CBM-CFS3). Inventory data required in CBM-CFS3 were extracted from Korea’s 3rd Forest Type Map. The site index in the inventory data was estimated through regression models developed using 5th National Forest Inventory (NFI) data with 4000 plots. Necessary yield tables to a stand age of over 100 years, stratified by species, were prepared through the estimation of volume per ha with tree species, site index and stand age. We considered thinning and cutting regulations for sustainable forest management announced by the Korean Forest Service and that the forest area was constant over from 1992 to 2092. We estimated the carbon stocks and their changes of aboveground (AGB) and belowground (BGB) biomass, litter (L), dead wood (DW), and soil organic matter (SOM). Validation was conducted based on the 5th NFI and statistical data. Our results showed that the carbon content of the total forest area increased from 509.7 Tg C to 1007.3 Tg C at a rate of 11.8 Tg C yr-1 during 1992-2034. Results also showed that AGB, BGB, DW, L and SOM changed from 54.6, 30.2, 15.9, 43.6, and 373.9 Tg C in 1992 to 455.6, 100.77, 32.89, 65.46, and 369.2 Tg C in 2034, respectively. However, the amount of forest carbon was projected to decrease due to large increases in harvest rates as most of the forest reaches the legislated cutting age during 2035-2045. Our simulation estimated that by 2045 AGB, BGB, and SOM decreased to 347.8, 78.2, and 368.9 Tg C, respectively, while DW and L increased to 46.8 and 89.1 Tg C, respectively. The carbon content of the total forested area starts to stabilize after 2045 as the annual stand growth gradually decreases. Finally in 2092, the carbon content of AGB, BGB, DW, L, and SOM was estimated as 422.3, 93.9, 31.2, 63.0, and 365.1 Tg C, respectively. Through harvesting, over the 100 year period more than 200 Tg C were transferred from South Korea’s forests to meet demands for timber, fiber and energy. Good agreement between model results, NFI data and independent studies, demonstrates the applicability of CBM-CFS3 for estimating past and future forest carbon budgets in South Korean forests and for exploring forest management activity impacts in managed forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: CBM-CFS3, Carbon Dynamics, Forest Management, National Forest Inventory, Forest Type Map</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 83-92 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2040-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2040-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2040-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-10-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2040-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: A quick screening to assess the phytoextraction potential of cadmium and copper in Quercus pubescens plantlets http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1999-009 <p><b>Di Santo P, Cocozza C, Tognetti R, Palumbo G, Iorio ED, Paura B</b></p><p><b>A QUICK SCREENING TO ASSESS THE PHYTOEXTRACTION POTENTIAL OF CADMIUM AND COPPER IN QUERCUS PUBESCENS PLANTLETS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The relevance of the environmental pollution by heavy metals warrants the necessity to develop and assess more efficient plant-based technologies. This study was conducted to evaluate a quick screening approach in order to investigate the cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) phytoextraction potential of Quercus pubescens in a micro-propagation system. Increasing concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 50, and 250 µM) and Cu (0, 5, 50, 250 and 500 µM) were separately applied to evaluate the effect of metals on their absorption and accumulation in downy oak plants. At high concentrations, Cd and Cu significantly reduced the dry biomass of shoots and roots and the plant tolerance index. Cd was toxic at increasing concentrations, inducing higher reduction of shoot dry mass than roots, whereas Cu increased dry mass at 5 µM. This study represents the first attempt to assess Cd and Cu uptake in Q. pubescens under in vitro conditions. The in vitro screening potential is meanly related to the following purposes: (i) proper selection of plant materials resilient to excess metals in the growth substrate; (ii) efficient removal of metals by the selected tree species; (iii) minor interference with the growth of plants accumulating metals in their tissues; (iv) rapid provision of plant materials for tree breeding programs.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Heavy Metals, Phytoremediation, Downy Oak, Micropropagation</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 93-98 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1999-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1999-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1999-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2016-10-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1999-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Forecasting the field performance of Austrian pine seedlings using morphological attributes http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1722-009 <p><b>Ivetić V, Grossnickle S, Škorić M</b></p><p><b>FORECASTING THE FIELD PERFORMANCE OF AUSTRIAN PINE SEEDLINGS USING MORPHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study examined whether the morphological attributes of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra ssp. nigra var. nigra Arnold) seedlings measured in the nursery could be used to forecast subsequent field performance over an extended time frame. Seedlings from three seed sources were produced in two types of containers and in bareroot seedbeds. These seedlings were measured for an array of morphological attributes (height, HT; root collar diameter, RCD; shoot height/diameter ratio, HD; shoot and root dry weight, SDW and RDW, respectively; shoot:root ratio, S:R; number of the first order lateral roots, FOLR; and Dickson quality index, DQI) and then planted at two sample plots with different soil depth. Seedling attributes were tested against field survival and growth in the first three years and growth in the twelfth year for their ability to forecast field performance. Correlations between morphological attributes and field performance were stronger for the plot with shallower soil, having potentially drier conditions. HT, HD, and S:R were the best attributes for forecasting seedling survival. HD was the most reliable attribute to forecast growth during the first three years after planting, defining the largest proportion of variation for growth (r2=0.36 to 0.86). Morphological attributes were better able to forecast field performance in the first three years at the shallow soil site, with FOLR the best single morphological variable. HT, DIA, and RDW were the best attributes to forecast growth during the first three years after planting on both sites. Morphological attributes were not able to forecast growth 12 years after planting.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Seedling Quality, Seedling Performance, Reforestation, Pinus nigra</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 99-107 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1722-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1722-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1722-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-10-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1722-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Probabilistic prediction of daily fire occurrence in the Mediterranean with readily available spatio-temporal data http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1686-009 <p><b>Papakosta P, Straub D</b></p><p><b>PROBABILISTIC PREDICTION OF DAILY FIRE OCCURRENCE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN WITH READILY AVAILABLE SPATIO-TEMPORAL DATA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The prediction of wildfire occurrence is an important component of fire management. We have developed probabilistic daily fire prediction models for a Mediterranean region of Europe (Cyprus) at the mesoscale, based on Poisson regression. The models use only readily available spatio-temporal data, which enables their use in an operational setting. Influencing factors included in the models are weather conditions, land cover and human presence. We found that the influence of weather conditions on fire danger in the studied area can be expressed through the FWI component of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. However, the prediction ability of FWI alone was limited. A model that additionally includes land cover types, population density and road density was found to provide significantly improved predictions. We validated the probabilistic prediction provided by the model with a test data set and illustrate it with maps for selected days.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fire Occurrence, Prediction, Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index, Poisson Regression</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 32-40 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1686-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1686-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1686-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-10-06 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1686-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Former charcoal platforms in Mediterranean forest areas: a hostile microhabitat for the recolonization by woody species http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1701-009 <p><b>Carrari E, Ampoorter E, Verheyen K, Coppi A, Selvi F</b></p><p><b>FORMER CHARCOAL PLATFORMS IN MEDITERRANEAN FOREST AREAS: A HOSTILE MICROHABITAT FOR THE RECOLONIZATION BY WOODY SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Production of wood charcoal is a traditional form of forest use that lasted for millennia in the Mediterranean countries. Following their almost complete abandonment in the last century, thousands of old charcoal platforms remain in present-day forest landscapes. These sites are characterized by peculiar ecological conditions, whose effects on the recolonization by woody plants are still unknown. We examined 61 platforms in evergreen sclerophyllous woodlands and deciduous broadleaf forests with oaks and beech, spread over a wide geographic range in Tuscany (Italy). At each site, one kiln plot (on charcoal platform) and one control plot (in the adjacent stand) were established, and soil, light conditions and herb cover were measured. We examined species richness and composition of trees and shrubs in the understorey layer (<1.3 m) and in the “established regeneration” layer (> 1.3-4 m). In the latter, structural parameters such as number of stools, dbh, mean height and number of stems were compared. The density of seedlings of dominant tree species in the understorey was also measured in a subsample of sites per forest type. In the understorey, a general positive effect of kiln platforms was found on species richness at both the habitat and plot-scale level, as well as on species composition, especially in oak forests. Increased light availability, total C content and soil pH were positively related with species richness, while N content was a negative predictor. Density of seedlings was not substantially affected. Contrastingly, woody species richness in the established regeneration layer was considerably lower in the kiln plots of all three forest types. In sclerophyllous forests, all species in this layer were taller, denser and with a higher basal area compared to control plots, while regeneration was completely lacking on platforms of the two other forest types. Soil N content had a positive influence on structural parameters, while total C content resulting from charcoal accumulation had a negative influence. We conclude that charcoal platforms are a favorable microhabitat only in the first regeneration stages of woody species, as their further growth is hindered by long-term effects that should be investigated with an experimental approach.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Charcoal Platforms, Diversity, Forest Recolonization, Mediterranean Area, Tree Regeneration, Species Composition, Woody Species</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 136-144 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1701-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1701-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1701-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-10-06 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1701-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Wind contribution to yearly silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) compression wood development in the Romanian Carpathians http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1742-008 <p><b>Dinulica F, Marcu V, Borz SA, Vasilescu MM, Petritan IC</b></p><p><b>WIND CONTRIBUTION TO YEARLY SILVER FIR (ABIES ALBA MILL.) COMPRESSION WOOD DEVELOPMENT IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Since the 1950s, wind has represented one of the main disturbances to forest ecosystems in Europe, causing an increase in the frequency and amount of trees uprooted or broken by wind. Such phenomenon has also increased the incidence of compression wood in the xylem of remnant trees, thus leading to a general decrease in timber quality. In this study, we aimed to determine how wind regime affects the incidence of compression wood by reconstructing its chronology at both inter- and intra-annual scale using dendroclimatic methods. Six silver fir stands at different elevations were selected in central Romania, and compression wood time series were obtained from both increment cores from standing trees and radial discs from felled trees. Wood-structure variables were statistically analyzed as time series, while fluctuations of wind frequency and speed over the period 1921-present were reconstructed based on meteorological data. The structural response of sampled trees to wind was assessed based on the annual fluctuation in the frequency and intensity of compression wood. Results showed that the incidence of compression wood in the time series was synchronized with the intensity of the wind, rather than its duration. Wind regime in December of the preceding calendar year was significantly correlated with the frequency of compression wood, whereas its intensity was significantly correlated with wind load of previous September. The response of cambium to the wind stimulus increased with distance from the tree collar, peaking in the section at the base of the crown. At a decennial scale, only high-intensity wind stress triggered structural responses in the studied trees. Wind effects on xylogenesis in the analyzed stands increased over the last decades as a consequence of the local forest management. A better understanding of the structural response of forest trees to wind regime may explain how individual and groups of trees compete for stability and can help to improve forest management strategies in windy regions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Reaction Wood, Wind Regime, Dendroclimatology, Silver Fir, Carpathian Mountains</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 927-936 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1742-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1742-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1742-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-10-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1742-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Substrates and nutrient addition rates affect morphology and physiology of Pinus leiophylla seedlings in the nursery stage http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1982-009 <p><b>Buendía Velázquez MV, López López M&, Cetina Alcalá VM, Diakite L</b></p><p><b>SUBSTRATES AND NUTRIENT ADDITION RATES AFFECT MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PINUS LEIOPHYLLA SEEDLINGS IN THE NURSERY STAGE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Production of forest seedlings is expensive mainly due to the use of inputs such as peat moss and fertilizers. Seedling survival in field conditions is low when seedlings with limited internal nutrient reserves are used in low fertility sites. In this work, raw sawdust and exponential fertilization were tested against peat-moss and constant fertilization, the common components of containerized seedling production systems in Mexico. The experiment was carried out under nursery conditions by using a complete randomized experimental design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Two substrates ’€‚ peat-moss (PM) and sawdust (SA) ’€‚ and two nutrient addition rates ’€‚ constant (CR) and exponential (ER) ’€‚ were tested. The response of seedlings was assessed based on diameter at the root collar, seedling height, dry weight (shoot, root, total and 100-needle), Dickson quality index (DQI), slenderness index (SI), and foliar nutrient concentrations and contents. Analysis of variance indicated that the substrate significantly affect all dry weights, with the greatest biomass observed for PM. Similarly, DQI and SI were affected by the substrate, with PM showing the best DQI and highest SI. Neither plant quality variables nor dry weights were affected by nutrient addition rates. Both substrate and nutrient addition rate significantly affected N, P, and K foliar concentrations. At the end of the production cycle, SA promoted higher foliar concentrations of N and P than PM, but not those of K. This suggests that K limited the growth of seedlings in sawdust, likely due to the low capacity of this substrate to adsorb K. ER produced needle concentrations of N, P, and K significantly higher than those of CR (2.65 vs. 2.26 %, 2303 vs. 2011 ppm, and 4235 vs. 3949 ppm, respectively). Our results indicate that ER is likely to give rise to more suited seedlings for outplanting in low fertility sites than CR.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pinus leiophylla, Peat-moss, Sawdust, Constant and Exponential Fertilization Rate</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 115-120 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1982-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1982-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1982-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-10-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1982-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of brassinosteroid application on seed germination of Norway spruce, Scots pine, Douglas fir and English oak http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1578-009 <p><b>Kuneš I, Baláš M, Linda R, Gallo J, Nováková O</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF BRASSINOSTEROID APPLICATION ON SEED GERMINATION OF NORWAY SPRUCE, SCOTS PINE, DOUGLAS FIR AND ENGLISH OAK</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We tested the influence of a synthetically-produced brassinosteroid compound (2α,3α,17βtrihydroxy-5α-androstan-6-one) on seed germination in Norway spruce, Scots pine, Douglas fir and English oak. Before germination, 400 seeds of each species were steeped in a brassinosteroid solution and then placed for germination in a growth chamber under (i) optimal humidity and (ii) temporary drought stress (except for oak). Drought stress significantly reduced the germination capacity and germination rate in the control treatments of Norway spruce, Scots pine and Douglas fir. Nonetheless, the application of brassinosteroid significantly reduced the drought-stress effects in seeds of Norway spruce and Scots pine. The drought-stressed Douglas fir did not respond positively to the brassinosteroid application. English oak was germinated only under the optimal humidity regime and no differences in germination were detected between the control and brassinosteroid-treated acorns.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Plant Hormones, Germination Percentage, Germination Rate, Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 121-127 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1578-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1578-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1578-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-10-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1578-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Growth performance and nitrogen use efficiency of two Populus hybrid clones (P. nigra × P. maximowiczii and P. trichocarpa × P. maximowiczii) in relation to soil depth in a young plantation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2016-009 <p><b>Euring D, Ayegbeni S, Jansen M, Tu J, Gomes Da Silva C, Polle A</b></p><p><b>GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY OF TWO POPULUS HYBRID CLONES (P. NIGRA × P. MAXIMOWICZII AND P. TRICHOCARPA × P. MAXIMOWICZII) IN RELATION TO SOIL DEPTH IN A YOUNG PLANTATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: It is a challenge to produce woody crops on marginal land. The goal of this study was to examine growth responses and nitrogen use efficiency of different poplar species on shallow soil. Typical biomass poplar clones of Max1 (P. nigra × P. maximowiczii) and H275 (P. trichocarpa × P. maximowiczii) were planted on a marginal site where a gradient in soil depth was present. The growth, biomass production, and nitrogen uptake rate as well as nitrogen use efficiency of Max1 and H275 were determined for three consecutive years. Both poplar clones showed decreased growth and biomass production in the shallow soil regions. Max1 showed better adaptation to shallow soil with higher survival rate and more biomass production than H275. Max1 had lower nitrogen use efficiency on shallow soil than H275. The results suggest that higher nitrogen uptake of poplar species might be an important adaptation to maintain productivity under unfavorable soil conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Poplar, Shallow Soil</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 847-854 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2016-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2016-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2016-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-09-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2016-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Modeling air pollutant removal, carbon storage, and CO2 sequestration potential of urban forests in Scotlandville, Louisiana, USA http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1845-009 <p><b>Ning ZH, Chambers R, Abdollahi K</b></p><p><b>MODELING AIR POLLUTANT REMOVAL, CARBON STORAGE, AND CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF URBAN FORESTS IN SCOTLANDVILLE, LOUISIANA, USA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Understanding an urban forest’s structure, function, and value can promote management decisions that will improve environmental quality and human health. Using i-Tree Eco software and its sampling and data collection protocol, an assessment of the baseline condition, ecological function, and value of the urban forests in Scotlandville (Louisiana, USA) was conducted during 2014. A stratified (by land use type) random sample plot map of the town was generated. Data from 170 field plots located throughout Scotlandville were collected, including tree species, diameter at breast height, total tree height, height to live top, height to crown base, crown width, crown dieback, crown light exposure, percent impervious surface under the tree, and direction and distance to building. Data were then entered into i-Tree Eco v5.0 and analyzed. Modeling results indicated that there are a total of 31 species and an estimated 239.000 trees in Scotlandville with a tree canopy cover of 23.7 percent; the three most common species are Black willow (Salix nigra), Water oak (Quercus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana); the overall tree density is 77 trees per hectare and trees with diameters of more than 15 cm (6 inches) constitute 56.5% of the population. The model estimated that annually, the urban forests in Scotlandville remove 96 tons of air pollutants; gross sequestration is about 3.880 tons of carbon and net carbon sequestration is about 3.650 tons. Each year, trees in Scotlandville are estimated to store 88.700 tons of carbon, produce 9.720 tons of oxygen, reduce runoff by 121.200 m3, reduce energy-related costs by $324.000 USD, and provide an additional $52.595 in value by reducing the amount of carbon released by power plants (a reduction of 739 tons of carbon emissions). The structural value for Scotlandville community forest is estimated at $185 million and the annual ecological functional value is estimated at 9 million USD. These results provide baseline information for management recommendations to maximize the ecological benefits provided by trees.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Urban Forest, Pollution Removal, Carbon Sequestration, Carbon Storage, Runoff Reduction, Energy Saving, Climate Change</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 860-867 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1845-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1845-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1845-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-09-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1845-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Carbohydrate metabolism during new root growth in transplanted Larix olgensis seedlings: post-transplant response to nursery-applied inorganic fertilizer and organic amendment http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1988-009 <p><b>Wei H, Guo P</b></p><p><b>CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM DURING NEW ROOT GROWTH IN TRANSPLANTED LARIX OLGENSIS SEEDLINGS: POST-TRANSPLANT RESPONSE TO NURSERY-APPLIED INORGANIC FERTILIZER AND ORGANIC AMENDMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Sustainable agriculture often requires the incorporation of organic matter into cultural protocols as an amendment to mitigate problems caused by chemical inputs, but the responses of transplanted seedlings to such additions have not been well quantified. In this study, bare-root Changbai larch (Larix olgensis Henry) seedlings were applied with 100 or 200 kg nitrogen (N) ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer with or without chicken manure added at a rate of 10.000 kg ha-1 during nursery cultivation, obtaining four treatment combinations designated as F100+, F200+, F100-, and F200-, respectively. Over-winter seedlings were transplanted into pots and placed in a growth chamber, where the carbohydrate metabolism, biomass accumulation, root respiration, and new root number were quantified. Both initial soluble sugar and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation were the lowest in the F100+ treatment. However, two months later, root soluble sugar content was the highest in this treatment, while coarse-root (diameter > 2mm) carbohydrate content was the highest in the low rate of inorganic fertilizer treatment. During the two-month post-transplant period, the net carbohydrate accumulation rate (NCAR) for starch was negative for all treatments, but the NCAR value for soluble sugars was the highest in the F100+ treatment at both the root and whole-plant scales. Relative to the F200- treatment, the NCAR value for soluble sugars, final sugar content, and biomass accumulation in coarse roots, respiration rate of fine roots (diameter ≤ 2 mm), and new root number were all greater in the F100+ treatment, while new root number was increased by organic matter additions. In conclusion, the use of chicken manure as an organic amendment had the potential to enhance transplanted larch seedling performance by improving post-transplant new root number, but this application must be considered within the context of the interaction between organic amendment treatments and inorganic fertilizer applications.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Changbai Larch, Organic Additive, Mineral Fertilizer, New Root Egress, Starch, Soluble Sugars</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 15-22 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1988-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1988-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1988-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-09-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1988-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in black poplar roots after defoliation by a non-native and a native insect http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1911-009 <p><b>Zampieri E, Petrucco Toffolo E, Mello A, Giorcelli A, Faccoli M, Balestrini R, Gonthier P</b></p><p><b>ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION IN BLACK POPLAR ROOTS AFTER DEFOLIATION BY A NON-NATIVE AND A NATIVE INSECT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A major goal in ecology is to understand how interactions among organisms influence ecosystem services. This work compares the effects of two Lepidoptera defoliators, one non-native (Hyphantria cunea) and one native (Lymantria dispar) to Europe, on the colonization of black poplar (the Populus nigra clone “Jean Pourtet”) roots by an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiotic fungus (Funneliformis mosseae) in a pot experiment. The effects of defoliation have also been assessed on the expression of fungal and plant genes playing a role during symbiosis. Both control and defoliated poplars have shown a low level of mycorrhization. Additionally, neither the non-native nor the native insect seem to strongly affect the AM colonization, at least at the time of observation (eight days from the end of the defoliation). Concerning the gene expression analysis, our results suggest that defoliation does not influence neither the expression of genes coding for a fungal and a plant phosphate transporter nor that of a gene coding for a fungal ATPase, and that there were no differences between defoliation carried out by the non-native and the native insect.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Exotic, Defoliators, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, qPCR, Poplar, Gene Expression</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 868-874 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1911-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1911-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1911-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-08-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1911-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Are the new gridded DSM/DTMs of the Piemonte Region (Italy) proper for forestry? A fast and simple approach for a posteriori metric assessment http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1992-009 <p><b>Borgogno Mondino E, Fissore V, Lessio A, Motta R</b></p><p><b>ARE THE NEW GRIDDED DSM/DTMS OF THE PIEMONTE REGION (ITALY) PROPER FOR FORESTRY? A FAST AND SIMPLE APPROACH FOR A POSTERIORI METRIC ASSESSMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Aerial LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) derived data are widely adopted for the study and characterization of forests. In particular, LiDAR derived-CHM (Canopy Height Model) has proved essential in identifying tree height variability and estimating many forest features such as biomass and wood volume. However, CHM quality may be affected by internal limits and anomalies caused by raw data (point cloud) processing (i.e., vertical errors), which are quite often disregarded by users, thus generating potentially erroneous results in their applications. In this work, an auto-consistent procedure for the fast evaluation of CHM accuracy has been developed based on the assessment of internal anomalies affecting CHM data obtained by differencing gridded DSM (Digital Surface Model) and DTM (Digital Terrain Model). To this purpose, a CHM was generated using the gridded DTMs and DSMs provided by the Cartographic Office of the Piemonte Region (north-western Italy). We estimated the local potential CHM error over the whole region, and demonstrated its strictly dependence on the terrain morphometry, particularly slope. The relationship between potential CHM error and slope was modeled separately for mountain, hill and flat terrain contexts, and used to produce a potential error map over the whole region. Our results showed that approximately 20% of the regional territory suffers from CHM uncertainty (in particular high elevation areas, including the treeline), though the majority of regional forest categories was affected by negligible CHM error. The potential consequences of CHM error in forest applications were evaluated, concluding that the tested LiDAR dataset provide a reliable basis for forest applications in most of the regional territory.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: ALS, LiDAR, CHM, Data Quality, Vertical Errors, Slope Effect, Forest Applications</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 901-909 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1992-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1992-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1992-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-08-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1992-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Growth of Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) European provenances in central Chile http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1984-009 <p><b>Loewe Muñoz V, Balzarini M, Delard Rodríguez C, Álvarez Contreras A, Navarro-Cerrillo RM</b></p><p><b>GROWTH OF STONE PINE (PINUS PINEA L.) EUROPEAN PROVENANCES IN CENTRAL CHILE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Pinus pinea is characterized by phenotypic plasticity, tolerance to harsh soils and climates, but low differentiation in growth parameters and low genetic variability. Growth and cone production of six European stone pine provenances (two from Italy, three from Spain and one from Slovenia) were analyzed in a field trial experiment established in central Chile. The study evaluated height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and crown diameter growth of 147 nineteen-year-old trees per provenance, as well as fruiting variables (i.e., number of cones per tree and cone weight). Survival over the first 7 years was also evaluated. Provenances significantly differed in cone number per tree, cone weight, height and DBH growth, and crown diameter growth. Provenances were grouped according to growth and production variables: one group included the Italian and Slovenian provenances, the second group Andalucía and Sierra Morena (Spain), and the third included Meseta Castellana (Spain). Individual cone production was positively correlated with cone weight and other growth variables. Meseta Castellana provenance showed the highest growth and productivity. Our results provide useful information for the selection of P. pinea provenances to be used in new plantations in central Chile.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cone Productivity, Growth, Provenances, Stone Pine Plantations</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 64-69 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1984-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1984-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1984-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2016-08-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1984-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Diurnal dynamics of water transport, storage and hydraulic conductivity in pine trees under seasonal drought http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2046-009 <p><b>Klein T, Cohen S, Paudel I, Preisler Y, Rotenberg E, Yakir D</b></p><p><b>DIURNAL DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT, STORAGE AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY IN PINE TREES UNDER SEASONAL DROUGHT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The temporal dynamics of water transport and storage in plants have major implications for plant functioning and survival. In trees, stress on the conductive tissue can be moderated by water storage. Yet, trees can survive high percent loss of conductivity (PLC, up to 80%), suggesting efficient recovery. We assess the role of tree water storage and PLC recovery based on simultaneous measurements of leaf transpiration, branch hydraulic conductivity, and stem sap-flow from different seasons in three study years in mature Pinus halepensis (Miller) trees in a semi-arid forest. During the wet season the rates of transpiration (T) and sap flow (SF) peaked at high morning and through the mid-day. During the dry season T peaked at ~9:00 and then decreased, whereas SF lagged T and fully compensated for it only in the evening, resulting in a mid-day water deficit of ~5 kg tree-1, and with up to 33% of daily T derived from storage. PLC of 30-40% developed during mid-day and subsequently recovered to near zero within 2-3 hr in the dry season (May, June, and September), but not in the wet season (January). The observed temporal decoupling between leaf water loss and soil water recharge is consistent with optimization of the trees’ water and gas exchange economy, while apparently facilitating their survival in the semi-arid conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cavitation Reversal, Sap Flow, Semi-arid, Water Deficit, Xylem Embolism.</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 710-719 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2046-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2046-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2046-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-08-21 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor2046-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Relationships between overstory and understory structure and diversity in semi-natural mixed floodplain forests at Bosco Fontana (Italy) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1789-009 <p><b>Chianucci F, Minari E, Fardusi MJ, Merlini P, Cutini A, Corona P, Mason F</b></p><p><b>RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OVERSTORY AND UNDERSTORY STRUCTURE AND DIVERSITY IN SEMI-NATURAL MIXED FLOODPLAIN FORESTS AT BOSCO FONTANA (ITALY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The “Bosco Fontana” natural reserve includes the last remaining mixed floodplain forest in northern Italy and one of the most endangered ecosystems in Europe. Its effective management is hindered by the complexity of interactions of mixed-tree species and the influence of environmental factors on understory plant diversity. In this study we analyzed the patterns of natural evolution in semi-natural floodplain forest stands at Bosco Fontana with the aim of better understanding its current natural processes and dynamics. Stand structure, taxonomic and functional diversity, species composition, and leaf area index (LAI) of overstory and understory layers were surveyed in permanent plots over two inventory years (1995, 2005). The influence of environmental factors on understory plant diversity was assessed using Ellenberg’s indices for light, soil moisture, soil nutrient and soil reaction. Results indicated that overstory species composition varies according to the soil moisture, with hornbeam prevailing in xeric sites and deciduous oak species in mesic sites. Xeric sites showed high functional dispersion in both drought and shade tolerant traits, while it was significantly lower in both overstory and understory in the moist site. Functional dispersion of drought tolerance in the overstory and understory layers was positively correlated, while species richness was negatively correlated between the two layers. Diversity in the understory was mainly correlated with soil conditions. Understory LAI was positively correlated with overstory LAI in xeric and mesic plots, while no correlations were found in the moist plot. Overall, our results suggest that site conditions (soil conditions and water availability) are the major drivers of understory and overstory dynamics in the study forest. Hence, local site conditions and the understory should be carefully considered in the management of mixed floodplain forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Deciduous Forests, Functional Diversity, Diversity Measure, Hemispherical Photography, Leaf Area Index</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 919-926 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1789-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1789-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1789-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-08-21 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1789-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Methods for biomass stock estimation in Mediterranean maquis systems http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1769-009 <p><b>Sirca C, Caddeo A, Spano D, Bacciu V, Marras S</b></p><p><b>METHODS FOR BIOMASS STOCK ESTIMATION IN MEDITERRANEAN MAQUIS SYSTEMS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: As a result of Kyoto Protocol agreements, the scientific community increased its efforts to enhance the availability of biomass and organic carbon stock data in forest ecosystems. Nevertheless, a considerable data shortage has been recognized in estimating the stock of above-ground biomass (AGB) in Mediterranean maquis systems. This work aims at contributing in addressing such shortage by testing quick and non-disruptive methods to estimate the AGB stock in maquis species. Two methodologies were tested in three widespread sclerophyllous evergreen species (Pistacia lentiscus, Euphorbia dendroides, and Cystus monspeliensis). Both methodologies were based on the estimation of the apparent volume (AV): the first one assumed the shrub shape (or canopy) to be similar to a regular tridimensional solid, while the second method was based on plant digital images analysis. Results showed some differences in AV values estimated through the two methodologies, although a high correlation was found between them (R2 = 0.92-0.98) and with the AGB weight obtained from plant samples (R2 = 0.89-0.96). As a consequence, the shrubs apparent density values (i.e., weight/AV) vary depending on the method used for AV estimation. This should be taken into account when AV is used for AGB estimation. Besides, measurements of above-ground biomass were carried out to characterize the studied area. Results showed high variability in AGB values, ranging from 7.04 to 48.05 Mg ha-1 of dry matter.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Shrubland, Allometric Equations, Above Ground Biomass, Apparent Volume</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 108-114 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1769-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1769-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1769-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-08-21 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1769-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Integrating forest-based industry and forest resource modeling http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1961-009 <p><b>Jonsson R, Rinaldi F, Räty M, Sallnäs O</b></p><p><b>INTEGRATING FOREST-BASED INDUSTRY AND FOREST RESOURCE MODELING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper introduces a modeling approach for the assessment of policy options within the forest-based bioeconomy. The feedback between the forestry dynamics model and the economic model of the global forest-based sector of the proposed framework is essential, not only for response analysis as to the development of forest resources and for a correct assessment of future harvesting potentials, but also for the assessment of the impact of different management regimes on wood-based product markets. Test runs of the modeling framework on a Swedish case highlight the necessity of considering timber assortments for a comprehensive integration of forest resources and wood-based commodity market dynamics. Hence, the composition of harvest demand in terms of timber assortment affects the allocation of harvesting activities and, consequently, the development of forest resources (and thus future harvest potentials), as well as the production, trade and consumption of wood-based products.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Policy, Bioeconomy, Wood-based Products, Market, Forest Resources</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 743-750 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1961-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1961-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1961-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-08-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1961-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Tolerance to heavy metal stress in seedlings of three pine species from contrasting environmental conditions in Chile http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1908-009 <p><b>Arencibia AD, Rodríguez C, Roco L, Vergara C, González-Soto N, García-González R</b></p><p><b>TOLERANCE TO HEAVY METAL STRESS IN SEEDLINGS OF THREE PINE SPECIES FROM CONTRASTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN CHILE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tolerance to metal stress was studied in seedlings of three pine species (Pinus radiata, P. pinaster and P. canariensis) under controlled ex vitro conditions. Mature female cones were randomly collected at two sites in Chile (Llico and Huilquilemu) characterized by contrasting environmental conditions. One-year-old pine seedlings were immersed in trays with solutions of CuSO4 (300 mM) or AlCl3 (100 mM), and their survival, growth rate and decay symptoms were recorded for 60 days. Results showed large differences among provenances in seedling tolerance to CuSO4 and AlCl3 in terms of survival and growth. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association (p <0.0001) between the first canonical function and the following variables: provenance, species, metal stress and growing rate, as well as between the second canonical function and provenance, species, metal stress and symptomatology, indicating a high degree of genotype-environment interaction. Moreover, the activity of POX, SOD and CAT enzymes was determined 60 days after the beginning of the experiment in the Llico provenance seedlings. P. pinaster showed the highest activity level for all the enzymes considered, while P. canariensis and P. radiata had intermediate and lowest values, respectively. Differential gene expression among pine seedlings under metal stress with CuSO4 for two genes (Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase and RuBisCo) confirmed P. pinaster as the most tolerant species to CuSO4 treatment. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that abiotic stress in the maternal environment can induce a “transgenerational plasticity” which could affect progeny performances. The influence of different genetic backgrounds on the tolerance to heavy metals in pine seedlings is also discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pinus spp., Heavy Metals, Abiotic Stresses, Genotype-Environment Interaction</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 937-945 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1908-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1908-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1908-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-08-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1908-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Opportunities for coppice management at the landscape level: the Italian experience http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1865-009 <p><b>Mairota P, Manetti MC, Amorini E, Pelleri F, Terradura M, Frattegiani M, Savini P, Grohmann F, Mori P, Terzuolo PG, Piussi P</b></p><p><b>OPPORTUNITIES FOR COPPICE MANAGEMENT AT THE LANDSCAPE LEVEL: THE ITALIAN EXPERIENCE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Coppice silviculture has a long tradition in Italy. Societal demands have led to the development of forest management techniques for integrating wood production with other kinds of forest uses and regulations have been issued to limit forest degradation. In Italy, 35% of the national forest cover is currently managed under coppice silvicultural systems that provide 66% of the annual wood production. Fuel-wood demand is increasing and a large amount of fuel-wood is currently imported in Italy. Modern coppice practices differ from those adopted in the past and may have a reduced impact on ecosystem characteristics and processes. Nevertheless, coppice silviculture has a bad reputation mostly on grounds that are beyond economic, technical and ecological rationales. Neither cessation of use nor a generalized conversion from coppice to high forest are likely to respond simultaneously to the many demands deriving from complex and articulated political and economic perspectives operating at global, European, national, regional and forest stand-level scales. Different approaches of modern silviculture to coppice successfully tested in Italy for more than a decade are illustrated. We propose to combine different options at the stand and sub-stand level, including either development without human interference or conversion to high forest, and to apply these approaches within the framework of novel forest management plans and regionally consistent administrative procedures. This bottom-up approach represents a potential solution to the socio-economic and environmental challenges affecting coppicing as a silvicultural system.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biodiversity, Coppice Silviculture, Environmental Change, Landscape, Socio-economic Dynamics, Sustainable Forest Management</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 775-782 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1865-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1865-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1865-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2016-08-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1865-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Tree-oriented silviculture: a new approach for coppice stands http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1827-009 <p><b>Manetti MC, Becagli C, Sansone D, Pelleri F</b></p><p><b>TREE-ORIENTED SILVICULTURE: A NEW APPROACH FOR COPPICE STANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tree-oriented silviculture is an innovative approach of forest management aimed at enhancing a limited number of early-selected crop trees whose growth is favored over the full rotation period by applying frequent thinning in their neighborhood. This approach was originally applied to high forests, but can also be applied to coppices to maintain or improve biodiversity by selecting valuable timber trees and/or minority species as target trees. The main limitation of this silvicultural option is the need of specialized and qualified operators in all the phases, from selection of crop trees to logging operations. In this study, experimental trials were established by the Forest Research Centre of Arezzo (Italy) to verify the suitability of this approach to different structural and enviromental conditions. In coppices characterized by fast growing species such as chestnut, tree-oriented silviculture has been applied to a limited number of crop trees (50-100 ha) to obtain more valuable and larger-sized assortments in a shorter rotation period, reducing at the same time the silvicultural costs. In mixed coppices, where the ordinary management (coppicing) was applied, the abandonment or the conversion into high forest gave rise to a progressive loss in terms of species composition. Contrastingly, thinning focused around a few (5-20) trees of sporadic species allowed to maintain a high level of biodiversity, and led to favorable conditions for growth and regeneration of these species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tree-oriented Silviculture, Valuable Timber, Biodiversity, Thinning Practice</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 791-800 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1827-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1827-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1827-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-08-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1827-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The losses of condensed tannins in six foliar litters vary with gap position and season in an alpine forest http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1738-009 <p><b>Li H, Wu F, Yang W, Xu L, Ni X, He J, Tan B, Hu Y, Justin MF</b></p><p><b>THE LOSSES OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN SIX FOLIAR LITTERS VARY WITH GAP POSITION AND SEASON IN AN ALPINE FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Condensed tannins (CTs) have been considered to be intrinsic variables that determine litter decomposition. Forest gaps and the surrounding crown canopies may locally influence the microenvironmental factors, thus affecting the losses of CTs from litter. However, little information is available about the dynamics of CTs loss in forest gaps. In this study, litterbags containing foliar litter of Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana), red birch (Betula albosinensis), Masters larch (Larix mastersiana), cypress (Sabina saltuaria), Kangding willow (Salix paraplesia), and Lapland azalea (Rhododendron lapponicum), were placed on the forest floor at differet positions from the gap center to the closed canopy in the alpine Minjiang fir forest located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the eastern Tibetan Plateau (China). The samples were retrieved during the periods of snow formation, snow cover, snow melt and in the growing season, and the CTs content was measured at each time point. During the first year, all six types of foliar litter experienced high losses of CTs with values ranging from 70.18% to 96.67%. Forest gaps accelerated litter CTs losses in the winter but inhibited CTs losses in the growing season, which demonstrated significant seasonal differences. Additionally, the litter of conifers exhibited greater CTs losses in the winter, especially during the snow formation period, whereas the litter of broadleaved trees showed greater CTs losses during the growing season. These results indicate that the predicted reductions in snow depth resulting from future winter warming and the loss of forest gaps due to forest regeneration will inhibit the decomposition of CTs in the litter of alpine forest ecosystems, which will slow soil carbon sequestration from foliar litter in cold biomes.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Gap, Condensed Tannins, Foliar Litter, Seasonal Snowpack, Alpine Forest</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 910-918 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1738-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1738-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1738-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-08-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1738-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Trade-offs and spatial variation of functional traits of tree species in a subtropical forest in southern Brazil http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1960-009 <p><b>Missio FDF, Higuchi P, Silva ACD, Longhi SJ, Salami B, Dalla Rosa A, Buzzi-Junior F, Ferreira TDS, Koche Marcon A, Bento MA</b></p><p><b>TRADE-OFFS AND SPATIAL VARIATION OF FUNCTIONAL TRAITS OF TREE SPECIES IN A SUBTROPICAL FOREST IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Plant functional traits have been recognized as important factors related to the ecological strategies of species in forest ecosystems. We examined the relationships between functional traits and both tree species performance and environmental conditions in a subtropical forest in Brazil. Over four years (2008-2012), we investigated how demographic rates were related to functional traits (wood density, leaf area and tree height) of 20 species sampled within 50 plots of 10 × 20 m, which had previously evaluated as to environmental conditions. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to order the species by their functional traits. The demographic rates were fit a posteriori to the ordination, with significant rates (p < 0.05) plotted as vectors. The relationships between environmental conditions and the community-weighted means (CWMs) of trait values were verified using redundancy analysis. CWM wood density was positively correlated with soil pH. CWM leaf area and CWM maximum tree height were both negatively correlated with altitude and positively correlated with soil magnesium (Mg) content. The taller species with lower wood density, which occupied the forest canopy, had a greater diameter increment and lower recruitment than did the shortest species with higher wood density. The shorter species with higher wood density, which occupied the understory, had greater recruitment and a greater increase in abundance than did the taller/lower-wood-density species. Our study (i) revealed changes in the forest related to the light environment, with an increase in the relative participation of shade-tolerant species with higher wood densities, and (ii) detected small-scale spatial variation in community traits as a response to variations in soil chemical properties and topography.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Araucaria Forest, Atlantic Forest, Environmental Heterogeneity, Multivariate Analysis</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 855-859 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1960-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1960-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1960-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-07-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1960-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Evergreen species response to Mediterranean climate stress factors http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1848-009 <p><b>Gratani L, Catoni R, Varone L</b></p><p><b>EVERGREEN SPECIES RESPONSE TO MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE STRESS FACTORS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Recent climatic projections predict a decline in rainfall mainly during the summer period and an increase in air temperature for the Mediterranean basin, resulting in extended periods of soil water deficit. Mediterranean evergreen species attain drought resistance through different traits or combination of traits. The main objective of this research is to analyze the response of the evergreen species co-occurring in the Mediterranean maquis to variations in water availability and air temperature during the year. The results show that leaf structural traits significantly affect physiological traits as confirmed by the Partial Least Squares Regression analysis (PLS). In particular, the considered species have a similar leaf respiration (RL) trend during the year with the lowest rates in winter (mean 0.95 ± 0.44 µmol m-2 s-1) and the highest in drought (mean 3.05 ± 0.96 µmol m-2 s-1). Nevertheless, a different RL effect on gross photosynthesis (PG) during drought was observed. C. incanus, E. multiflora, R. officinalis and S. aspera have the highest RL/PG ratio (mean 0.54 ± 0.08), while Q. ilex, P. latifolia, P. lentiscus, A. unedo and E. arborea have the lowest (mean 0.22 ± 0.07). RL/PG ratio variations depend on the sensitivity of both the two parameters to drought. Considering the increase of the length and intensity of drought in the Mediterranean basin, and that the photosynthesis of Mediterranean evergreen species is frequently limited by sub-optimal conditions (i.e., water deficit, high light intensity and high air temperature), it is important to improve knowledge on RL, since it has a critical function in modulating carbon balance of Mediterranean species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Global Climate Change, Mediterranean Evergreen Species, Net Photosynthesis, Gross Photosynthesis, Leaf Respiration</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 946-953 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1848-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1848-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1848-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-07-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1848-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Age trends in genetic parameters for growth and quality traits in Abies alba http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1766-009 <p><b>Mihai G, Mirancea I</b></p><p><b>AGE TRENDS IN GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR GROWTH AND QUALITY TRAITS IN ABIES ALBA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Genetic parameters for growth, stem straightness, survival, wood density and percentage of late wood were estimated in a progeny test of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) established in Romania in 1980. The experiment was conducted on 95 families collected from 10 natural stands and five provenance regions, and trait measurements were taken 6-34 years after planting. The family effect was highly significant for 14 traits and significant for one trait. The additive genetic variance increased with age for all the studied traits, and family heritability was higher than individual heritability. Stem diameter, volume per tree, wood density and late wood were the traits with the highest heritability. The trend of individual and half-sib family heritability estimates decreased between 6 and 15 years of age for height and between 6 and 10 years for diameter, while both height and diameter heritabilities were stable at older ages. High age-age genetic correlations were observed, though genetic correlations between growth and wood density were weak. Selection at age 6-10 could increase genetic gain in volume in mature silver fir trees. Selection based on family breeding values combined with within-family selection is recommended to maximize genetic gain in breeding activities in silver fir.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Age-age Correlations, Genetic Gain, Heritability, Optimum Age, Progeny Trial, Silver Fir</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 954-959 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1766-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1766-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1766-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-07-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1766-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Emerging pests and diseases threaten Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations in Sardinia, Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1805-009 <p><b>Deidda A, Buffa F, Linaldeddu BT, Pinna C, Scanu B, Deiana V, Satta A, Franceschini A, Floris I</b></p><p><b>EMERGING PESTS AND DISEASES THREATEN EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS PLANTATIONS IN SARDINIA, ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The rapid growth and environmental adaptability of Eucalyptus species has favored their global cultivation for pulpwood production. On the island of Sardinia, Italy, eucalypt plantations were established in the 20th century primarily in areas reclaimed from marshland, but the trees are now grown all over the island as ornamentals or windbreaks, and for timber, pulp and honey production. In recent years, an unusual decline and mortality of unknown etiology has been observed in Eucalyptus camaldulensis (river red gum) plantations throughout the island. Given the ecological and economic importance of eucalypt ecosystems in Sardinia, a survey was carried out in 2013 to determine which insect pests and fungal pathogens are directly involved in these phenomena. Field surveys throughout the island revealed severe infestations with the red gum lerp psyllid (Glycaspis brimblecombei) at all 12 surveyed sites, with the greatest numbers of pre-imaginal stages and adults occurring between May and July. The adult population reached its peak in July, followed 2 months later by the peak population of its specific parasitoid, Psyllaephagus bliteus. Symptoms of leaf chlorosis, crown thinning, shoot and branch dieback, sunken cankers, epicormic shoots and exudations of kino gum were also observed at the 12 field sites. Symptomatic woody samples yielded fungal isolates representing three distinct families: Botryosphaeriaceae, Diaporthaceae and Valsaceae. Morphological and DNA sequence data revealed seven distinct fungal species, namely Diaporthe foeniculina, Neofusicoccum australe, N. luteum, N. mediterraneum, N. parvum, N. vitifusiforme and Valsa fabianae. Two putative new species of Cytospora were also identified. Neofusicoccum australe was the only species recovered from all 12 sites, with isolation frequencies of 51-95%. Pathogenicity trials revealed that all Neofusicoccum species except N. vitifusiforme are directly involved in the etiology of the observed decline in the E. camaldulensis population on Sardinia.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Timber Industries, Exotic Species, Biosecurity, Invasive Pathogens and Insects</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 883-891 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1805-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1805-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1805-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-06-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1805-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Nitrogen deposition and its impact on forest ecosystems in the Czech Republic - change in soil chemistry and ground vegetation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1847-009 <p><b>Novotný R, Buriánek V, Šrámek V, Hunová I, Skorepová I, Zapletal M, Lomský B</b></p><p><b>NITROGEN DEPOSITION AND ITS IMPACT ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC - CHANGE IN SOIL CHEMISTRY AND GROUND VEGETATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A repeated soil survey (1995 and 2006) on 66 ICP Forests pair plots in the Czech Republic revealed a significant relationship between modeled nitrogen deposition and nitrogen concentration in the soil. Nitrogen deposition was modeled for the years 1995, 2004 and 2006. We found a more significant relationship between deposition data in 2004 and soil data in 2006 than between deposition and soil data from the same year 2006. Concentration of total nitrogen in forest soil increased from 1995 to 2006. Forest soil showed effects of increased nitrogen input from the humus layer to around 20 cm depth of mineral soil. The occurrence and cover of nitrophilous species in the herb layer increased from 1995 to 2006 in 25% of the analyzed plots, which corresponds to the nitrogen increase in forest soil. The results suggest that nitrogen deposition still represents a threat for Czech forest ecosystems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Nitrogen Deposition, Soil Chemistry, Ground Vegetation, Ecosystem Changes, Norway Spruce</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 48-54 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1847-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1847-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1847-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-06-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1847-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Physical and mechanical properties of particleboards manufactured using charcoal as additives http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1963-009 <p><b>Kowaluk G, Zajac M, Czubak E, Auriga R</b></p><p><b>PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEBOARDS MANUFACTURED USING CHARCOAL AS ADDITIVES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The objective of this work was to evaluate selected physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboards manufactured from pine and spruce with charcoal particles in their core layer. For all the manufactured boards the average density was 750 kg m-3, while the mass share of charcoal in the core layer was changed (0%, 10% and 50%). The manufactured panels were tested with respect to their mechanical and physical properties, including formaldehyde emission. The results indicated that the share of charcoal significantly influenced mechanical properties, swelling, and water relations of the boards. In addition, a test on formaldehyde emission from panels were carried out, which revealed that the charcoal share has a considerable impact on the amount of formaldehyde released by the manufactured boards. The 50% content of charcoal caused about 80% reduction of formaldehyde emission.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Charcoal, Particleboard, Filler, Bending, Formaldehyde, Emission</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 70-74 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1963-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1963-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1963-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-06-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1963-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The response of intra-annual stem circumference increase of young European beech provenances to 2012-2014 weather variability http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1829-009 <p><b>Ježík M, Blaženec M, Kučera J, Strelcová K, Ditmarová L</b></p><p><b>THE RESPONSE OF INTRA-ANNUAL STEM CIRCUMFERENCE INCREASE OF YOUNG EUROPEAN BEECH PROVENANCES TO 2012-2014 WEATHER VARIABILITY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather events, especially droughts, arising from on-going climate changes negatively affect productivity and stability of forest ecosystems. Understanding species responses and suitable ecotypes that are able of adapting to new environmental conditions is increasingly important. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationships between the inter-annual stem circumference increase (SCI) of five European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances and weather variability during 2012-2014 in a provenance trial located in central Slovakia. SCIs were extracted on daily and weekly scale from hourly data of circumference changes. To detect the main environmental factors influencing SCI seasonal dynamics, intra-seasonal moving correlation functions were calculated. All five provenances responded synchronously to weather conditions, with high correlations among them during the growing season on both daily and weekly scale. The photoperiod exhibited a synchronizing effect on the seasonal peak of SCI as a sign of tree adaptation to long-term seasonal variations in climate. Temperature was the most significant factor influencing SCI dynamics at the beginning of the season. During the summer months, a precipitation deficit, heat waves and the consequently decreased soil water potential significantly affected the SCI of young beech trees, despite the fact that the provenance plot was situated in an area of optimum beech growth. Not only the severity and duration were important but also the timing of drought within a season. Within all seasons, the lowest SCI values were recorded for the provenance from the lowest altitude and the most oceanic climate (northern Germany). A comparison of daily and weekly SCI with first derivatives of growth functions indicated that SCIs were closely related to theoretical incremental processes, especially on a weekly scale. In young beech trees, SCI seemed to represent an appropriate proxy for studying intra-seasonal incremental processes. A newly designed SASB (self adjusting sharp beginning) function fit these processes better than the Gompertz function.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Stem Circumference Increase, Provenances, Fagus sylvatica, Weather Variables, Soil Water Potential</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 960-969 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1829-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1829-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1829-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-06-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1829-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Integration between TLS and UAV photogrammetry techniques for forestry applications http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1780-009 <p><b>Aicardi I, Dabove P, Lingua AM, Piras M</b></p><p><b>INTEGRATION BETWEEN TLS AND UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUES FOR FORESTRY APPLICATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forests are significant resources from an ecological, economic and social point of view. Their protection and management could greatly benefit from a complete knowledge of the shape and distribution of trees in forest stands. To this purpose, aerial surveys, especially through Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), were carried out in the last years to acquire point clouds to be used in 3D models aimed at achieving an accurate description of tree crowns and terrain. However, airborne data acquisition is expensive and may provide poor results in case of dense foliage. Further, point cloud resolution is not very high, as models with a grid of 2-3 m are usually obtained. In order to implement more accurate 3D forest models, a feasible solution is the integration of point clouds obtained by aerial acquisition (ALS or photogrammetry) for the treetops and the terrain description, with information from terrestrial surveys. In this paper, we investigated the possible integration of point clouds obtained by Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) with those collected by photogrammetric 3D models based on images captured by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in a test site located in northern Italy, with the aim of creating an accurate dataset of the forest site with high resolution and precision. The limits of ALS and TLS were bridged by aerial photogrammetry at low altitude (and vice versa). A 3D model of the study area was obtained with a resolution of 5 cm and a precision of 3 cm. Such model may be used in a wide range of applications in forestry studies, e.g., the reconstruction of 3D shapes of trees or the analysis of tree growth throught time. The implications of the use of such integrate approach as a support tool for decision-making in forest management are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Data Integration, Forestry, Laser Scanner, Photogrammetry, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, GNSS</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 41-47 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1780-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1780-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1780-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Reports 2016-06-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1780-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Physiological performance and growth of Viburnum tinus L. on phytoremediated sediments for plant nursing purpose http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1840-009 <p><b>Ugolini F, Calzolari C, Lanini GM, Massetti L, Sabatini F, Ungaro F, Damiano S, Izquierdo CG, Macci C, Masciandaro G</b></p><p><b>PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AND GROWTH OF VIBURNUM TINUS L. ON PHYTOREMEDIATED SEDIMENTS FOR PLANT NURSING PURPOSE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Sediments are fundamental resources for productive activities like plant nursing, which are also likely to be responsible of their loss. In contrast, other activities like the dredging of canals and waterways involve the extraction and continuous accumulation of sediments. Most dredged sediments are polluted, and need to be stocked and transported to landfills, with extremely high costs for transport and management. To address these problems, a low-cost remediation methodology was previously developed to decontaminate sediments which were tested for use in plant nursery field plantations located in Pistoia (Italy). The phytoremediated sediments were mixed in percentages of 33% and 50% with alluvial soil, which itself was used as control. We studied the characteristics of these mixtures, and the physiological response and growth of Viburnum tinus L. grown on each substrate, as well as its corresponding root ball. Substrates with sediments showed quick water infiltration and no waterlogging, in sharp contrast to what was observed in autumn in the control. Despite a rainy summer, V. tinus demonstrated a good acclimation to the different substrates, showing the lowest leaf water potentials in mixed substrates and no signs of stress. No differences in leaf carbon assimilation or transpiration were observed among substrates, while in late August plants grown on substrates with sediments showed a higher performance index for energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors. In the 50% mixture, there was also an enhancement of electron transport from PSII to PSI. Moreover, no differences in growth and biomass were found. Plants in all substrates showed some thin-root mortality, likely due to the persistent rainfall, though a higher number of plants with dead roots was observed in control. Thanks to the dense and fibrous root apparatus of V. tinus, the mixture with 33% sediments produced satisfactory results even for the root ball, resulting in less deformation and a lower breakage percentage.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass, Field Plantations, Leaf Gas Exchanges, Plant Nursing, PSII Efficiency, Root Balls, Sediments</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 55-63 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1840-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1840-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1840-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-06-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1840-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Biomass equations for European beech growing on dry sites http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1881-009 <p><b>Chakraborty T, Saha S, Reif A</b></p><p><b>BIOMASS EQUATIONS FOR EUROPEAN BEECH GROWING ON DRY SITES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Biomass equations for European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees growing on dry sites have not been published, although such equations are needed for a proper estimation of the biomass of beech trees growing naturally at their drought limit in dry forests. We aimed to: (1) develop new allometric above-ground biomass equations for European beech trees growing on dry sites; (2) compare these equations with existing biomass equations. We harvested 86 plants, ranging from saplings to trees, from forest stands on south-facing slopes at 5 locations in Germany and Switzerland. Whole plant weights were measured in the field after felling, and samples from stem, branches and leaves of every harvested plant were brought to the laboratory. We developed diameter- and height-based regression equations for the total above-ground biomass, stem with bark biomass, and biomass of the branches with leaves and further compared them with the existing equations from the literature. Our results showed that the 5 current diameter-based equations available in the literature significantly overestimate the total above-ground biomass, the stem with bark biomass and the biomass of branches and leaves. With increasing tree size, the proportion of the biomass of branches and leaves to the total tree biomass decreased significantly. We also found that the inclusion of height in biomass models did not influence the prediction of total above-ground biomass, but significantly improved the prediction of stem biomass. We recommend that researchers and foresters use the equations developed in this study to quantify the biomass of beech trees growing under similar site conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Above-ground Biomass, Stem Biomass, Abandoned Oak Coppiced Forest, Stunted Growth, Plant Size Allometry</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 751-757 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1881-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1881-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1881-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Reports 2016-06-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1881-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Retranslocation of foliar nutrients of deciduous tree seedlings in different soil condition under free-air O3 enrichment http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1889-009 <p><b>Shi C, Eguchi N, Meng F, Watanabe T, Satoh F, Koike T</b></p><p><b>RETRANSLOCATION OF FOLIAR NUTRIENTS OF DECIDUOUS TREE SEEDLINGS IN DIFFERENT SOIL CONDITION UNDER FREE-AIR O3 ENRICHMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Retranslocation is the amount of an element that is depleted from old plant components and is provided for new growth. Leaf senescence is usually accelerated at elevated O3 (eO3), and leaf shedding is influenced by soil nutrient availability (and acidification). In this study, we focused on the net retranslocation and allocation dynamics of foliar nutrients (N, P, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Al) to investigate the effect of eO3 on birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica), oak (Quercus mongolica var. crispula), and beech (Fagus crenata) seedlings grown in different soil conditions. Seedlings of the 3 species were planted in a free-air O3 enrichment system under 3 soil types (brown forest soil, serpentine soil, volcanic ash soil) for one growing season. All tree species were grown with 3 replications per each plot at elevated O3 (about 80 ppb) and ambient condition (O3 ranging 25-35 ppb). Leaf samples were taken from the top part of seedlings during the growing season in mid-September, and senescing leaves were sampled in mid-November. Both were collected for chemical composition analysis. Retranslocation rate of P was markedly increased by eO3 in birch and significantly differed among soil types in oak seedlings, while was constant across treatments in beech seedlings. Retranslocation of N in oak seedlings was significantly affected by soil type. Retranslocation of other elements was most sensitive to both eO3 and soil type in beech seedlings. The influence of differential growth patterns among species in modulating the physiological response of seedlings to high levels of ozone and different soil conditions are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Retranslocation, Foliar Nutrients, Ozone, Volcanic Ash Soil, Serpentine Soil</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 835-841 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1889-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1889-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1889-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-06-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1889-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Differences in early dynamics and effects of slope aspect between naturally regenerated and planted Pinus sylvestris woodland on inland dunes in Poland http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1728-009 <p><b>Sewerniak P</b></p><p><b>DIFFERENCES IN EARLY DYNAMICS AND EFFECTS OF SLOPE ASPECT BETWEEN NATURALLY REGENERATED AND PLANTED PINUS SYLVESTRIS WOODLAND ON INLAND DUNES IN POLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: There is little knowledge of the effects of landform relief on early growth dynamics and competitive interactions of Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) stands on inland dunes, which could potentially be substantial. The goal of this study was to examine and compare early dynamics (based on growth parameters and properties of the understorey vegetation) and the effects of slope aspect in naturally regenerated and pine-planted woodland on inland dunes in northern Poland. Growth parameters, tree density, and understorey vegetation were monitored on north- and south-facing slopes in a 26.3 ha post-fire area with natural secondary succession and eight even-aged pine-planted stands, 5-34 years old. Clear differences were detected between the woodland types, in both growth parameters of pines with similar ages and effects of slope aspect on the pines. In the natural regeneration area north-facing slopes provided favorable conditions for natural encroachment by pines. Tree density was higher, and the pines were taller and thicker, on north-facing than on south-facing slopes. In contrast, in the pine-planted area pines were larger on south-facing slopes, although growth conditions were less favorable than on north-facing slopes. However, in the pine-planted area the north-facing slopes had significantly higher herb cover, dominated by Deschampsia flexuosa, indicating that even the presence of a relatively low grass species can impede early growth of Scots pine. The understorey species composition differed in the natural regeneration area, being dominated by Calluna vulgaris on north-facing slopes and Corynephorus canescens on south-facing slopes. The results reveal that interactions between landform, natural dynamics, planting practices, and competitive interactions in woodlands on inland dunes are complex, and should be considered in efforts to manage them efficiently.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Scots Pine, Growth Dynamics, Dunes, Slope Aspect, Forest Succession, Pine Plantations, Sandy Areas, Podzols</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 875-882 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1728-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1728-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1728-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-06-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1728-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Hot spot maps of forest presence in the Mediterranean basin http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1802-009 <p><b>Noce S, Collalti A, Valentini R, Santini M</b></p><p><b>HOT SPOT MAPS OF FOREST PRESENCE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The Mediterranean basin is one of the most varied areas worldwide in terms of biodiversity and species richness due to its climatic and geomorphological features, and it is characterized by multi-faceted habitats where forests play a crucial role. Nowadays, the geographic distribution of forest species is well known and multiple geographic datasets are available with different spatial details. However, protection and conservation strategies need more specific information to identify areas with high conservation priority or more vulnerable to the ongoing environmental change (“hot spots”). To this purpose, tree species distribution data were investigated through hot spot analysis using Geographic Information Systems. The analysis was carried out on presence data of ten relevant forest tree species/classes across Mediterranean Europe. By combining spatial analysis and spatial statistics, we identified high and very high hot spot areas for the selected species/classes, which were validated by assessing their biological significance. Given the sub-continental extent of the study, a multiple scale approach was applied ranging from regional, sub-regional to local scale, coherently with the potential multi-level and multi-sector users of similar data and tools. Our results confirm the feasibility of the approach used to increase the quality and quantity of information achievable from available forest distribution datasets. The hot spot maps obtained are a useful support for further spatial evaluations, and may help environmental decision makers to identify priority areas for forest protection and conservation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest, GIS, Spatial Analysis, Hot Spot, Mediterranean Basin</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 766-774 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1802-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1802-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1802-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Reports 2016-06-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1802-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Genetic diversity and forest reproductive material - from seed source selection to planting http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1577-009 <p><b>Ivetić V, Devetaković J, Nonić M, Stanković D, Šijačić-Nikolić M</b></p><p><b>GENETIC DIVERSITY AND FOREST REPRODUCTIVE MATERIAL - FROM SEED SOURCE SELECTION TO PLANTING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: How much of genetic diversity is desirable in mass production of forest reproductive material? How mass production of forest reproductive material reduces genetic diversity? Relation between genetic diversity and mass production of forest reproductive material is discussed in a holistic manner. In industrial forest plantations, narrow genetic diversity is desirable and reproductive material is produced at clone level. On the other hand, in conservation forestry a wide genetic diversity is imperative. Beside management goals, a desirable level of genetic diversity is related to rotation cycle and ontogeny of tree species. Risks of failure are lower in short rotations of fast growing species. In production of slow growing species, managed in long rotations, the reduction of genetic diversity increases the risk of failure due to causes unknown or unexpected at the time of planting. This risk is additionally increased in cases of seed transfer and in conditions of climate change. Every step in production of forest reproductive material, from collection to nursery production, has an effect on genetic diversity mainly by directional selection and should be considered. This review revealed no consistent decrease of genetic diversity during forest reproductive material production and planting.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Genetic Diversity, Forest Reproductive Material, Seed Production, Seedling Production, Directional Selection</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 801-812 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1577-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1577-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1577-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2016-06-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1577-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of soil compaction on seedling morphology, growth, and architecture of chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1724-009 <p><b>Jourgholami M, Khoramizadeh A, Zenner EK</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF SOIL COMPACTION ON SEEDLING MORPHOLOGY, GROWTH, AND ARCHITECTURE OF CHESTNUT-LEAVED OAK (QUERCUS CASTANEIFOLIA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Soil compaction following traffic by heavy-timber harvesting machinery usually causes an increase in soil strength, that is a stress factor negatively affecting the growth of newly germinated seedlings. This study used a soil strength experiment carried out in a greenhouse to test the hypotheses that increasing soil strength would adversely affect seedling morphology and alter seedling architecture by changing biomass allocation patterns. We explored the effects of soil compaction in a loam to clay-loam textured soil with optimal conditions of water on a continuous scale (0.2-1.0 MPa penetration resistance) on growth responses of the deciduous Quercus castaneifolia (C.A.Mey). Both above- and below-ground seedling characteristics, including size and biomass, were negatively affected by soil compaction. At the highest intensity of compaction, size and growth were reduced by 50% compared to controls; negative effects were typically more severe on below-ground (i.e., the length and biomass of the root system) than on above-ground responses. Increasing soil strength did not change above- and below-ground biomass allocation patterns (i.e., root mass ratio, root:shoot ratio, specific root length), resulting in unchanged seedling architecture. Strong adverse effects were already evident in the low-intensity compaction treatment and no critical soil strength threshold was observed. We conclude that root and height growth in Q. castaneifolia seedlings is limited by any increase of soil strength, though no evidence for the disruption of a functional equilibrium between above- and below-ground plant portions was found up to soil strengths of 1.0 MPa, at least under optimal water supply.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Hyrcanian Forest, Penetration Resistance, Growth, Chestnut-leaved Oak, Relative Growth Rate.</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 145-153 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1724-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1724-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1724-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-06-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1724-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Influence of thermo-vacuum treatment on bending properties of poplar rotary-cut veneer http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1955-009 <p><b>Castro G, Rosso L, Allegretti O, Cuccui I, Cremonini C, Negro F, Zanuttini R</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCE OF THERMO-VACUUM TREATMENT ON BENDING PROPERTIES OF POPLAR ROTARY-CUT VENEER</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The present paper investigates the influence of thermo-vacuum treatment at 170, 190 and 210 °C on the mechanical and physical properties of poplar wood rotary-cut veneers obtained from two different poplar clones (’I-214’ and ’Lena’). The modulus of rupture in bending was determined according to a method derived from European Standard EN-310 and previously validated by the authors, while the density was determined on the basis of EN-323. With both clones no significant decrease was recorded either in bending strength or in density with treatment temperatures up to 190 °C. On the contrary, at 210 °C a highly significant decrease in modulus of rupture (’I-214’: -18%; ’Lena’: -15%) was recorded; the density showed a similar, though lower, trend (’I-214’: -5 %; ’Lena’: -8.5 %).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Populus, Poplar Wood, Veneer, Thermal treatment, Bending Strength</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 161-163 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1955-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1955-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1955-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2016-06-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1955-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Modifying harvesting time as a tool to reduce nutrient export by timber extraction: a case study in planted teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) forests in Costa Rica http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1756-009 <p><b>Fernández-Moya J, Algeet-Abarquero N, Cabalceta G, Alvarado A, San Miguel-Ayanz A, Marchamalo-Sacristán M</b></p><p><b>MODIFYING HARVESTING TIME AS A TOOL TO REDUCE NUTRIENT EXPORT BY TIMBER EXTRACTION: A CASE STUDY IN PLANTED TEAK (TECTONA GRANDIS L.F.) FORESTS IN COSTA RICA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Despite its low nutrient concentration, the high amount of biomass accumulated in the tree stem makes it an important nutrient sink. Hence, nutrient loss through timber removal at harvesting is a major cause of nutrient impoverishment at some forest sites. The present study was designed to test the following hypotheses: (a) nutrient allocation in the different tree tissues would be affected by (re)translocation processes related with leaf senescence; hence, (b) timber may have a higher nutrient concentration during the defoliated period (in deciduous species); and consequently, (c) modifying harvesting time could influence nutrient export. To test these hypotheses, the present study analyzes the intra-annual dynamics of foliar and trunk nutrient concentration in a planted teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) forest in Costa Rica. Samples from nine trees were taken at nine sampling times between June 2012 and August 2013. The results confirm the above-mentioned hypotheses and reveal that modifying harvesting time have different consequences: (1) when harvesting occurs between August and October, it reduces the N-P-K exported through timber harvesting by 24-29-43%; (2) when harvesting occurs in December, the reduction is 28-29-14%. Harvesting between August and October (rainy season) may involve logistical difficulties. Harvesting slightly earlier than usual (i.e., December, just after the rainy season but before leaf senescence) would therefore be an efficient approach to reducing nutrient export through timber extraction.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Nutrition, Soil Fertility, Soil Depletion, Sustainability, Forest Plantations, Nutrient Resorption</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 729-735 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1756-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1756-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1756-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-06-03 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1756-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Linking nursery nutritional status and water availability post-planting under intense summer drought: the case of a South American Mediterranean tree species http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1905-009 <p><b>Ovalle JF, Arellano EC, Oliet JA, Becerra P, Ginocchio R</b></p><p><b>LINKING NURSERY NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND WATER AVAILABILITY POST-PLANTING UNDER INTENSE SUMMER DROUGHT: THE CASE OF A SOUTH AMERICAN MEDITERRANEAN TREE SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Drought-avoidance traits of South American Mediterranean tree species are crucial attributes to be considered in nursery practices aimed at improving the performance of seedlings exposed to intense summer drought in dryland reforestation projects. In this study, we determined the relation between nursery fertilization doses and the development of drought-avoidance traits of the soapbark tree Quillaja saponaria (Mol.) under contrasting watering regimes following post-planting. Seedlings were grown for 6 months using four increasing doses of controlled-release fertilizer (0, 3, 6, and 12 g L-1 of Basacote® Plus 15:8:12). After outplanting, half of the seedlings were watered weekly and the other half were left unwatered for one growing season from September 2011 to May 2012. Seedlings were periodically measured for morphological and ecophysiological parameters, and carefully harvested for root measurements at the end of the study. Our results showed that high fertilization doses produced significantly larger seedlings in the nursery with high nitrogen and phosphorous foliar concentrations, which resulted in a significantly higher shoot dry mass after outplanting. Unfertilized seedlings grown with water application had a significantly higher stem diameter, root dry mass and lower shoot/root compared with seedlings with high fertilizer dose. These results highlight the ability of this species to maintain drought-avoidance traits, such as high xylem water potential and chlorophyll fluorescence, during the first 3 months of the 7-month drought period. High nutrient loading, although resulting in improved shoot productivity after outplanting, did not make a significant contribution to the early development of drought-avoidance traits in Q. saponaria.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dryland Forest Restoration, Plant Quality, Root Architecture, Seedling Fertilization, Water-stress Resistance</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 758-765 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1905-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1905-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1905-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-06-03 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1905-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Thinning effects on soil and microbial respiration in a coppice-originated Carpinus betulus L. stand in Turkey http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1810-009 <p><b>Akburak S, Makineci E</b></p><p><b>THINNING EFFECTS ON SOIL AND MICROBIAL RESPIRATION IN A COPPICE-ORIGINATED CARPINUS BETULUS L. STAND IN TURKEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Effects of thinning on soil respiration and microbial respiration were examined over a 2-year period (2010-2012) in a coppice-originated European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) stand in Istanbul, Turkey. Four plots within the stand were selected; tree density was reduced by 50% of the basal area in two plots (thinning treatment), and the other two plots served as controls. The study focused on the main factors that affect soil respiration (RS) and microbial respiration on the forest floor (RFFM) and in soil (RSM): soil temperature (TS), soil moisture (MS), soil carbon (C), soil nitrogen (N), soil pH, ground cover biomass (GC), forest floor mass (FF), forest floor carbon (FFC) and nitrogen (FFN), and fine root biomass (FRB). Every 2 months, soil respiration was measured using the soda-lime method, and microbial respiration was measured with the incubation method separately for the soil and forest floor. Results were evaluated yearly and over the 2-year research period. During the first year after treatment, RS was significantly higher (11%) in the thinned plots (1.76 g C m-2 d-1) than in the controls (1.59 g C m-2 d-1). However, there were no significant differences in either the second year or the 2-year study period. In the thinned plots during the research period, RS was linearly correlated with GC, Ts and FRB. Thinning treatments did not affect RSM, but interestingly, they did affect RFFM, which was greater in the control plots than in the thinned plots. RSM had a significant and positive correlation with soil N and soil pH, while RFFM was linearly correlated with FFC and C/N ratio of the forest floor in both thinned and control plots during the research period.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: CO2 Flux, Fine Root, Forest Floor, Ground Cover, Soil Temperature, Soil Moisture</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 783-790 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1810-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1810-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1810-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1810-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Seasonal dynamics of soil respiration and nitrification in three subtropical plantations in southern China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1828-009 <p><b>Wang W, Cheng R, Shi Z, Ingwersen J, Luo D, Liu S</b></p><p><b>SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF SOIL RESPIRATION AND NITRIFICATION IN THREE SUBTROPICAL PLANTATIONS IN SOUTHERN CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Numerous studies have documented that soil respiration and nitrogen cycling show a distinct seasonal dependence regulated by environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature and soil water content). The mechanisms controlling the seasonal dependence of these two key ecosystem processes have rarely been linked to both soil microbial community and soil environmental factors. Here, we present results on the seasonal patterns of soil respiration and gross nitrification rates in three subtropical plantations of Pinus massoniana, Castanopsis hystrix and Erythrophleum fordii over a period of 11 months. Turnover rates were measured with the Barometric Process Separation technique (BaPS). We elucidated how soil respiration and gross nitrification are controlled by the soil microbial community and by soil environmental factors. Soil respiration and gross nitrification showed strong seasonal dynamics, although no significant differences were observed among plantations. The turnover rates were the highest during the wet season and the lowest during the dry season. Microbial biomass, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), fungal PLFAs and bacterial PLFAs peaked during the dry season. Both soil respiration and gross nitrification rates were positively correlated with soil temperature and soil water content. Microbial biomass decreased with increasing turnover rates. Our findings highlight that carbon and nitrogen turnover rates were mostly controlled by soil temperature and soil water content.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Respiration, Nitrification, PLFA, Soil Microbial Community, N-fixing Tree Species, Subtropical China</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 813-821 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1828-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1828-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1828-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1828-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Clonal structure and high genetic diversity at peripheral populations of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1885-009 <p><b>Jankowska-Wroblewska S, Meyza K, Sztupecka E, Kubera L, Burczyk J</b></p><p><b>CLONAL STRUCTURE AND HIGH GENETIC DIVERSITY AT PERIPHERAL POPULATIONS OF SORBUS TORMINALIS (L.) CRANTZ.</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Knowing the level of genetic diversity and structure in marginal plant populations is essential for managing their genetic resources. This is particularly important for rare scattered tree species, such as Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. We investigated the genetic diversity and its spatial distribution in peripheral populations of S. torminalis. As the species is known to reproduce vegetatively, we also evaluated clonal structure within populations. Using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci designed in two multiplexes, we genotyped 172 individuals revealing the existence of 100 distinct genotypes. Number of ramets per genotype was variable across populations with an average of 1.72. Examples of somaclonal variation at particular loci were detected. Measures of genetic diversity of the total sample were relatively high (mean allelic richness AR = 10.293; expected heterozygosity He = 0.756), as compared to other S. torminalis populations. We noticed a slightly negative inbreeding coefficient (FIS = -0.029) indicating a small excess of heterozygotes, which is typical for self-incompatible plants. Genetic differentiation among populations was low (FST = 0.048), but Bayesian clustering methods revealed the existence of three distinct genetic clusters only in part related to population structure. Significant spatial genetic structure within populations was also detected (Sp = 0.0125) indicating fine-scale pattern of isolation by distance. Our study demonstrated that peripheral populations of S. torminalis may exhibit relatively high levels of genetic diversity despite the existence of vegetative propagation. Nevertheless, if the studied or similar populations are expected to be utilized as seed sources for ex-situ or in-situ conservation purposes, the existence of clonal structure and spatial genetic structure must be taken into account in order to avoid excessive sampling of the same or closely related genets.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sorbus torminalis, Clonality, Range Limits, Somatic Mutations, Microsatellites</p><p><i>iForest 9 (6): 892-900 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1885-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1885-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1885-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1885-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Carbon and water vapor balance in a subtropical pine plantation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1815-009 <p><b>Posse G, Lewczuk N, Richter K, Cristiano P</b></p><p><b>CARBON AND WATER VAPOR BALANCE IN A SUBTROPICAL PINE PLANTATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Afforestation has been proposed as an effective tool for protecting primary and/or secondary forests and for mitigating atmospheric CO2. However, the dynamics of primary productivity differs between plantations and natural forests. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for carbon storage of a commercial pine plantation by determining its carbon balance. Measurements started when trees were aged 6 and ended when they were older than 8 years. We measured CO2 and water vapor concentrations using the Eddy covariance method. Gross primary productivity in 2010 and 2011 was 4290 ± 473 g C m-2 and 4015 ± 485 g C m-2, respectively. Ecosystem respiration ranged between 7 and 20 g C m-2 d-1, reaching peaks in all Februaries. Of the 30 months monitored, the plantation acted as carbon source for 21 months and as carbon sink for 6 months, while values close to neutrality were obtained during 3 months. The positive balance representing CO2 loss by the system was most likely due to the cut branches left on the ground following pruning activities. The plantation was subjected to pruning in January and September 2008 and to sanitary pruning in October 2010. In all cases, cut branches were not removed but remained on the ground. Residue management seems to have a very important impact on carbon balance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Afforestation, Carbon Source, Ecosystem Respiration, Pruning, Thinning</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 736-742 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1815-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1815-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1815-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1815-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessing escapes from short rotation plantations of the invasive tree species Robinia pseudoacacia L. in Mediterranean ecosystems: a study in central Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1526-009 <p><b>Crosti R, Agrillo E, Ciccarese L, Guarino R, Paris P, Testi A</b></p><p><b>ASSESSING ESCAPES FROM SHORT ROTATION PLANTATIONS OF THE INVASIVE TREE SPECIES ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA L. IN MEDITERRANEAN ECOSYSTEMS: A STUDY IN CENTRAL ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a fast growing tree species native to temperate North America, and widely diffused and naturalized in Europe. It is one of the candidate species for establishing bioenergy plantations on marginal lands in temperate and sub-Mediterranean regions. This potential is in contrast to its well-known invasive habit, leading to a potential damage to plant biodiversity in many European countries. Advise against black locust plantation in regions where it is already invasive has been issued by several international reports, as well as the adoption of mitigation measures (e.g., “containment” buffer zones) to prevent the spread of the species into natural and semi-natural habitats. In the Mediterranean basin, however, no studies have been carried out aimed at quantifying the escape rate of black locust saplings from plantation stands and its recruitment into natural habitats, together with the effectiveness of a buffer zone in reducing the spread. In this study we investigated the spread of black locust along 35 transects surrounding three 20-year- old plantations and including three different land cover types: abandoned arable land, semi-natural woodland and a buffer zone (orchards) with a low degree of farming input. In addition, the effect of soil disturbance on seed propagation was investigated. Our results demonstrate that the density of black locust regeneration is strongly affected by the land cover, abandoned agricultural land being the most prone to black locust colonization. Contrastingly, the spread was minimal in the buffer zone and negligible in semi-natural woodland. During the investigated year, seed generative propagation was also negligible. The semi-natural woodland seems to resist well to black locust invasion, though further observations are needed to assess the consequences of stand harvesting disturbance as well, according to local standard forest management. Buffer zones seem to be very effective in controlling black locust invasion. Best management practices, with active farming inputs, are also discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: False Acacia, Mediterranean Region, Risk Assessment, Containment, EU Regulation, Invasive Species</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 822-828 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1526-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1526-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1526-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1526-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Predicting impacts of climate change on forest tree species of Bangladesh: evidence from threatened Dysoxylum binectariferum (Roxb.) Hook.f. ex Bedd. (Meliaceae) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1608-009 <p><b>Sohel SI, Akhter S, Ullah H, Haque E, Rana P</b></p><p><b>PREDICTING IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST TREE SPECIES OF BANGLADESH: EVIDENCE FROM THREATENED DYSOXYLUM BINECTARIFERUM (ROXB.) HOOK.F. EX BEDD. (MELIACEAE)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The impact of climate change on ecosystems, especially at the species level, can be currently observed in many parts of the world. Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to predict the likely changes in the distribution of species in future climate change scenarios. The aim of the present study is to predict the effect of climate change on a valuable threatened tree species Dysoxylum binectariferum in the northeastern part of Bangladesh using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model on species’ occurrence data. The future distribution of D. binectariferum was predicted under two scenarios from the IPCC 5th assessment (RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5) in 2050 and 2070. Model results showed that approximately 32% (2177 km2) of the studied area is currently suitable for this species to grow. However, future predictions obtained by the model projected a complete loss of suitable habitat for D. binectariferum in the studied area by both 2050 and 2070. Therefore, urgent measures are required for the conservation of D. binectariferum in northeastern Bangladesh. The application of species distribution models to simple inventory data (such as the occurrence of the species) may provide policymakers and conservationists with a useful tool for the prediction of future distribution (at both local and regional scales) of poorly known species with high preservation concerns.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Habitat Distribution Modeling, Potential Distribution Areas, Reintroduction, MaxEnt, Conservation</p><p><i>iForest 10 (1): 154-160 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1608-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1608-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1608-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1608-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Groundwater uptake of forest and agricultural land covers in regions of recharge and discharge http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1864-009 <p><b>Móricz N, Tóth T, Balog K, Szabó A, Rasztovits E, Gribovszki Z</b></p><p><b>GROUNDWATER UPTAKE OF FOREST AND AGRICULTURAL LAND COVERS IN REGIONS OF RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Groundwater uptake of vegetation in discharge regions is known to play an important role, e.g., in the Hungarian Great Plain. Nevertheless, only little detailed monitoring of water table fluctuations and groundwater uptake (ETgw) were reported under varying hydrologic conditions and vegetation cover. In this study, results of water table monitoring under forest plantations and adjacent corn plots in discharge and recharge regions were analyzed to gain better understanding of the relation of vegetation cover to groundwater uptake. A poplar (Populus tremula) plantation and adjacent corn field plot were surveyed in a local discharge area, while a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) plantation and adjacent corn field plot were analyzed in a recharge area. The water table under the poplar plantation displayed a night-time recovery in the discharge region, indicating significant groundwater supply. In this case an empirical version of the water table fluctuation method was used for calculating the ETgw that included the groundwater supply. The mean ETgw of the poplar plantation was 3.6 mm day-1, whereas no water table fluctuation was observed at the nearby corn plot. Naturally, the root system of the poplar was able to tap the groundwater in depths of 3.0-3.3 m while the shallower roots of the corn did not reach the groundwater reservoir in depths of 2.7-2.8 m. In the recharge zone the water table under the black locust plantation showed step-like changes referring to the lack of groundwater supply. The mean ETgw was 0.7 mm day-1 (groundwater depths of 3.0-3.2 m) and similarly no ETgw was detected at the adjacent corn plot with groundwater depths between 3.2 and 3.4 m. The low ETgw of the young black locust plantation was due to the lack of groundwater supply in recharge area, but also the shallow root system might have played a role. Our results suggest that considerations should be given to local estimations of ETgw from water table measurements that could assist to better understanding of groundwater use of varying vegetation types in recharge and discharge zones.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Groundwater, Evapotranspiration, Poplar, Black Locust, Recharge and Discharge Area</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 696-701 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1864-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1864-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1864-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1864-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Modelling diameter distribution of Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia using normal and Weibull distributions with parameters depending on stand variables http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1688-008 <p><b>Sghaier T, Cañellas I, Calama R, Sánchez-González M</b></p><p><b>MODELLING DIAMETER DISTRIBUTION OF TETRACLINIS ARTICULATA IN TUNISIA USING NORMAL AND WEIBULL DISTRIBUTIONS WITH PARAMETERS DEPENDING ON STAND VARIABLES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of both Normal and two-parameter Weibull distributions in describing diameter distribution of Tetraclinis articulata stands in north-east Tunisia. The parameters of the Weibull function were estimated using the moments method and maximum likelihood approaches. The data used in this study came from temporary plots. The three diameter distribution models were compared firstly by estimating the parameters of the distribution directly from individual tree measurements taken in each plot (parameter estimation method), and secondly by predicting the same parameters from stand variables (parameter prediction method). The comparison was based on bias, mean absolute error, mean square error and the Reynolds’ index error (as a percentage). On the basis of the parameter estimation method, the Normal distribution gave slightly better results, whereas the Weibull distribution with the maximum likelihood approach gave the best results for the parameter prediction method. Hence, in the latter case, the Weibull distribution with the maximum likelihood approach appears to be the most suitable to estimate the parameters for reducing the different comparison criteria for the distribution of trees by diameter class in Tetraclinis articulata forests in Tunisia.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Diameter Class Model, Normal Distribution, Weibull Distribution, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Moments Method, Tetraclinis articulata</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 702-709 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1688-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1688-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1688-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1688-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: An overview of Italian participation in afforestation and reforestation projects under the Clean Development Mechanism http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1654-009 <p><b>Corradini G, Brotto L, Ciccarese L, Pettenella D</b></p><p><b>AN OVERVIEW OF ITALIAN PARTICIPATION IN AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION PROJECTS UNDER THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In order to meet its Kyoto Protocol commitment targets, the Italian Government has made relevant investments in forest projects in developing countries through the Clean Development Mechanism. This paper investigates the Italian participated afforestation/reforestation (A/R) projects under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, by considering the countries hosting forestry projects, the project areas, the estimated emission reductions, the use of tree species (native/non-native), the issuance of Carbon credits, and the projects’ contribution to sustainable development and technology transfer in general, as stated by the “Project Design Document” of each project. This study utilizes the “Project Design Documents” and “Monitoring Reports” of the registered projects in the United Nations Convention on Climate Change database and data from the BioCarbon Fund database. Results show that, in terms of number of projects, the A/R sector is a prominent component of the Italian CDM portfolio. The financing of the 16 projects by the Italian government, with a total of about 65 k ha planted and an estimated emission reductions of about 556 k tCO2 eq per year, are based on criteria that differ substantially from the ongoing policy adopted for domestic forest interventions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: CDM, Afforestation, Reforestation, Italy, Forest Policy, Impact Analysis</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 720-728 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1654-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1654-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1654-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1654-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Calibration of a multi-species model for chlorophyll estimation in seedlings of Neotropical tree species using hand-held leaf absorbance meters and spectral reflectance http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1785-009 <p><b>Viera Silva D, Dos Anjos L, Brito-Rocha E, Dalmolin AC, Mielke MS</b></p><p><b>CALIBRATION OF A MULTI-SPECIES MODEL FOR CHLOROPHYLL ESTIMATION IN SEEDLINGS OF NEOTROPICAL TREE SPECIES USING HAND-HELD LEAF ABSORBANCE METERS AND SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of the present study was to calibrate a multi-species model for assessing leaf chlorophyll content in seedlings of six Neotropical rainforest tree species. Two hand-held chlorophyll absorbance meters (SPAD-502 and ClorofiLog) and the chlorophyll normalized difference leaf reflectance index (ND705) were tested. Measurements of leaf absorbance and reflectance, contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), and total chlorophyll (Chl t), leaf area (LA), and leaf mass per area (LMA) were performed on fully expanded leaves. A total of 200 leaves were used for the calibration of the multiple-species model. The relative root mean square calibration errors (RMSεc, %) were calculated based on estimated chlorophyll values for multiple-species models and on measured values for each of the six species. The average values of LA varied between 14.2 and 29.5 cm-2, LMA between 34.8 and 98.9 g m-2, and Chl t between 3 and 815 mg m-2. For all indices, the highest values of the coefficients of determination (R2) were observed for Chl a (R2 ≥ 0.91), followed by Chl t (R2 ≥ 0.89) and Chl b (R2 ≥ 0.82). The highest values of R2 were obtained for ND705 (R2 ≥ 0.86) followed by SPAD-502 (R2 ≥ 0.83) and ClorofiLog (R2 ≥ 0.82). The present study showed that ClorofiLog and SPAD-502 indices could be safely interconverted by a simple linear regression model (R2 = 0.98). RMSεc values were lower than 20%, which confirmed the feasibility of the multi-species model for estimating the chlorophyll content using hand-held chlorophyll absorbance meters and leaf reflectance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chlorophyll Normalized Difference Index, Hand-held Chlorophyll Absorbance Meters, Leaf Reflectance, Neotropical Tree Species</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 829-834 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1785-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1785-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1785-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1785-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Integrating conservation objectives into forest management: coppice management and forest habitats in Natura 2000 sites http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1867-009 <p><b>Mairota P, Buckley P, Suchomel C, Heinsoo K, Verheyen K, Hédl R, Terzuolo PG, Sindaco R, Carpanelli A</b></p><p><b>INTEGRATING CONSERVATION OBJECTIVES INTO FOREST MANAGEMENT: COPPICE MANAGEMENT AND FOREST HABITATS IN NATURA 2000 SITES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Most forest habitats, as defined and listed for their nature conservation importance in the Habitats Directive of the European Union and in the Bern Convention, result from centuries of human intervention. This paper explores the scope for, and the attitudes towards coppicing in Natura 2000 sites in some of the EU28 countries where coppice was historically one of the most important traditional silvicultural systems. A questionnaire survey was circulated to experts involved with Natura 2000 sites and case studies were conducted in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom, to investigate attitudes to coppice silviculture within the framework of Natura 2000 site management plans. A list of forest habitat types capable of being managed as coppices was compiled and populated with sites at national and regional levels. At the regional level, management plans for the relevant forest habitat types in Natura 2000 sites were critically scrutinised together with other statutory, administrative or contractual measures. The results show that approaches to integrate coppice management into conservation plans differ widely. Examples of disparities are given and the possible causes discussed. A case is made for coppicing to be continued, where appropriate, as an important strategy in site management plans that aim to conserve habitats and improve forest biodiversity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Habitats Directive, Natura 2000, Forest Habitat Types, Coppice, Biodiversity, Landscape</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 560-568 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1867-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1867-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1867-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1867-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A comparative study of four approaches to assess phenology of Populus in a short-rotation coppice culture http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1800-009 <p><b>Vanbeveren SP, Bloemen J, Balzarolo M, Broeckx LS, Sarzi-Falchi I, Verlinden MS, Ceulemans R</b></p><p><b>A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOUR APPROACHES TO ASSESS PHENOLOGY OF POPULUS IN A SHORT-ROTATION COPPICE CULTURE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We compared four approaches to assess phenology in a short-rotation coppice culture with 12 poplar (Populus) genotypes. The four approaches quantified phenology at different spatial scales and with different temporal resolutions: (i) visual observations of bud phenology; (ii) measurements of leaf area index; (iii) webcam images; and (iv) satellite images. For validation purposes we applied the four approaches during two years: the year preceding a coppice event and the year following the coppice event. The delayed spring greenup and the faster canopy development in the year after coppicing (as compared to the year before coppicing) were similarly quantified by the four approaches. The four approaches detected very similar seasonal changes in phenology, although they had different spatial scales and a different temporal resolution. The onset of autumn senescence after coppicing remained the same as in the year before coppicing according to the bud set observations, but it started earlier according to the webcam images, and later according to the MODIS images. In comparison to the year before coppicing, the growing season - in terms of leaf area duration - was shorter in the year after coppicing, while the leaf area index was higher.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: ExG Index, Leaf Area Index, MODIS, NDVI, WRDVI, POPFULL</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 682-689 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1800-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1800-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1800-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1800-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of seedling stock on the early stand development and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1725-009 <p><b>Sharma S, Adams JP, Schuler JL, Ficklin RL, Bragg DC</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF SEEDLING STOCK ON THE EARLY STAND DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSIOLOGY OF IMPROVED LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study assessed the effects of spacing and genotype on the growth and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings from three distinct genotypes planted in Drew County, Arkansas (USA). Genotype had a significant effect on survival and height. Clone CF Var 1 showed greater height and survival compared to other seedlings. Genotype had significant effects on uniformity in height both years and ground line diameter (GLD) first year. However, genotype had no significant effects on leaf water potential and coefficient variation of leaf water potential. These growth and physiology should be further studied to assess potential genetic differences among seedlings and to determine if they can be identified early for improved growth at later ages.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Loblolly Pine, Genotype, Leaf Water Potential, Coefficient of Variation</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 690-695 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1725-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1725-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1725-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1725-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Discovering interaction between oaks and carabid beetles on a local scale by point pattern analysis http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1952-009 <p><b>Wagner S, Wehnert A, Wong KY, Stoyan D</b></p><p><b>DISCOVERING INTERACTION BETWEEN OAKS AND CARABID BEETLES ON A LOCAL SCALE BY POINT PATTERN ANALYSIS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The understanding of habitat demands of single species needs an explicit habitat element approach which includes both the effect of intensity of the habitat element on the species population and the spatial effect of that habitat element in a given matrix (e.g., forest or water). An established tool in ecological research for this purpose is the point pattern analysis, which yields information on relationships between organisms and habitat elements, as well as on interactions among individuals. However, the application of this tool seems to be restricted so far to locally fixed species and habitat elements. As our model system consists of carabid beetles and single old oak trees in a Scots pine forest, we needed to address the issue of fauna mobility in point pattern analysis. We adopted a random field approach to transform the lattice beetle traps data to point data. For the resulting bivariate point pattern we applied the toroidal shift test to verify the independence of tree and beetle distribution. To overcome the problem of irregular window shape, we reconstructed the oak data to obtain a point pattern in a larger rectangular window to make toroidal shifts possible. We could justify a positive spatial association between oak tree and carabid beetle distributions. By our results, specific spatial fields of oak influence on the beetle species can be derived which may allow for beetles supporting management measures like an increase of oak tree proportion and a more regular spatial distribution of single admixed oak trees. Those measures may increase the ecological effect of C. coriaceus as an antagonist for pest insects in mono-cultured Scots pine forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Point Pattern Analysis, Species Association, Toroidal Shift Test</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 618-625 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1952-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1952-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1952-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-06 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1952-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Carbon storage and soil property changes following afforestation in mountain ecosystems of the Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1866-008 <p><b>Zhiyanski M, Glushkova M, Ferezliev A, Menichetti L, Leifeld J</b></p><p><b>CARBON STORAGE AND SOIL PROPERTY CHANGES FOLLOWING AFFORESTATION IN MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN RHODOPES, BULGARIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Land-use changes and afforestation activities are widely recognized as possible measures for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of afforestation on (i) soil physical and chemical properties and soil carbon stocks in four mountain ecosystems and (ii) whole ecosystem carbon storage. The four experimental sites, situated in the Western Rhodope Mountains (Bulgaria) were characterized by typical forest-related land-use conversions. The four sites were a Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) plantation (Rd1) established on former cropland, a mixed black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantation (Rd2) established on former cropland, a cropland (RdA1) and an abandoned land with uncontrolled extensive grazing (RdA2) historically used as cropland. Soil parameters, i.e., sand content, pH, organic C and N contents, C/N ratio and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, were significantly affected by land use and land-use history. Conversion from cropland into forestland significantly reduced soil bulk density and coarse fragments at 0-10 cm depth. Compared with adjacent cropland and abandoned land, soils in coniferous plantations were acidified in their upper layers. Sites Rd2 and RdA2 contained the least SOC owing to the previous long-term arable cultivation (>100 years). Analysis of the ecosystem C stock distribution revealed that most of C in forests was stored in the aboveground tree biomass. Our study confirmed that afforestation of cropland turned the soil into a C sink for the selected mountain region, but showed conflicting results when afforestation occurred on abandoned cropland.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Land-use Change, Afforestation, Soil, Forest Floor, Biomass, Carbon Stock</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 626-634 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1866-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1866-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1866-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-06 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1866-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparison of drought stress indices in beech forests: a modelling study http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1630-008 <p><b>Vilhar U</b></p><p><b>COMPARISON OF DROUGHT STRESS INDICES IN BEECH FORESTS: A MODELLING STUDY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Two drought stress indices were applied to managed as well as old-growth beech forests and gaps for the 2001 to 2013 period to aid in the development of an efficient tool for field water supply diagnosis. The relative extractable soil water (REW), which was calculated from the soil water content in the root zone, and the transpiration index (TI), calculated as the ratio between the actual and potential transpiration were used. Both indices were calculated on a daily basis using the water balance model BROOK90, which was fitted and tested using measured data on throughfall and soil water content. A sensitivity analysis apportioned to the input parameters of the drought stress indices was conducted to assess uncertainty. Both drought stress indices showed the greatest drought stress in the years 2009, 2003 and 2011, as also indicated by the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at the nearest meteorological station. However, drought stress intensity and duration differed between the indices and study sites. Greater water supply stress was shown in the forests than the gaps. Furthermore, the agreement among the indices was smaller for gaps compared with forests, which implies that careful index selection is needed when comparing water supply stresses in different stages of forest stand development. Due to the low amount of input data required and the parameters that can be measured with relative ease in the field, REW might be an efficient tool for field water supply diagnosis when analyzing the drought stresses of similar forest types and at unique stages of development. REW satisfactorily indicated drought stress in forests but to a lesser extent in gaps. TI demonstrated more consistent differences in drought stress between forests and gaps and therefore proved to be the appropriate index for a detailed analysis of drought stress variation between different stages of forest stand development. However, due to a greater number of required input data and more demanding parameters, TI appears to be a more complex tool than REW for field water supply diagnosis in forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Relative Extractable Soil Water, Transpiration Index, Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, Fagus sylvatica, BROOK90 Model, Managed Forest, Old-growth Forest, Canopy Gap</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 635-642 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1630-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1630-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1630-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-06 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1630-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influence of tree water potential in inducing flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in the central Himalayan region http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1525-008 <p><b>Tewari A, Bhatt J, Mittal A</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCE OF TREE WATER POTENTIAL IN INDUCING FLOWERING IN RHODODENDRON ARBOREUM IN THE CENTRAL HIMALAYAN REGION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Rise in temperature has been reported as the principal cause of variation in flowering phenology in several tree species around the globe. In this study, we hypothesized that not only temperature but also rainfall periodicity, soil moisture and the related changes of twig water potential (ψ) in winter and early spring are important drivers of bud expansion and flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in central Himalayas. To this purpose, phenological and physiological variables (flowering time, flower bud size and twig water potential) were monitored over two years in a wild population of R. arboreum (Uttarakhand, India) and related with environmental variables (rainfall, soil moisture and temperature). Results showed that a rise in twig ψ to -0.7MPa, one week after moderate winter precipitation resulted in flower bud enlargement. In both years flowering was triggered after twig ψ reached the threshold of -0.5 Mpa, though the starting date differed between years. Floral bud size was correlated positively with twig ψ (r = 0.43, df =162, p < 0.001) and soil moisture (r = 0.61, df = 71, p < 0.001), while temperature did not influence flower bud size, soil moisture and twig ψ. Flower bud size increment was related with increase in twig ψ and soil moisture. Based on our results, we concluded that water availability plays an important role in inducing flowering in R. arboreum.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Rhododendron, Global Warming, Flowering, Water Potential, Himalaya</p><p><i>iForest 9 (5): 842-846 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1525-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1525-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1525-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-05-06 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1525-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The impact of seed predation and browsing on natural sessile oak regeneration under different light conditions in an over-aged coppice stand http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1835-009 <p><b>Kamler J, Dobrovolný L, Drimaj J, Kadavý J, Kneifl M, Adamec Z, Knott R, Martiník A, Plhal R, Zeman J, Hrbek J</b></p><p><b>THE IMPACT OF SEED PREDATION AND BROWSING ON NATURAL SESSILE OAK REGENERATION UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT CONDITIONS IN AN OVER-AGED COPPICE STAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) is one of the most important commercial species cultivated at low altitudes in the Czech Republic, and over-aged coppices are a significant part of oak stands in the region. In order to secure a high-valuable timber production (e.g., through conversion of such stands into coppices-with-standards), knowledge of the potential and limits of generative regeneration is essential. This study was conducted in three oak-dominated over-aged coppice stands in different stages of conversion into coppices-with-standards and characterized by different basal area (BA, from 9.3 to 14.1 m2 ha-1) and relative diffuse radiation (ISF, from 12.1 to 35.5%). The study stands were compared with respect to seed predation following acorn fall and oak regeneration parameters. At the time of their fall the acorns represented a sought-after source of food for large mammals (particularly wild boar). At the end of acorn fall, 13-67% acorns were lost due to animal predation. A control evaluation conducted the following spring revealed a decrease of 92-97% in fallen acorns. Despite the major animal impact, a high reserve of acorns and saplings remained in the stands (4 600-29 000 acorns and 66 000-310 000 saplings per ha). With increasing light intensity the oak regeneration density decreased, while the height and age variability of oak regeneration increased. Although saplings were capable of surviving several years under unfavorable light conditions (even below 12% ISF), they require a minimum of 20% ISF (i.e., BA < 16 m2 ha-1) to achieve sustainable height increment. Based on our results, for conversion of such stands into coppices-with-standards we recommend a maximum of 200 reserved trees (BA = 16 m2 ha-1) to achieve successful height growth of the understorey.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Over-aged Coppice, Quercus petraea, Natural Regeneration, Herbivore Impact, Acorn, Light Intensity, Wild Boar</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 569-576 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1835-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1835-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1835-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-04-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1835-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Traditional coppice in South East England: the importance of workforce engagement for development http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1809-009 <p><b>Bartlett D</b></p><p><b>TRADITIONAL COPPICE IN SOUTH EAST ENGLAND: THE IMPORTANCE OF WORKFORCE ENGAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper describes research into the historic importance of the coppice industry, now largely restricted to south east England and the relevance of this to current rural development policy. The economic and social contexts have altered significantly over time with product substitution and changing consumer aspirations, and particularly the availability of alternative fuel sources. Over the last fifty years the “value” attached to coppiced woodlands has shifted away from resource exploitation and towards a greater appreciation of them for wildlife, recreation, amenity and cultural heritage. This has increased wider public awareness of and appreciation for coppicing as a management technique and, consequently rising concern over the reduction in area managed. This was assumed to be due to market failure but attempts to reverse this by creating new outlets failed. The reason for this has been explored by engaging directly with the workforce, both individually and in focus groups. Coppice workers were found to be more numerous, active and enterprising than previously thought, and many were found to be working in family groups servicing traditional markets. They were unaware of concerns about decline in the area coppiced or initiatives to address it. Issues currently affecting their businesses included housing costs, rural crime, harvesting restrictions, loss of yards and training needs. It is concluded that Government policies to promote woodfuel are not likely to succeed without active engagement with the workforce to understand their perspectives and enabling them to participate in policy decisions is recommended.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chestnut, Workforce, Development, Policy</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 577-582 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1809-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1809-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1809-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-04-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1809-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Individual tree mortality of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in Estonia http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1672-008 <p><b>Maleki K, Kiviste A</b></p><p><b>INDIVIDUAL TREE MORTALITY OF SILVER BIRCH (BETULA PENDULA ROTH) IN ESTONIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The functioning of complex forest ecosystems is intimately related to their structural properties. Tree mortality is a major driver of forest stand dynamics and therefore plays an important role in the formation of forest structure. Data from the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots (ENFRP) was used to estimate the mortality probability of silver birch trees (Betula pendula Roth) by using logistic models. In this study several spatial and non-spatial variables were tested to determine the most important mortality explanatory factors. Additionally, thinning variables were defined and implemented into the mortality models, to examine whether thinning practices could modify the stand structure and density, then leading to a lower mortality rate. The results of this study showed that tree mortality models that included either a five-year diameter growth rate (id5) as a measure of tree vitality, or the tree relative diameter (drel) as a measure of competition, or both these two variables, were substantially better than any models not including these variables. In addition, any measures of spatial aggregation (agg) and species proportion (sp) within the zone of influence markedly improved the model predictions, though the mortality probability of trees declined where there was higher aggregation and species mixture. Our results also suggested that if thinning were conducted around the birch trees, depending on the thinning intensity, the number of neighbors is effectively reduced, and consequently the competition load within the influence zone decreases, leading to healthier growth and lower mortality rates of the shade-intolerant birch trees. We thus recommend to adopt thinning regimes in mixed forest stands to foster tree species diversity, and at the same time provide adequate growing space for birch trees within the stands. This will improve the forest structure and increase the adaptive capacity of forests, which is increasingly important under changing climatic conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Betula pendula Roth, Diameter Growth, Species Proportion, Aggregation, Competition</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 643-651 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1672-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1672-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1672-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-04-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1672-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The effect of seed size on seed fate in a subtropical forest, southwest of China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1852-008 <p><b>Lang Z, Wang B</b></p><p><b>THE EFFECT OF SEED SIZE ON SEED FATE IN A SUBTROPICAL FOREST, SOUTHWEST OF CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Scatter-hoarding rodents acting both as seed predators and dispersers usually play an important role in seed dispersal of many plant species. Seed size is thought to essentially affect rodent scatter-hoarding processes. However, studies to date have frequently shown many controversial results regarding the effect of seed size on rodent foraging. In this study, we explored how seed size affects scatter-hoarding rodent foraging preferences in order to identify the possible reasons underlying the conflicting results reported in the scientific literature. We surveyed rodent seed predation and dispersal of five common tree species in a natural subtropical forest located in southwestern China along two seasons which were different in both seed abundances and rodent communities. Our results showed that a similar effect of seed size on rodent scatter-hoarding behavior existed in both seasons, although the seeds in spring were harvested more quickly than in autumn. Larger seeds of the small-seeded species (Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus hancei, Machilns yunnanensis and Lithocarpus pachyphyllus) were harvested, removed, and finally cached by the rodents more frequently. For the largest-seeded species (Lithocarpus xylocarpus), seeds with smaller size were preferred during the rodent scatter-hoarding processes. Our findings support the hypothesis that scatter-hoarding rodents preferably feed on large seeds at early stage of seed dispersal, but only up to a certain threshold of seed size.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cache, Rodents, Seed Dispersal, Seed Predation, Seed Size</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 652-657 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1852-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1852-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1852-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-04-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1852-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Saproxylic beetles in non-intervention and coppice-with-standards restoration management in Meerdaal forest (Belgium): an exploratory analysis http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1841-009 <p><b>Vandekerkhove K, Thomaes A, Crèvecoeur L, De Keersmaeker L, Leyman A, Köhler F</b></p><p><b>SAPROXYLIC BEETLES IN NON-INTERVENTION AND COPPICE-WITH-STANDARDS RESTORATION MANAGEMENT IN MEERDAAL FOREST (BELGIUM): AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: For many centuries, coppice-with-standards management was applied in the mixed oak stands of Meerdaal forest (Belgium). Over the last century, these stands were gradually converted to high forest. On an area of 20 ha, the coppice-with-standards management is being restored, with specific adaptations for biodiversity (conservation of dead wood and veteran trees). A survey of saproxylic beetles was performed at 8 locations in the forest, including one site within the coppice-with-standards restoration. This survey not only allowed an evaluation of the saproxylic beetle richness of the forest complex, but also made exploratory observations on the effect of this type of management, as compared to non-intervention, on species richness and composition of saproxylic beetles. The results show that the overall species richness in the forest complex was quite high and comparable to forest reserves in Germany. Both coppice-with-standards and high forest options appear to be equally species-rich, but consist of different communities, both containing specific, rare and notable species, with more thermophilous and light-demanding species in the coppice-with-standards plot. Based on these observations we suggest that a diversified management approach may be the most suitable to conserve and enhance diverse saproxylic beetle communities in formerly intensively managed semi-natural woodlands. This could include areas of active conservation management aimed at producing open-canopy stands with considerable amounts of sun-exposed deadwood, combined with areas of non-intervention in a matrix of multifunctional forests, where conservation of dead wood and veteran trees is fully incorporated in the management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Coppice-with-standards, Saproxylic Beetles, Insect Biodiversity, Type of Management, Active Conservation Management</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 536-545 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1841-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1841-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1841-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1841-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Different harvest intensity and soil CO2 efflux in sessile oak coppice forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1773-009 <p><b>Darenova E, Cater M, Pavelka M</b></p><p><b>DIFFERENT HARVEST INTENSITY AND SOIL CO2 EFFLUX IN SESSILE OAK COPPICE FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Soil CO2 efflux accounts for about 45-80% of total ecosystem respiration and is therefore an important part of the ecosystem carbon cycle. Soil CO2 efflux has been poorly studied in forests managed in the ancient coppicing manner. In our study, soil CO2 efflux, temperature, and moisture were measured in sessile oak stands with different harvesting intensity (control: 0% intensity; V1: 75%; V2: 80 %; V3: 85%; and V4: 100%) during the fifth and sixth years after harvesting. Soil CO2 efflux was in the range 2-8 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 and indicated an increasing pattern with increasing harvesting intensity. The slope of that pattern became less steep from the fifth to the sixth year after harvesting, thus indicating gradual recovery of soil carbon dynamics in the coppiced stand toward the equilibrium state existing before harvesting. Temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 efflux ranged between 2.1 and 2.8, with the lowest values measured in the control stand. Soil CO2 efflux in the control stand was more sensitive to changes in soil moisture than was that on harvested plots. By our calculations, 6.2 tC ha-1 was released from the control stand and 6.2-6.8 tC ha-1 from the harvested stands during the sixth year after harvesting. If mean temperature were to rise by 1 °C, the amount of soil carbon released would increase by 7.7% in the control stand and, depending on harvesting intensity, by 9.0-10.8% in the harvested stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Low Forest, Soil Moisture, Soil Respiration, Temperature Dependence</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 546-552 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1773-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1773-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1773-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1773-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparison of assimilation parameters of coppiced and non-coppiced sessile oaks http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1824-009 <p><b>Holišová P, Pietras J, Darenová E, Novosadová K, Pokorný R</b></p><p><b>COMPARISON OF ASSIMILATION PARAMETERS OF COPPICED AND NON-COPPICED SESSILE OAKS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Coppice forest is an alternative to high forest mainly aimed at the production of firewood with a short rotation period. A new interest in this silvicultural system has arisen with the demand for renewable energy resources. Exploiting the existing root system of the stump, sprouts are advantaged over plants of seed origin, and this advantage could induce changes at the level of a photosynthetic apparatus, especially in young plants. This paper presents a comparison of the photosynthetic ability of young sprouts, young seedlings and mature trees of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) growing in a forest stand managed as a coppice-with-standards in the southeast of the Czech Republic. The basic photosynthetic characteristics and transpiration rate at the leaf level were determined using gas-exchange measurement techniques. Data taken in non-limiting conditions were compared with those obtained under limiting soil moisture. The results revealed no differences between the measured parameters of sprouts, seedlings and old trees in non-limiting conditions. Contrastingly, sprouts had the highest photosynthetic capacity and transpiration during drought due to their ability to maintain a higher stomatal conductance as compared with seedlings and old trees. This suggests a better drought tolerance of sprouts compared to seedlings.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Drought, Photosynthesis, Sprouts, Seedlings</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 553-559 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1824-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1824-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1824-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1824-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: 500 years of coppice-with-standards management in Meerdaal Forest (Central Belgium) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1782-008 <p><b>Vandekerkhove K, Baeté H, Van Der Aa B, De Keersmaeker L, Thomaes A, Leyman A, Verheyen K</b></p><p><b>500 YEARS OF COPPICE-WITH-STANDARDS MANAGEMENT IN MEERDAAL FOREST (CENTRAL BELGIUM)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: For centuries, coppice and coppice-with-standards were the main forest management systems in the northern and central parts of present Belgium. A high population density and a low forest cover in the whole region resulted in a high demand for wood, therefore strict regulations and management regimes were necessary to prevent overexploitation. We illustrate this with a well-documented case, that of Meerdaal Forest in Central Belgium, with reference to other sites in the region. Meerdaal Forest is a woodland 30 km east of Brussels. For centuries its high quality timber stands, especially oak, were managed as coppice-with-standards, with a gradually increasing share of standard trees. Using archive documents and ancient maps, we have reconstructed how this coppice-with-standard management has been developed and optimized over a period of about 500 years. Changes in cutting cycles and configurations were discerned, with a gradual increase of the importance of the standard layer over time. The analysis also showed how wood production could be successfully combined with other sources of income like grazing and pannage. We conclude that former managers of Meerdaal Forest, notwithstanding their lack of scholarship and reference works, developed a state-of-the-art sustainable and flexible management regime that allowed to provide high revenues during many centuries.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Coppice-with-standards, Archive Documents, Ancient Maps, Long-term Forest Changes, Grazing, Pannage</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 509-517 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1782-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1782-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1782-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1782-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Small forest parcels, management diversity and valuable coppice habitats: an 18th century political compromise in the Osnabrück region (NW Germany) and its long-lasting legacy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1834-009 <p><b>Mölder A</b></p><p><b>SMALL FOREST PARCELS, MANAGEMENT DIVERSITY AND VALUABLE COPPICE HABITATS: AN 18TH CENTURY POLITICAL COMPROMISE IN THE OSNABRüCK REGION (NW GERMANY) AND ITS LONG-LASTING LEGACY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study underlines the often under-estimated importance of forest ownership and land tenure in European forest biodiversity studies which are crucial for the management, structure, and tree species composition of woodland. In particular it is assumed that, in regions with both state-owned forests and smaller private forests, the latter contain more relict habitats shaped by historical woodland management practices. A government decree of 1721, a political compromise, was crucial to the present-day woodland ownership pattern and distribution of woodland habitats in the Osnabrück region (northwest Germany). It resulted in the privatization of woodlands held in common for centuries and created a huge number of small, private forest parcels in the 18th century. These developments are discussed in relation to Europe-wide processes in forest affairs. Mainly due to the low economic importance of these forest parcels, as well as the individualism of the forest owners, coppice structures providing valuable habitats have persisted until today. For instance, over-aged coppice stands provide important habitat conditions for saproxylic species and unique herbaceous layers. These valuable habitats must be protected while creating new coppice stands to eventually take their place in future decades. Management plans for Natura 2000 sites in the Osnabrück region should address this problem while reconciling any conflict of interests between private owners and nature conservation organizations. Researchers are encouraged to give more consideration to the important relationship between current woodland biodiversity and the history of forest ownership patterns.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biodiversity Conservation, Forest History, Forest Ownership, Forest Policy, Historical Ecology, Land Tenure, Nature Conservation, Silviculture</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 518-528 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1834-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1834-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1834-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1834-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Oak sprouts grow better than seedlings under drought stress http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1823-009 <p><b>Pietras J, Stojanović M, Knott R, Pokorný R</b></p><p><b>OAK SPROUTS GROW BETTER THAN SEEDLINGS UNDER DROUGHT STRESS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study focused on the comparison of two contrasting forest regeneration types and their susceptibility to drought stress. Transpiration and biomass production were studied on young sessile oak trees Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. regenerated as sprouts and seedlings, and grown in a coppice experimental site in the Czech Republic. Biomass production was estimated using destructive methods, while transpiration was derived from sap flow measurements and assessed according to the plant biometry and microclimatic conditions. Sprouts were characterized by a significantly higher diameter, height, leaf area and above-ground biomass and by a lower wood density as compared with seedlings of the same age. Moreover, the sap flow of sprouts was higher than that of seedlings, which was explained by the plant dimension. Transpiration, expressed as sap flow scaled to plant leaf area, did not differ between seedlings and sprouts when soil water was not limiting. However, during drought periods, when soil water potential dropped below -1.4 MPa, sprouts transpired significantly more than seedlings. Our results confirm that sprouts have access to a larger water pool via the old stump root system and are able to draw more water under drought. Moreover, sprouts seemed to be less susceptible to water limitations than seedlings of similar age. Less influence of drought on sprouts may partially explain their higher above-ground biomass production. Based on our results, coppice could be an appropriate management system to be adopted in sites characterized by frequent or extreme drought periods.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Drought Stress, Sap Flow, Transpiration, Biomass Production, Sessile Oak, Coppice, Sprout, Seedling</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 529-535 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1823-009<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1823-009" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1823-009</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1823-009 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Post-fire soil hydrology, water erosion and restoration strategies in Andosols: a review of evidence from the Canary Islands (Spain) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1605-008 <p><b>Neris J, Santamarta JC, Doerr SH, Prieto F, Agulló-Pérez J, García-Villegas P</b></p><p><b>POST-FIRE SOIL HYDROLOGY, WATER EROSION AND RESTORATION STRATEGIES IN ANDOSOLS: A REVIEW OF EVIDENCE FROM THE CANARY ISLANDS (SPAIN)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Andosols are the most characteristic soils of volcanic regions such as the forested, fire-prone, hillslopes of the mountainous Canary Islands (Spain). Due to their volcanic nature, these soils have traditionally been considered highly resistant to water erosion processes in undisturbed conditions, but are also highly susceptible to environmental disturbances. In addition, volcanic terrains often underlie heavily-populated, steep areas where torrential rains are frequent, increasing the threat to the population and infrastructures down-slope. Numerous hydrological and erosional catastrophic events in disturbed Andosols in the Canary Islands and worldwide, leading to major losses to lives and properties, have been historically and recently reported. The impact of environmental alterations such as land use change on hydrological and erosional response of Andosols has been widely studied in the Canary Islands and worldwide. However, the effect on this soil type of wildfires, generally considered one of the main geomorphological agents, and historically connected to the forested fire-prone Andosols of the islands, has had scant attention to date. This review seeks to redress this knowledge gap by: (i) evaluating the factors affecting the susceptibility of Andosols to catastrophic hydrological and erosional events; (ii) summarizing the published studies on the impact of fire and the post-fire response of this soil type and the specific restoration measures developed to date; and (iii) identifying research gaps and suggesting new lines of investigation in order to reduce the hydrological and erosional risks in these particular terrains.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Volcanic Ash Soils, Wildfires, Catastrophic Events, Disaster Risk Reduction, Erosion Mitigation, Post-fire Restoration</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 583-592 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1605-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1605-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1605-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2016-03-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1605-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Outcome of Ceratocystis platani inoculations in Platanus × acerifolia in relation to season and inoculum dose http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1594-008 <p><b>Pilotti M, Di Lernia G, Modesti V, Lumia V, Brunetti A</b></p><p><b>OUTCOME OF CERATOCYSTIS PLATANI INOCULATIONS IN PLATANUS × ACERIFOLIA IN RELATION TO SEASON AND INOCULUM DOSE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Ceratocystis platani is the causal agent of canker stain, the most destructive disease of Platanus spp. The selection of resistant tree genotypes should be an effective method of controlling the disease. Although breeding programs for resistance have been developed, there is no validated protocol for an in depth evaluation of the resistance phenotype. Testing the variables to identify the conditions that fully challenge the genetic potential of the host is crucial not to overestimate labile resistant phenotypes. Here we report results of testing different inoculum doses and inoculation times - early and late spring, summer and autumn - on the response of susceptible plane genotypes. Late spring inoculation gave rise to the quickest death pattern occurred, followed by early spring inoculation. Nevertheless Ceratocystis platani was aggressive also in the hottest period of the summer. The capacity of C. platani to initiate canker stain in the hottest period of the year underlines its capacity to be virulent in a wide range of temperatures. Although autumnal inoculation enabled fungus entry, its progression was precociously halted as effective and stable resistance reactions were opposed by the majority of the trees. An in vitro study of mycelial growth and conidial germination confirmed the capacity of the fungus to be active or to keep the viability in a wide range of temperatures such as in the three seasons that were taken into consideration. Thus we hypothesize that the failure of symptom expression after autumnal inoculation might be due to a combination of a temperature-linked reduction in pathogen virulence, and a season-linked resistant reaction of the host. Overall our data suggest that, in the context of legal sanitary measures, only the coldest and driest periods of the year should be considered for pruning and the removal of infected trees. The different inoculum doses did not condition the death pattern. Comparing germination in suspensions at 1.000 and 10.000 conidia per µl, self-inhibition germination occurred, as the germination rate was inversely correlated with the conidia concentration. This is a first step in the definition of a resistance-testing protocol for an in depth evaluation of resistance to canker stain.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Inoculum Dose, Inoculation Time, Resistance Reaction, Self-inhibition Conidia Germination, Thermal Niche, Resistance Testing Protocol</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 608-617 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1594-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1594-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1594-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1594-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of topography on tree species composition and volume of coarse woody debris in an Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) old growth forests, northern Iran http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1080-008 <p><b>Sefidi K, Esfandiary Darabad F, Azaryan M</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF TOPOGRAPHY ON TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND VOLUME OF COARSE WOODY DEBRIS IN AN ORIENTAL BEECH (FAGUS ORIENTALIS LIPSKY) OLD GROWTH FORESTS, NORTHERN IRAN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: There is an emerging interest in the relationships between forest structure and topographic aspects. Still, such patterns have been scarcely studied in undisturbed mixed beech forests in northern Iran. We investigated the influence of topographical factors including aspect, slope degree, and landform index (LI) on the distribution of dominant tree species and coarse woody debris (CWD). Tree density and basal area were not significantly correlated with any of the measured parameters, except a moderate relation between basal area and LI (r = - 0.376; P = 0.029). Redundancy analysis (RDA) of the tree layer revealed a significant relationship between the measured environmental variables and species distributions. CWD volume showed significant negative correlation with percent canopy coverage and was highly correlated with slope. Density of CWD in decay class IV was significantly correlated with aspect and percent of canopy cover. Analyses of CWD distributions in relation to both living vegetation and topographic gradients showed a highly complex interplay of factors driving the distribution of CWD across the forest stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Stand Structure, Physical Geography, Landform, Caspian Forest, Fagus orientalis</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 658-665 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1080-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1080-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1080-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1080-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Density and spatial distribution of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) regeneration in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) stands in the central part of the Czech Republic http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1581-008 <p><b>Dobrovolny L</b></p><p><b>DENSITY AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BEECH (FAGUS SYLVATICA L.) REGENERATION IN NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARSTEN) STANDS IN THE CENTRAL PART OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The conversion of Norway spruce monocultures to mixed forest is a long-term and costly process, and little information is available on the silvicultural use of spontaneous regeneration of native tree species to such purposes. In this context, we focused on the natural expansion of European beech in pure Norway spruce stands currently occurring in central Europe. The study was conducted in three secondary spruce stands with single adult (seed) beech trees growing on acidic sites of the fir-beech vegetation zone in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (Czech Republic). The regeneration strategy of beech and spruce (in terms of density and height increment) was studied under different light regimes (expressed using the indirect site factor - ISF) on the forest edge (9.7-41.2% ISF) and within gaps in the forest interior (10.7-20.8% ISF). Beech showed a broad light adaptability, being present under the spruce canopy with high density, depending on the distance from beech seed trees. Sparse beech saplings were found at a distance of more than 100 m from adult beech trees; however, abundant beech regeneration was found up to a distance of 25 m. Contrastingly, the density and growth in height of the spruce regeneration was strongly affected by light conditions. Spruce reached a density higher than beech in the understory where ISF > 17% (i.e., up to a distance of 45 m from the stand edge or within gaps no smaller than 400 m2), and competed with beech in terms of height growth where ISF > 20% (i.e., at the very stand edges). Knowledge of the spatial pattern and the light strategy of both species provided useful information to support the conversion of spruce monocultural stands to mixed spruce-beech forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Natural Regeneration, Beech, Spruce Monoculture, Competition, Conversion, Mixed Forest</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 666-672 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1581-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1581-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1581-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1581-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of traditional coppice practices and microsite conditions on tree health in a European beech forest at its southernmost range http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1603-008 <p><b>Cullotta S, La Placa G, Maetzke FG</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF TRADITIONAL COPPICE PRACTICES AND MICROSITE CONDITIONS ON TREE HEALTH IN A EUROPEAN BEECH FOREST AT ITS SOUTHERNMOST RANGE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: European beech (Fagus sylvatica) grows at the southern limit of its range in the mountain-Mediterranean vegetation belt up to the timberline. The southernmost beech forests of Sicily (southern Italy) show peculiar ecological, structural and silvicultural characteristics, growing in fragmented and isolated stands near the timberline and in topographically marginal unfavorable habitats. Past silvicultural practices increased the heterogeneity of stand structure at these sites. We compared stand structural characteristics and tree health in coppice-cut and control beech stands with respect to the local topographic gradient (bottom, slope and ridge) and canopy cover (clearing/border vs. interior trees). Our results clearly showed a correlation between declining tree health (crown and bark damage, higher percentage of dead trees and lower seedling density) and recent coppice-cuts, poor (marginal) site quality (on ridges and slopes) and reduced canopy cover (in clearing/border trees). The decrease of tree health indicate an increasing threat to the long-term viability of beech stands facing multiple environmental stress factors (such as those related to southern latitude and topographic position). Declining tree health in the control plots also supports this hypothesis. We concluded that traditional forest management practices, such as coppice-cuts applied regardless to the specific microenvironmental conditions, may pose a risk to beech forest health at the southernmost edge of the species’ range.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Marginal Beech Sites, Site-specific Ecology, Topographic Gradient, Cover Fragmentation, Silviculture, Coppice-cuts, Tree Damage, Madonie Mts, Sicily</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 673-681 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1603-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1603-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1603-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1603-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Impact of thinning on carbon storage of dead organic matter across larch and oak stands in South Korea http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1776-008 <p><b>Kim S, Han SH, Lee J, Kim C, Lee ST, Son Y</b></p><p><b>IMPACT OF THINNING ON CARBON STORAGE OF DEAD ORGANIC MATTER ACROSS LARCH AND OAK STANDS IN SOUTH KOREA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Dead organic matter is important in carbon (C) sequestration because it accounts for a significant proportion of forest C storage. As thinning could alter the C storage of dead organic matter, this study aimed to assess the effect of thinning on the C storage of dead organic matter including the forest floor, mineral soil at a depth of 0-30 cm, and coarse woody debris in larch and oak forests in South Korea. Differing intensities of thinning were applied to four larch and four oak stands, and the C storage of dead organic matter in thinned and control plots was compared three years after thinning. The effect sizes were estimated based on Hedges’ d to measure the influence of thinning. Total C storage of dead organic matter tended to be higher in the thinned plots (larch: 82.45 Mg C ha-1 and oak: 82.56 Mg C ha-1) than in the control plots (larch: 72.07 Mg C ha-1 and oak: 74.79 Mg C ha-1). However, estimation of effect size found that the cumulative effect size was not significant for the C storage of the forest floor, mineral soil, coarse woody debris, and dead organic matter. Only a few of the individual treatments exhibited significant effect sizes for mineral soil C storage in two larch stands and coarse woody debris C storage in two oak stands. The results indicated that the applied thinning treatments might have no consistently significant impact on the C storage of dead organic matter in the larch and oak stands after three years, though thinning may have had an idiosyncratic influence on the C storage of dead organic matter in a few of the study stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon Sequestration, Dead Organic Matter, Effect Size, Forest Thinning</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 593-598 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1776-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1776-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1776-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1776-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Optimizing the management of uneven-aged Pinus nigra stands between two stable positions http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1298-008 <p><b>López Torres I, Ortuño Pérez S, García Robredo F, Fullana Belda C</b></p><p><b>OPTIMIZING THE MANAGEMENT OF UNEVEN-AGED PINUS NIGRA STANDS BETWEEN TWO STABLE POSITIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study proposes a discrete optimal control model to obtain harvest strategies that maximize the net present value (NPV) of the timber harvested from uneven-aged Pinus nigra stands located in the Spanish Iberian System, between two stable positions. The model was constructed using an objective function that integrates financial data on the harvesting operations with a matrix model describing the population dynamics. The initial and final states are given by the stable diameter distribution of the stand, and the planning horizon is 70 years. The scenario analysis corresponding to the optimal solutions revealed that the stand diameter distribution does not deviate substantially from the equilibrium position over time and that the NPV for the optimal harvesting schedule was always greater than the NPV for the “sustainable/stable” harvesting strategy. The NPV increase for the different scenarios is between 5.36% and 14.43%, showing a greater increase in higher site index scenarios and higher recruitments.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sustainability, Stability, Equilibrium, Optimal Harvesting, Discrete Optimal Control, Matrix Model</p><p><i>iForest 9 (4): 599-607 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1298-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1298-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1298-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-03-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1298-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Does degradation from selective logging and illegal activities differently impact forest resources? A case study in Ghana http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1779-008 <p><b>Vaglio Laurin G, Hawthorne WD, Chiti T, Di Paola A, Cazzolla Gatti R, Marconi S, Noce S, Grieco E, Pirotti F, Valentini R</b></p><p><b>DOES DEGRADATION FROM SELECTIVE LOGGING AND ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES DIFFERENTLY IMPACT FOREST RESOURCES? A CASE STUDY IN GHANA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Degradation, a reduction of the ecosystem’s capacity to supply goods and services, is widespread in tropical forests and mainly caused by human disturbance. To maintain the full range of forest ecosystem services and support the development of effective conservation policies, we must understand the overall impact of degradation on different forest resources. This research investigates the response to disturbance of forest structure using several indicators: soil carbon content, arboreal richness and biodiversity, functional composition (guild and wood density), and productivity. We drew upon large field and remote sensing datasets from different forest types in Ghana, characterized by varied protection status, to investigate impacts of selective logging, and of illegal land use and resources extraction, which are the main disturbance causes in West Africa. Results indicate that functional composition and the overall number of species are less affected by degradation, while forest structure, soil carbon content and species abundance are seriously impacted, with resources distribution reflecting the protection level of the areas. Remote sensing analysis showed an increase in productivity in the last three decades, with higher resiliency to change in drier forest types, and stronger productivity correlation with solar radiation in the short dry season. The study region is affected by growing anthropogenic pressure on natural resources and by an increased climate variability: possible interactions of disturbance with climate are also discussed, together with the urgency to reduce degradation in order to preserve the full range of ecosystem functions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tropical Forest, Remote Sensing, Degradation, Logging, Guild, Africa</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 354-362 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1779-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1779-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1779-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1779-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Differential adaptations in nursery seedlings from diverse Chilean provenances of Peumus boldus Mol. http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1893-008 <p><b>Magni CR, Espinoza SE, Garrido EF, Santelices RE, Cabrera AM</b></p><p><b>DIFFERENTIAL ADAPTATIONS IN NURSERY SEEDLINGS FROM DIVERSE CHILEAN PROVENANCES OF PEUMUS BOLDUS MOL.</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Seed germination, seedling growth and biomass allocation of the endemic species Peumus boldus Mol. (Boldo) were studied in four provenances (two northern and two southern provenances) from central Chile. Seeds collected from five different mother plants for each provenance were sowed in plastic pots and placed in an ambient nursery. Germinated seeds were transplanted to 130-mL containers and cultivated under nursery conditions during one growing season. Germination capacity, seed weight, morphological traits of seedlings (root collar diameter, height, number of leaves, foliar area, root length), their biomass allocation pattern (dry mass of leaves, shoots and roots) and survival were analyzed. Results showed significant differences among provenances and mother plants for most traits. Northern provenances showed slower germination, smaller size, higher root biomass, lesser leaf area, and higher survival, while seedlings from southern provenances were taller, with more body mass, larger leaf area and lower root biomass. We concluded that northern provenances of Peamus boldus are more tolerant to drought and therefore are suitable for ecological restoration of drought-prone Mediterranean sites, while the use of southern provenances must be restricted to restoration of more humid environments.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Boldo, Habitat Differentiation, Adaptation, Seed Provenances, Seedling Growth, Survival</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 409-413 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1893-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1893-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1893-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2016-01-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1893-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Spatial diversity of forest regeneration after catastrophic wind in northeastern Poland http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1699-008 <p><b>Szmyt J, Dobrowolska D</b></p><p><b>SPATIAL DIVERSITY OF FOREST REGENERATION AFTER CATASTROPHIC WIND IN NORTHEASTERN POLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We examined the spatial diversity of young growth established after the catastrophic windthrow occurred in 2002 in the northeastern part of Poland. Our observations and measurements were conducted on permanent circular measurement plots located in the Szast Protected Forest (continental lowland temperate forests) that were established 3 years after the windstorm and left to natural succession. We evaluated the spatial indices characterizing the four main aspects of stand structure: the spatial arrangement of seedlings and saplings, species mingling, tree size diversity at the local spatial scale and the overall structural complexity index. The calculations were conducted in parts of the forest with differing severity of disturbance. The obtained results indicated the prevalence of a random arrangement of young growth. Clumps of regeneration were observed to a lesser degree in all parts of the forest. The species diversity was moderate and was the highest in the slightly or severely disturbed stands. Scots pine formed homogenous groups of regeneration and oaks were intermingled among other tree species. The height of the natural regeneration was moderately or highly differentiated in all stands. The overall structural diversity index showed that stand regeneration in the slightly or moderately disturbed stands was more differentiated than the young growth in the severely disturbed stands. The size differentiation of young growth is a long-lasting process and thus should be considered in practices aimed at the re-growing of areas after a natural disturbance. This process might be used to the replace monocultures with more diversified forests even in poor forest site types.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Spatial Diversity, Spatial Indices, Natural Regeneration, Windthrow, Forest Succession</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 414-421 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1699-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1699-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1699-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-29 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1699-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Contribution of environmental variability and ecosystem functional changes to interannual variability of carbon and water fluxes in a subtropical coniferous plantation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1691-008 <p><b>Tang Y, Wen X, Sun X, Chen Y, Wang H</b></p><p><b>CONTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABILITY AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONAL CHANGES TO INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY OF CARBON AND WATER FLUXES IN A SUBTROPICAL CONIFEROUS PLANTATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Accurate quantification of the contribution of environmental variability and functional changes to the interannual variability of net ecosystem production (NEP) and evapotranspiration (ET) in coniferous forests is needed to understand global carbon and water cycling. This study quantified these contributions to the interannual variability of NEP and ET for a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeastern China, and the effect of drought stress on these contributions was also investigated. NEP and ET were derived from eddy covariance measurements carried out over the period 2003-2012. A homogeneity-of-slopes model was adopted to quantify the contribution to the interannual variability of these fluxes. Environmental variability accounted for 71% and 85.7% of the interannual variability of NEP and ET, respectively; however, functional changes accounted for only 11.3% and 5.9%, respectively. Furthermore, functional changes explained more of the interannual variability of NEP in dry years (16.3%) than in wet years (3.8%), but there was no obvious change in the contribution of functional changes to the interannual variability of ET in dry (4.7%) or wet (5.5%) years. Thus, environmental variability rather than ecosystem functional changes dominated the interannual variability of both ET and NEP. However, different environmental variables controlled the interannual variability of NEP and ET. The results also indicated that, compared with NEP, ET was more resistant to drought stress through the self-regulating mechanisms of this plantation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Environmental Variability, Functional Changes, Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), Evapotranspiration (ET), Subtropical Plantation</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 452-460 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1691-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1691-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1691-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1691-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Investigating the effect of selective logging on tree biodiversity and structure of the tropical forests of Papua New Guinea http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1732-008 <p><b>Testolin R, Saulei S, Farcomeni A, Grussu G, Yosi C, De Sanctis M, Attorre F</b></p><p><b>INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE LOGGING ON TREE BIODIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE OF THE TROPICAL FORESTS OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Unsustainable exploitation of tropical forest resources is raising worldwide concern. In Papua New Guinea (PNG) timber harvesting has been identified as a major contributor to deforestation and forest degradation but its impact on biodiversity is still poorly understood. In this study we investigated the effect of selective logging on tree taxonomic composition, structure and diversity of PNG forests. We used data from 101 one-hectare permanent sample plots (PSPs) belonging to two vegetation types: low altitude forests on plains and fans (type P) and low altitude forests on uplands (type H). We used multivariate techniques to test for significant differences in species composition between plots of different vegetation types and disturbance regimes, identifying the tree taxa to which these differences could be ascribed. ANOVA was used to test for differences between logged-over and unlogged forest PSPs with respect to biodiversity (richness, Shannon’s diversity, Pielou’s evenness) and stand structure (stem density, basal area - BA). Temporal trends of forest features were analyzed using linear regression. Significant differences in taxonomic composition were found between logged-over and unlogged plots of the H type (p = 0.04). No differences were found in richness, diversity and evenness between logged-over and unlogged forest plots, while stem density was higher in the latter (421 ± 153 stems ha-1). Greater BA was found in unlogged forests (30.28 ± 4.45 m2 ha-1) of the H type when compared to the logged-over stands (15.52 ± 4.04 m2 ha-1). We detected positive trends in richness (0.55 ± 0.19 taxa ha-1 yr-1) and diversity after logging. Furthermore, H type forest exhibited positive trends in stem density (9 ± 1 stems ha-1 yr-1) and BA (0.42 ± 0.06 m2 ha-1 yr-1) with elapsed time since harvesting. Our analysis highlights some significant effects of logging activities on biodiversity and structure of PNG forests. Additionally, forests exhibited a significant recovery with respect to richness, diversity and stand structure. These preliminary results will be compared with data collected by the forthcoming National Forest Inventory in order to assess and monitor the effects of human activities and ecological factors on PNG forest biodiversity and develop appropriate conservation measures and sustainable management strategies.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Selective Logging, Biodiversity, Basal Area, Papua New Guinea, Multivariate Analysis, National Forest Inventory, Permanent Sample Plots, REDD+</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 475-482 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1732-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1732-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1732-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1732-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Spatial distribution pattern of Mezilaurus itauba (Meins.) Taub. Ex mez. in a seasonal forest area of the southern Amazon, Brazil http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1427-008 <p><b>Ebert A, Brito Da Costa R, Brondani GE</b></p><p><b>SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF MEZILAURUS ITAUBA (MEINS.) TAUB. EX MEZ. IN A SEASONAL FOREST AREA OF THE SOUTHERN AMAZON, BRAZIL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Spatial analysis of forest tree distribution is a powerful tool to respond to basic ecological questions, and represent a useful support to strategies of genetic conservation and sustainable management practices of forest resources. Spatial analysis techniques combined with the use of Geographical Information Systems have been commonly applied to the study of stochastic processes in order to determine the existence of clusters to be related to microenviromental conditions and/or genetic factors. The present study focused on the distribution patterns of individuals of Mezilaurus itauba in a seasonal forest of the southern Amazon, with the aim of providing information about the spatial arrangement of these species at the juvenile and adult stages. Ripley’s K function with radius of 10, 20 and 30 m was used to describe spatial distribution patterns. The hypothesis of complete spatial randomness (CSR) of individuals was tested by constructing confidence envelopes for the Ripley’s K function through Monte Carlo simulations using a Poisson homogeneous process. The results obtained suggest a general random distribution of individuals, though a tendency to clustering at close distances was detected for individuals classified as adults (DBH > 50 cm). Contrastingly, a completely randomized spatial pattern was found for juveniles trees (DBH < 50 cm). Our results provide a useful baseline for the development of sustainable management plans and conservation of Mezilaurus itauba, as well as for other economically-exploited, native tree species in the southern Amazon forest.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ripley’s K Function, Spatial Distribution Patterns, Forest Management, Conservation of Biodiversity, Horizontal Structure</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 497-502 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1427-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1427-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1427-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1427-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Nine-year monitoring of cambial seasonality and cell production in Norway spruce http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1771-008 <p><b>Giagli K, Gričar J, Vavrčík H, Gryc V</b></p><p><b>NINE-YEAR MONITORING OF CAMBIAL SEASONALITY AND CELL PRODUCTION IN NORWAY SPRUCE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We analyzed the relationship between weather conditions and year-to-year (1981-1989) variation in the seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production (CCP) in Norway spruce in a monoculture forest area in the Czech Republic. We found that the timing of CCP greatly varied among the studied years. The onset of CCP occurred at the beginning of May and was strongly correlated with the April mean temperature. CCP ceased by the end of August. The timing of the cessation of CCP was more variable among trees and among years than its onset. The amount of precipitation positively influenced the duration of CCP and the average rate of cell production positively correlated to the minimum temperature in January-April, as well as the maximum temperature during the growing period. Our results show that the timing and the rate of CCP of xylem cells are influenced by temperature and precipitation. However, weather-xylem growth relations of spruce from temperate forests under climatic conditions are complex, since trees are known to respond less strongly to climatic average variation than influences of extreme conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Picea abies, Temperature, Precipitation, Wood Formation, Xylem Increment, Light Microscopy</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 375-382 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1771-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1771-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1771-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1771-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Multifactor empirical mapping of the protective function of forests against landslide occurrence: statistical approaches and a case study http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1740-008 <p><b>Cimini D, Portoghesi L, Madonna S, Grimaldi S, Corona P</b></p><p><b>MULTIFACTOR EMPIRICAL MAPPING OF THE PROTECTIVE FUNCTION OF FORESTS AGAINST LANDSLIDE OCCURRENCE: STATISTICAL APPROACHES AND A CASE STUDY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forests are increasingly valued for services beyond timber and non-timber products including land protection with respect to events such as landslides, soil erosion, floods and avalanches. The most important properties of a protective forest are its ecological and mechanical stability. Planning and implementing multifunctional forest management in protective forests is challenging because of the trade-offs and synergies among the many functions of the forest. In this study, a multifactor empirical method is presented for assessing the protective role of forests on a stand scale with respect to landslide occurrence. Multifactor methodologies typically estimate landslide susceptibility exploiting the relationship between past landslide patterns and site characteristics. Two statistical approaches were here applied to assess the probability of landslide occurrence: the weight-of-evidence technique and the logistic regression technique. Statistical analysis was performed on the basis of landslide detachment zone only. The question of how to estimate protective forest function was answered through the comparison of models established with different sets of predicting factors. This study ultimately aims to provide a decision-support tool focused on mapping the potential role of forests in landslide-prone areas. A case study from the Italian Alps was considered. The density of landslide detachment outside forest areas proves to be more than twice than that within forest areas.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Protective Function, Landslide Susceptibility, Logistic Regression, Weight of Evidence, GIS, Alps</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 383-393 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1740-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1740-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1740-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1740-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Relationship between environmental parameters and Pinus sylvestris L. site index in forest plantations in northern Spain acidic plateau http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1600-008 <p><b>Bueis T, Bravo F, Pando V, Turrión MB</b></p><p><b>RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS AND PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. SITE INDEX IN FOREST PLANTATIONS IN NORTHERN SPAIN ACIDIC PLATEAU</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The assessment of forest productivity at early stages of stand development may help to define the most appropriate silviculture treatment to be applied for each stand. Site index (dominant height at a reference age) is a useful tool for forest productivity estimation. The aim of this study was to develop a model to predict site index for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations in northern Spain acidic plateau by using soil (physical, chemical and biochemical), climatic and physiographic parameters. To meet this objective, data from 35 stands classified into three different site quality classes and 63 soil, climatic and physiographic parameters were examined in order to develop a discriminant model. After selecting 12 discriminant models which were biologically consistent and presented the higher cross-validated rate of correct classification, a model including four parameters (latitude, inorganic Al, porosity and microbial biomass carbon) as predictors was chosen. The discriminant model classified 71% of cases correctly and no inferior-quality stands were misassigned to the highest quality class. Soil and physiographic parameters included in the above model are easily obtainable in the field or by simple laboratory analysis, thus our results can be easily integrated in operational forestry to determine site quality.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil-Site Method, Site Productivity, Environmental Factor, Discriminant Analysis, Principal Components</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 394-401 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1600-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1600-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1600-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1600-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Tree growth, wood and bark water content of 28 Amazonian tree species in response to variations in rainfall and wood density http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1676-008 <p><b>Dias DP, Marenco RA</b></p><p><b>TREE GROWTH, WOOD AND BARK WATER CONTENT OF 28 AMAZONIAN TREE SPECIES IN RESPONSE TO VARIATIONS IN RAINFALL AND WOOD DENSITY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Pole diameter and wood density are variables commonly used in allometric equations to estimate tree biomass and carbon stocks in tropical forests. The effect of variations in tree water content on pole diameters is often disregarded in allometric equations. This study aimed to determine the effect of rainfall seasonality on tree growth, stem wood and bark water content and to assess the relationship between water content and wood density (dry mass to fresh mass volume ratio) in 120 trees from 28 species in a terra-firme rain forest in the central Amazon. In 2006, stem wood and bark water content were gravimetrically determined in the dry season (August-September) and rainy season (April-May). In the same year, growth in diameter was measured at monthly intervals in the 120 trees (DBH ≥ 10 cm) with dendrometric bands previously adapted to the tree. Mean wood water content was lower in the dry season than the rainy season. On the contrary, bark water content was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. Wood densities higher than 0.75 g cm-3 were found in 64.3% of the trees. Trees with denser woods grew slower and had lower stem water content. Monthly rainfall did not affect tree growth in diameter, which was contrary to our initial expectation on the effect of rainfall seasonality on tree growth in central Amazonia. This finding supports the hypothesis that in central Amazonia, the mild dry season is not long enough to deplete soil water beyond the reach of the root system, which allows the trees to grow at quite constant rates over the year.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Amazonia, Allometry Equations, Pole Diameter, Rainfall Seasonality</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 445-451 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1676-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1676-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1676-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1676-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of family, crown position, number of winter buds, fresh weight and the length of needle on rooting ability of Pinus thunbergii Parl. cuttings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1661-008 <p><b>Hakamata T, Hiraoka Y, Yamamoto S, Kato K</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF FAMILY, CROWN POSITION, NUMBER OF WINTER BUDS, FRESH WEIGHT AND THE LENGTH OF NEEDLE ON ROOTING ABILITY OF PINUS THUNBERGII PARL. CUTTINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: As a measure for contrasting pine wilt disease, which caused serious damage in Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) by the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle), resistant trees have been widely planted in Japan. The propagation of resistant trees using cuttings obtained from healthy stock plants and inoculated with pine wood nematode is expected to further increase in the next future. To improve the cutting propagation of Japanese black pine trees resistant to pine wilt disease, the factors associated with rooting and root volume were investigated. The type of cutting and the crown position of stock plants from which cuttings were taken, were markedly associated with rooting. The crown position did not show significant interactions with any other investigated factor, while fresh weight of cuttings and their number of winter buds did not affect rooting. The rooting percentage was markedly higher for cuttings taken from the lower crown than for those from the upper crown, as already reported for other coniferous tree species. The length of the longest needle was significantly correlated with the root volume of cuttings, and showed significantly interactions with crown position and fresh weight of cuttings. Such correlation suggests that the growth of needles can be considered a useful predictor in the assessment of the root volume of cuttings during the propagation period, allowing growers to transplant rooted cuttings at the appropriate time without excavating or uprooting. These findings may contribute to the improvement of cutting propagation of Japanese black pine.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cutting Propagation, Crown Position, Rooting, Root Volume, Pinus thunbergii Parl.</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 370-374 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1661-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1661-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1661-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1661-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessment of age bias in site index equations http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1548-008 <p><b>Socha J, Coops NC, Ochal W</b></p><p><b>ASSESSMENT OF AGE BIAS IN SITE INDEX EQUATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The most widely accepted method of evaluating site productivity is site index. In spite of some important restrictions it is still a useful concept in both forest research and management. One of the most important challenges when using site index is an age trend manifested by a negative correlation between site index and stand age. Age trend may result from the inappropriateness of site index models. In this paper we develop a new approach for assessing age bias in site index models. Field data collected from 311 sample plots established in Norway spruce stands in the Polish region of the Carpathians formed the basis of this study. In the proposed approach the appropriateness of site index models is assessed by analyzing the existence of age trends in residuals of geocentric site index prediction models. Using the developed approach we demonstrated that when significant correlations exist between residuals of site index prediction models and stand age, it likely indicates the existence of an age trend and thus the inappropriateness of site index model. To remedy this situation, we demonstrated that the observed age trend can be quantified and utilized in new, non-biased, site index models.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Site Productivity, Age Trend, Climate Change, Height Growth, Site Index Model</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 402-408 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1548-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1548-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1548-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1548-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimates of selective logging impacts in tropical forest canopy cover using RapidEye imagery and field data http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1534-008 <p><b>Pinagé ER, Matricardi EAT, Leal FA, Pedlowski MA</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATES OF SELECTIVE LOGGING IMPACTS IN TROPICAL FOREST CANOPY COVER USING RAPIDEYE IMAGERY AND FIELD DATA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Selective logging is one of the leading causes of forest degradation in the Brazilian Amazon region. The Brazilian Federal government has adopted a forest concession policy as a strategy to mitigate impacts of selective logging and regulate operations of the tropical timber industry in Brazil. This study used fractional forest coverage derived from satellite imagery and field data to assess forest degradation in two selectively logged study sites within the Jamari National Forest, a protected area located in the western Brazilian state of Rondônia. Initially, we estimated the fractional coverage from vegetation indices using RapidEye imagery and compared to gap fraction data derived from hemispherical photos acquired in the field. Subsequently, we estimated the impacts of different types of selective logging activities (log decks, primary and secondary roads, tree fall gaps, and skid trails) on forest cover using the fractional coverage dataset. The NDVI showed the highest R2 (0.56), indicating that 56% of the sample variation in fractional coverage derived from ground measurements can be explained by fractional coverage derived from the NDVI model. Our results also showed that the intensity of canopy impacts may vary according to the selective logging activity, ranging from skid trails to log decks which had the lightest and the heaviest canopy impacts, respectively.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Timber Harvesting, Hemispherical Photographs, Satellite Imagery, Forest Degradation, Forest Concessions, Brazilian Amazon</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 461-468 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1534-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1534-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1534-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1534-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influence of salvage logging on forest recovery following intermediate severity canopy disturbances in mixed beech dominated forests of Slovenia http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1616-008 <p><b>Fidej G, Rozman A, Nagel TA, Dakskobler I, Diaci J</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCE OF SALVAGE LOGGING ON FOREST RECOVERY FOLLOWING INTERMEDIATE SEVERITY CANOPY DISTURBANCES IN MIXED BEECH DOMINATED FORESTS OF SLOVENIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The practice of salvage logging dead and damaged timber following large high severity disturbances has raised much controversy, partly because of the negative ecological effects that such practices have on forest ecosystems. Many of the studies on salvage logging effects, however, have been done on sites damaged by large, severe disturbances. Less is known about the ecological consequences of salvage logging following intermediate severity disturbances that cause partial canopy damage at smaller scales. We examined the response of the herbaceous layer and tree regeneration to salvaged and non-salvaged treatments following small-scale intermediate severity disturbances in eight mixed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) dominated forest stands in Slovenia. The cover and diversity of herbaceous vegetation, as well as the density and diversity of tree regeneration were similar between treatments across the study sites. The only notable differences between the treatments were that salvaged sites had a larger proportion of shade intolerant tree species in the regeneration layer, while non-salvaged sites tended to have a more well-developed regeneration layer in taller height classes. The results suggest that salvage logging following small-scale intermediate severity disturbances may not hinder forest recovery in mixed beech dominated forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fagus sylvatica, Forest Management, Intermediate Severity, Natural Disturbance, Regeneration, Salvage Logging</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 430-436 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1616-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1616-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1616-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1616-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Combined pre-hardening and fall fertilization facilitates N storage and field performance of Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1708-008 <p><b>Li G, Wang J, Oliet JA, Jacobs DF</b></p><p><b>COMBINED PRE-HARDENING AND FALL FERTILIZATION FACILITATES N STORAGE AND FIELD PERFORMANCE OF PINUS TABULAEFORMIS SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Exponential fertilization during the pre-hardening stage and fall fertilization during the hardening stage have each been used independently to nutrient load seedlings. However, nursery and field responses of seedlings to the combination of exponential fertilization and fall fertilization have received little attention. Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Car.) container seedlings were exponentially fertilized with accumulated totals of 40, 80 or 120 mg N per seedling during pre-hardening, and fall-fertilized with 0, 12, 24 or 48 mg N per seedling, and were subsequently outplanted and followed for two growing seasons. Interactions of exponential and fall fertilization had significant effects on plant N content in the nursery and first-year height after outplanting. Fall fertilization promoted additional nutrient loading during hardening for the 40-80 mg N per seedling pre-hardening regimes. The highest exponential fertilization rate enhanced N concentration in foliage and roots compared to the other two rates. Maximum diameter was observed in the lowest exponential fertilization rate at the second year after outplanting. Fall fertilization enhanced foliar N concentration. Supplemental 12 and 24 mg N per seedling during fall were more effective in increasing height increment at the second year after outplanting. Our results indicate that pre-hardening fertilization is a useful tool to nutrient load Chinese pine in the nursery and facilitate outplanting performance in the field. In combination, fall fertilization has potential to further augment this response, although further research is needed to precisely match rates of pre-hardening and fall fertilization to optimize seedling performance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Exponential Fertilization, Fall Fertilization, Nutrient-loading, Field Performance, Chinese Pine</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 483-489 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1708-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1708-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1708-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1708-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Agronomic methods for mountain grassland habitat restoration for faunistic purposes in a protected area of the northern Apennines (Italy) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1515-008 <p><b>Cervasio F, Argenti G, Genghini M, Ponzetta MP</b></p><p><b>AGRONOMIC METHODS FOR MOUNTAIN GRASSLAND HABITAT RESTORATION FOR FAUNISTIC PURPOSES IN A PROTECTED AREA OF THE NORTHERN APENNINES (ITALY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The abandonment of pastures often leads to a remarkable deterioration of grasslands, caused by the spread of intrusive, herbaceous and woody species which reduces the general quality of pastures. Different treatments aimed at improving the grassland and enhancing the forage quality of herbaceous resources have been developed to face this problem. We report the results of a five-year experiment conducted in a protected area of central Italy (the “Laghi di Suviana e Brasimone” regional park) on an abandoned pasture inside a beech forest encroached by intrusive species (mainly bracken). We analyzed the effect on sward’s specific composition and grazing value of two agronomic factors: (i) the establishment method (ploughing followed by sowing of a forage mixture versus no intervention), and (ii) the number of cuts performed on vegetation during the growing season (0, 1 or 2 cuts). Plots were arranged according to a split-split-plot experimental design with three replications, with the sampling dates as the main factor, the establishment technique as the subplot factor, and the number of cuts as the sub-subplot factor. In each plot, data were recorded once a month from June to September every year from 2006 to 2010, in order to assess the botanical composition and the quality of the sward. The main pastoral and botanical parameters of pastures were significantly affected by both cutting and sowing. Establishment by sowing significantly reduced the presence of bracken, even with no cuts, with strong effects on the qualitative value of the pasture. A single cut resulted in an efficient recovery of the pasture as compared to cutting twice, especially in sown plots. Our results confirmed that the regular and continued maintenance of the recovered areas is crucial to ensure the long-term preservation of the results achieved by the improvements.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Botanical Composition, Grasslands, Grazing Value, Pteridium aquilinum, Sowing</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 490-496 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1515-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1515-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1515-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1515-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Development of monitoring methods for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid induced tree mortality within a Southern Appalachian landscape with inhibited access http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1712-008 <p><b>Kantola T, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Coulson RN, Holopainen M, Tchakerian MD, Streett DA</b></p><p><b>DEVELOPMENT OF MONITORING METHODS FOR HEMLOCK WOOLLY ADELGID INDUCED TREE MORTALITY WITHIN A SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN LANDSCAPE WITH INHIBITED ACCESS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand, HWA) is an introduced invasive forest pest in eastern North America. Herbivory by this insect results in mortality to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L. Carr.) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.). These species occur in landscapes where extreme topographic variation is common. The vegetation communities within these landscapes feature high diversity of tree species, including several other conifer species. Traditional forest inventory procedures and insect pest detection methods within these limited-access landscapes are impractical. However, further information is needed to evaluate the impacts of HWA-induced hemlock mortality. Accordingly, our goal was to develop a semi-automatic method for mapping patches of coniferous tree species that include the living hemlock component and tree mortality by the HWA using aerial images and LiDAR (light detection and ranging) to increase our understanding of the severity and pattern of hemlock decline. The study was conducted in the Linville River Gorge in the Southern Appalachians of western North Carolina, USA. The mapping task included a two-phase approach: decision-tree and support vector machine classifications. We found that about 2% of the forest canopy surface was covered by dead trees and 43% by coniferous tree species. A large portion of the forest canopy surface (over 55%) was covered by deciduous tree species. The resulting maps provide a means for evaluating the impact of HWA herbivory, since this insect was the only significant coniferous mortality agent present within the study site.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Decision-tree Classification, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Remote Sensing, Support Vector Machine</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 178-186 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1712-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1712-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1712-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1712-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Usefulness and perceived usefulness of Decision Support Systems (DSSs) in participatory forest planning: the final users’ point of view http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1356-008 <p><b>Pastorella F, Borges JG, De Meo I</b></p><p><b>USEFULNESS AND PERCEIVED USEFULNESS OF DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSSS) IN PARTICIPATORY FOREST PLANNING: THE FINAL USERS’ POINT OF VIEW</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent decades, the focus of forestry Decision Support Systems (DSSs) has expanded to consider the social dimension of forestry and to support participatory decision-making. A large number of models and tools have become available to solve forest management planning problems. The Usefulness of a DSS depends on the range of tools that it incorporates, and many researches have been developed to evaluate DSSs using Usefulness as parameter. The assessment of Usefulness concerns the effectiveness of a DSS. Furthermore, most assessments take into account the degree of Perceived Usefulness, which is considered an indicator of the impact a system has on job performance. The present study focuses on the analysis of final users’ point of view on the Usefulness and Perceived Usefulness of DSSs in participatory forest planning. The research investigates how forest users’ characteristics and context influence their views on the potentialities of DSSs to enhance both the various phases of the participatory planning process (Usefulness) and job performance (Perceived Usefulness). The study is based on quantitative data collected through two questionnaires e-mailed to a sample of 150 DSSs end users. The questionnaires focused on Usefulness and on Perceived Usefulness topics, respectively. Results indicate that special attention must be given to motivating respondents with a clear explanation of the survey objectives when e-mailing questionnaires. Moreover, results show that, in general, respondents consider DSSs useful at each step of the participatory process, despite differences emerge among steps. The research also shows that respondents’ Perceived Usefulness of DSSs was higher before actually engaging with DSSs. Furthermore, the results highlight differences in Perceived Usefulness to improve job performance, suggesting that the use of DSSs may actually improve job performance more than expected. Specifically, results indicate that improving the technical descriptions of methodologies incorporated in a DSS may contribute to increasing the Perceived Usefulness. The information provided within this research contributes to the advancement of knowledge regarding the Usefulness of DSSs as perceived by forest stakeholders, which in turn supports the improvement of DSS architectures and the development of participatory processes in forest management planning.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Management, Decision Support Systems, Participatory Planning, Usefulness, Perceived Usefulness</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 422-429 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1356-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1356-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1356-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1356-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Endangered and endemic species increase forest conservation values of species diversity based on the Shannon-Wiener index http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1373-008 <p><b>Song Q, Wang B, Wang J, Niu X</b></p><p><b>ENDANGERED AND ENDEMIC SPECIES INCREASE FOREST CONSERVATION VALUES OF SPECIES DIVERSITY BASED ON THE SHANNON-WIENER INDEX</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Species diversity is the most important component of biodiversity and plays an important role in maintaining forest ecosystem processes and stability. The assessment of the forest conservation value of species diversity is commonly carried out based on the Shannon-Wiener index. However, endangered and endemic species were always ignored in previous studies aimed at assessing the conservation value of forest species diversity. In this study, the conservation value of forest species diversity was assessed in two representative provinces of southern and northern China (Yunnan and Jilin provinces, respectively). The conservation values of species diversity for different forest types was calculated based on the standard Shannon-Wiener index, and on two different indexes derived from it by including: (i) an endangered species index (Ei) based on the China Species Red List; (ii) an endemic species index (Bx) based on the geographic distribution of the species considered. The results showed that the inclusion of the endangered and endemic species indexes dramatically increased the forest conservation values in these two provinces. The total conservation value in the Yunnan province was 268.65 billion yuan yr-1 based on the Shannon-Wiener index, 269.78 billion yuan yr-1 after including Ei in the assessment, and 324.44 billion yuan yr-1 after the inclusion of both Ei and Bx. In Jilin province, the total conservation value was 123.94 billion yuan yr-1 based on the standard Shannon-Wiener index, 124.60 billion yuan yr-1 after including Ei, and 125.74 billion yuan yr-1 after including both Ei and Bx in the assessment. Therefore, the inclusion of endangered and endemic species in the assessment of forest conservation values, as well as other aspects related to biodiversity like the presence of ancient trees, can contribute to the protection of endangered and endemic species in these two provinces of China.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Species Diversity, Conservation Value, Endangered Species, Endemic Species</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 469-474 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1373-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1373-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1373-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2016-01-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1373-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Distribution of juveniles of tree species along a canopy closure gradient in a tropical cloud forest of the Venezuelan Andes http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1568-008 <p><b>Quevedo-Rojas A, Jerez-Rico M, Schwarzkopf Kratzer T, García-Núñez C</b></p><p><b>DISTRIBUTION OF JUVENILES OF TREE SPECIES ALONG A CANOPY CLOSURE GRADIENT IN A TROPICAL CLOUD FOREST OF THE VENEZUELAN ANDES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Cloud forests represent a minor portion of the world forests, though outstanding in terms of biodiversity, endemisms, and environmental services provided. Understanding the factors that drive the regeneration and species composition of these forests, and in particular how light availability affects the patterns of juvenile tree distribution in the understory, is critical for conservation and restoration programs. In this study, we determined the range-size and overlap of the abundance distribution of juveniles for 20 tree species in an Andean tropical cloud forest in Venezuela along a gradient of percentage canopy openness (%CO) used as a surrogate of light availability. The observed distribution of %CO was then compared with a bounded null model of community structure in order to test light partitioning as a driver of tree species’ coexistence. We measured %CO using hemispherical photography and the abundance and size of juvenile trees in 280 plots of 1-m radius spread over a 32 ha forest area. The distribution of sites was skewed towards the lower end of the %CO gradient (0.5 to 12.8%), while species abundance sharply diminished at both ends of the gradient. Nevertheless, 15 out of 20 species had a non-random distribution in relation to %CO, with many species concentrated near the lower side of the gradient. The observed pattern of species’ overlap was within the 95% confidence limits for the average overlap expected under the bounded null model. These patterns indicate that low canopy openness is the rule in this forest, in spite of the scattered tree-fall gaps, and suggest that light partitioning does not determine the tree community structure at the juvenile stage. High redundancy in light requirements among juveniles of tree species may have a positive effect on species coexistence in cloud forests, thus maintaining a high species diversity. However, other factors such as recruitment limitation and differential growth/carbon-gain among species at the juvenile stage along the light gradient could contribute to the high diversity of these ecosystems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Natural Regeneration, Light Availability, Understory, Shade Tolerance, Hemispherical Photography, Null Models</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 363-369 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1568-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1568-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1568-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-12-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1568-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of Funneliformis mosseae on growth, mineral nutrition, biochemical indexes and chlorophyll content of Ziziphus spina-christi seedlings at different salinities http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1643-008 <p><b>Mirzaei J, Mirzaei Y, Naji HR</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF FUNNELIFORMIS MOSSEAE ON GROWTH, MINERAL NUTRITION, BIOCHEMICAL INDEXES AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF ZIZIPHUS SPINA-CHRISTI SEEDLINGS AT DIFFERENT SALINITIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Vast area of the land around the world is saline. Knowledge of plant behavior and their interaction with mychorrizal fungi in saline areas may help seedling establishment in such environments. This study aimed to determine the effects of the inoculation of the fungus Funneliformis mosseae (FM) on Ziziphus spina-christi (Rhamnaceae) plants grown under salt stress. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to different levels of NaCl in the soil (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM). The following parameters were measured in both inoculated and non-inoculated plants: root colonization rate, seedling height, root diameter, root and shoot dry weights, chlorophyll a and b, total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and sodium (Na+) content, proline accumulation in roots and leaves, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The results showed that soil salinity hampered the root colonization by the fungus, and decreased basal diameter, seedling height, root and shoot dry weights, as well as some nutrients and chlorophyll a concentration, while increased leaves and roots Na+, SOD and POD activity, proline accumulation, as well as CAT activity in the roots. Contrastingly, no significant effect of soil salinity were detected on K and CAT of leaves, root N, and chlorophyll b. Inoculated plants had higher basal diameter, leaves and roots P, root and shoot dry weights, chlorophyll a and lower SOD content, proline accumulation in leaves and Na+, as compared with non-inoculated plants. Seedling height, root N, CAT and POD content, and chlorophyll b were not affected by inoculation with FM. These results demonstrated that FM inoculation is a promising method for improving the growth of Z. spina-christi seedlings under salt stress.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Salinity, Peroxidase, Chlorophyll, Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, Ziziphus spina-christi</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 503-508 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1643-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1643-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1643-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-12-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1643-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Inorganic and organic nitrogen uptake by nine dominant subtropical tree species http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1502-008 <p><b>Li C, Li Q, Qiao N, Xu X, Li Q, Wang H</b></p><p><b>INORGANIC AND ORGANIC NITROGEN UPTAKE BY NINE DOMINANT SUBTROPICAL TREE SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We explored inorganic and organic N uptake patterns by dominant tree species in a subtropical plantation of southern China to improve understanding of nitrogen (N) cycling in these forests. We labeled intact roots by brief 15N exposures in field hydroponic experiments. Nine dominant tree species were examined to compare the effects of functional plant group (conifers versus broadleaves), mycorrhizal types, and forest successional stages on N uptake. All investigated species took up glycine at lower rates than other N forms, with mean values of 2.55 ± 0.36 µg N g-1 d.w. root h-1. Nitrate uptake rates for all species (average 5.81 ± 0.35 µg N g-1 d.w. root h-1) were significantly lower than ammonium (36.86 ± 5.17 µg N g-1 d.w. root h-1). All investigated species absorbed ammonium for more than 80% of total N uptake. Nitrate acquisition by these species was about 14% of total N uptake, with only 6% for glycine. Conifers showed significantly higher uptake rates of glycine, but lower uptake of nitrate than broadleaves. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree species showed significant difference in nitrate uptake, with higher rates by AM tree species. Tree species at late-successional forest stages showed higher uptake rates of nitrate than those in earlier successional stages. Our findings indicate that ammonium is the dominant N source and glycine is a minor N source throughout forest succession.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Plant Functional Group, AM Fungi, ECM Fungi, N Uptake, Subtropical Tree Species, Succession</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 253-258 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1502-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1502-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1502-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-12-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1502-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimation of stand crown cover using a generalized crown diameter model: application for the analysis of Portuguese cork oak stands stocking evolution http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1624-008 <p><b>Paulo JA, Faias SP, Ventura-Giroux C, Tomé M</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATION OF STAND CROWN COVER USING A GENERALIZED CROWN DIAMETER MODEL: APPLICATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PORTUGUESE CORK OAK STANDS STOCKING EVOLUTION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A generalized non-linear tree crown diameter model was developed with the aim of allowing the computation of tree crown diameter over a large range of tree dimensions, and allowing its inclusion in forest growth and yield models. The model was formulated to provide biological meaning to the predicted values. Due to the nested structure of the data analyzed (trees within stands), both mixed- and fixed-effect models were developed. Since tree crown diameter is not frequently measured in forest inventories, the validation of the mixed model was carried out by considering the population specific response. The results demonstrate that when the measurements required for the mixed model calibration are not available, the use of the fixed effect model results in less biased and more accurate estimates. The fixed model was applied to the data from the two last Portuguese National Forest Inventories (NFI) to analyze the change in stand crown cover and assess the stocking evolution of cork oak stands in Portugal between 1996 and 2006. Results showed an increase in the frequency of stands with crown cover lower than 20%, as well as a decrease in the frequency of stands with crown cover between 20 and 40%. Average crown cover values were significantly different in the two NFI, with a decrease from 28.0 to 26.5% over the considered period.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Quercus suber, Stand Crown Cover, Tree Crown Diameter, Nonlinear Mixed Effects Model, Nonlinear Fixed Effects Model, Portuguese National Forest Inventory</p><p><i>iForest 9 (3): 437-444 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1624-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1624-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1624-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-12-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1624-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of understory removal on root production, turnover and total belowground carbon allocation in Moso bamboo forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1674-008 <p><b>Tang X, Fan S, Qi L, Guan F, Liu G, Du M</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF UNDERSTORY REMOVAL ON ROOT PRODUCTION, TURNOVER AND TOTAL BELOWGROUND CARBON ALLOCATION IN MOSO BAMBOO FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Although the role of roots has been highlighted in carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems, root production, turnover and total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) under different management regimes in Moso bamboo forests have not been determined to date. In this study, sequential soil cores were collected at two soil depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) to assess the effects of understory removal on root production, turnover, and TBCA in Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China. A total of 1080 sequential soil cores were collected from April 2011 to March 2012. Understory removal significantly reduced fine root biomass and production for both soil layers (p < 0.05). Total fine root biomass was 781.9, 419.2, and 638.7 g m-2 for an unmanaged stand (stand I), pesticide-treated stand (stand II), and hand-weeded stand (stand III), and fine root production was 467.5, 235.1, and 321.6 g m-2 a-1, respectively. Understory removal did not significantly affect fine root turnover (0.5-0.6 a-1). Fine root turnover showed a strong relationship with fine root production, but not with fine root biomass, indicating that fine root production was the main driver of fine root turnover. TBCA calculated from the component cumulative approach was in order of stand I (481.9 g C m-2 a-1) > stand II (457.7 g C m-2 a-1) > stand III (404.9 g C m-2 a-1), though the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, TBCA calculated from the mass balance approach showed a reverse trend compared to the component cumulative approach. The TBCA of stand III was significantly higher than that of stand I and stand II (p < 0.05), demonstrating that the belowground process is complex and standardizing the method of estimation of TBCA is extremely important in global carbon cycle modeling.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fine Root, Coarse Root, Production, TBCA, Moso Bamboo Forest</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 187-194 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1674-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1674-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1674-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-11-20 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1674-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Rapid spread of a fleshy-fruited species in abandoned subalpine meadows - formation of an unusual forest belt in the eastern Carpathians http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1470-008 <p><b>Durak T, Zywiec M, Kapusta P, Holeksa J</b></p><p><b>RAPID SPREAD OF A FLESHY-FRUITED SPECIES IN ABANDONED SUBALPINE MEADOWS - FORMATION OF AN UNUSUAL FOREST BELT IN THE EASTERN CARPATHIANS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent decades, most subalpine hay meadows and pastures have been abandoned, and trees have been recolonizing these sites where forest existed before agricultural activity. This study examined how woody vegetation, dominated by the deciduous fleshy-fruited tree Sorbus aucuparia (rowan), expanded on subalpine meadows in the Western Bieszczady Mountains (eastern Carpathians, Poland) after the cessation of agricultural use. The aims were to determine the abundance of rowan in the woody vegetation, to estimate the rate of rowan expansion in the studied area, and to characterize the variability of rowan stands and growth forms. Rowan dominated the current plant community of abandoned subalpine meadows, though this species is not considered a rapid colonizer of open areas and was not frequent in the uppermost forest belt before the colonization. The whole area was encroached by rowans in a very short period of time 60-70 years ago. Rowan tree density was similar throughout the elevational gradient but the growth form changed, becoming more shrub-like with increasing elevation. Rowan stands will likely be the main element of the subalpine belt in this region in the upcoming decades. At present, no tree species can be considered a rapid successor to rowan in the area.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Abandoned Subalpine Meadows, Forest Recolonization, Land Use Change, Subalpine Forest, Succession of Woody Vegetation</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 337-343 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1470-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1470-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1470-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-11-20 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1470-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Public attitudes towards the use of transgenic forest trees: a cross-country pilot survey http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1441-008 <p><b>Kazana V, Tsourgiannis L, Iakovoglou V, Stamatiou C, Alexandrov A, Araújo S, Bogdan S, Bozic G, Brus R, Bossinger G, Boutsimea A, Celepirović N, Cvrčková H, Fladung M, Ivankovic M, Kazaklis A, Koutsona P, Luthar Z, Máchová P, Malá J, Mara K, Mataruga M, Moravcikova J, Paffetti D, Paiva JA, Raptis D, Sanchez C, Sharry S, Salaj T, Šijačić-Nikolić M, Tel-Zur N, Tsvetkov I, Vettori C, Vidal N</b></p><p><b>PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE USE OF TRANSGENIC FOREST TREES: A CROSS-COUNTRY PILOT SURVEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Information on public attitudes towards the use of transgenic trees in forest plantations is important in the decision-making process and policy implementation for safe tree development, particularly at the EU level. In Europe, the use of transgenic forest trees is very limited and therefore such information is completely lacking. To address this issue within the FP0905 European COST Action on the Biosafety of Transgenic Forest Trees a pioneer cross-country pilot survey on public attitudes towards the use of transgenic forest trees was conducted using young population as a focus group. This was decided mainly because this focus group represents the future consumers, policy makers or developers. Specifically, the survey aimed to: i) assess the level of young people’s knowledge about transgenic forest trees, ii) identify issues of concern to them regarding the cultivation of transgenic forest trees and iii) explore whether they approve or disapprove of the use of transgenic forest trees in plantations. Purposive sampling was performed and university students of different disciplines were included in the research as sampling subjects. In total, 1868 completed questionnaires from 15 European and non-European countries were analyzed. The young educated people that took part in the survey appeared to approve of the use of transgenic forest trees in plantations and would be willing to buy forest transgenic products. The potential loss of biodiversity due to a risk of gene flow between transgenic and wild trees was seen as the safety issue of most concern when considering the commercial release of transgenic forest trees. However, a serious perceived lack of knowledge about potential benefits and risks of the cultivation of transgenic forest trees was recorded in most of the countries. K-means clustering was implemented on respondents’ positive responses to identify potential country patterns. No differences in patterns of public attitude towards the acceptance of the commercial growing of transgenic forest trees were observed between European and non-European countries. Extended research on public attitude issues towards the use of transgenic forest trees is strongly recommended as a basis for policy implementation on safe tree development.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: GM Forest Trees, Public Awareness, Public Acceptance, k-means Clustering, University Students</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 344-353 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1441-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1441-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1441-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-11-20 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1441-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Fire occurrence zoning from local to global scale in the European Mediterranean basin: implications for multi-scale fire management and policy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1513-008 <p><b>Koutsias N, Allgöwer B, Kalabokidis K, Mallinis G, Balatsos P, Goldammer JG</b></p><p><b>FIRE OCCURRENCE ZONING FROM LOCAL TO GLOBAL SCALE IN THE EUROPEAN MEDITERRANEAN BASIN: IMPLICATIONS FOR MULTI-SCALE FIRE MANAGEMENT AND POLICY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study proposes and evaluates a relatively new concept for fire occurrence zoning based on documented historical fire records. The proposed method creates continuous kernel density surfaces based on wildland fire ignition observations. Kernels have the advantage of directly producing density estimates that are not influenced by grid size or localization effects. Within this scheme, kernel density surfaces have been created and reclassified to construct fire occurrence zones at local to global scales in the Mediterranean Basin. Specifically, fire occurrence zones were created for the European scale (European Mediterranean Basin), national scale (Greece), regional scale (Peloponnese, Greece) and local scale (Chalkidiki, Greece). To evaluate fire occurrence zones, we compared the observed with the expected distribution of the number of fires within these zones using a Monte Carlo randomization test, finding that these numbers were statistically different in all cases. The deviations observed from the expected distributions towards the high occurrence zone indicated their successful assessment and value. In this paper, we further discuss their potential role and use for multi-scale fire management and policy in a European context.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fire Occurrence Zones, Kernel Density Interpolation, Local Scale, Regional Scale, National Scale, European Scale, Greece</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 195-204 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1513-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1513-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1513-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-11-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1513-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with autochthonous white poplar from Serbia http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1370-008 <p><b>Katanić M, Grebenc T, Orlović S, Matavuly M, Kovačević B, Bajc M, Kraigher H</b></p><p><b>ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL COMMUNITY ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOCHTHONOUS WHITE POPLAR FROM SERBIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We analyzed the community of ectomycorrhizal fungi of an autochthonous white poplar (Populus alba L.) stand in the Kovilj-Petrovaradin marshes (Serbia), and examined its seasonal dynamics. Ectomycorrhizal types were identified by combining morphological and anatomical descriptions with molecular methods (sequencing of ITS region of ribosomal DNA). In two seasons, 20 ectomycorrhizal types were recorded, from which 11 types were identified to the species level, six were determined to the genus level, two types were determined to the family level and one type remained unidentified. Number of ectomycorrhizal types, number of fine roots, percentage of vital mycorrhizal roots, diversity indexes and abundance of exploration types did not differ significantly between autumn and spring. During both seasons, the most abundant types were: Entoloma sp., Tuber maculatum, Cenococcum geophilum, Tuber rufum and Peziza sp. Due to the high variation of the ectomycorrhizal types-based Shannon-Weaver diversity index in poplar stands, and the fact that poplars form dual mycorrhizal association, this index is not recommended as a reliable index for bioindication in poplar.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ectomycorrhiza, Populus alba, Diversity, Nature Reserve, Seasonal Dynamics, Morphological-Anatomical Characterization, Molecular Identification</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 330-336 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1370-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1370-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1370-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-11-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1370-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Variation in resistance to the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina Kleb. in Populus nigra L. in the Czech Republic http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1458-008 <p><b>Štochlová P, Novotná K, Benetka V</b></p><p><b>VARIATION IN RESISTANCE TO THE RUST FUNGUS MELAMPSORA LARICI-POPULINA KLEB. IN POPULUS NIGRA L. IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Differences in Populus nigra L. clone resistance to the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina Kleb. (MLP) were studied in field trials where infected trees were compared with fungicide-protected trees. MLP rust infections were assessed using a 6-point scale. Four parameters of poplar growth were also measured to gauge host response to infection: shoot thickness, shoot number at the end of the growing season, individual plant dry weight, and dry matter yield per unit area. Five of eight known pathogen virulence types were detected. Cumulative growth in shoot thickness in sprayed and unsprayed plots was similar in clones with high rust pathogen resistance, but significantly different in clones with low resistance. Clones with low resistance also exhibited delayed growth initiation in the year following infection, an effect attributed to lower food storage accumulated during the previous year, reflected in a reduction in stem diameter. Based on stem thickness measurements, it was confirmed growth ceased at the end of August. Average rust severity symptoms ranged from 2.75 to 4.22 on the 6-point scale. The percentage reduction for the various growth parameters resulting from rust infection ranged as follows: individual plant dry weight 5-64%; dry matter yield 21-66%; shoot number 17-46%; and stem diameter 1-35%. Exclusive of stem diameter, these reductions correlated with severity in MLP rust infection. The one exception was tolerance to rust infection displayed by one of the clones. Clones with the lowest growth reductions were 97/152 and 97/157. Growth and yield parameter variation as a result MLP resistance difference was observed among tested P. nigra clones. This variation can be viewed as confirmation that resistance observed in this study and P. nigra clones is a suite of quantitative traits. These findings have important implications for MLP resistance breeding programs.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Stem diameter, Pathogen effects, Pathogen tolerance, Melampsora larici-populina virulence, Field infection</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 146-153 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1458-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1458-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1458-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-10-26 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1458-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: The forest biodiversity artery: towards forest management for saproxylic conservation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1657-008 <p><b>Mason F, Zapponi L</b></p><p><b>THE FOREST BIODIVERSITY ARTERY: TOWARDS FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR SAPROXYLIC CONSERVATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: One of the objectives of forest conservation is the set aside of unharvested areas. However, the fragmentation and lack of connectivity of protected areas make the integration of conservation measures in productive forests essential. Strategies to integrate conservation of saproxylic biodiversity in forest management have been developed, but often considering only specific aspects or remaining preliminary otherwise. As the impact of climate change and anthropogenic stresses increases, the development and the synthesis of this approach is crucial. We reviewed the key literature on forest management for biodiversity conservation, integrating forest science perspective to provide a practical management framework. Our goal is to present a management framework that could contribute to the effective preservation of forest insect biodiversity at the landscape scale, without high economic efforts, and addressing the conflicts that still jeopardize sustainable forest management. The results of our review support the creation of micro-reserves inside productive forests, to support large reserves in landscape conservation strategies. Micro-reserves increase the resilience of forest ecosystems to anthropogenic disturbances, through the development of a heterogeneous structure, maximizing microhabitat availability. Modeling forest management and harvest on local natural disturbance would extend the benefits of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in productive forests. Variable retention harvest systems, applied at the landscape scale, are a feasible and adaptable strategy to preserve and increase biodiversity, safeguarding structural legacies such as senescent trees and deadwood inside the productive matrix. The operational shift, from the stand to the forest landscape, is fundamental to extend the benefits of conservation measures. The Forest Biodiversity Artery, composed by several micro-reserves or îlots de senescence, connected by corridors of habitat trees and deadwood, constitutes a network that would deliver old-growth forests attributes to the productive matrix. This planning instrument would support forest connectivity, and socioeconomic constraints.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biodiversity, Deadwood, Gap, Habitat Tree, Integrative Conservation, Landscape, Microhabitat, Retention</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 205-216 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1657-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1657-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1657-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2015-10-26 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1657-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Adaptability of Indocalamus decorus to climate change based on physiological and biochemical responses to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1571-008 <p><b>Guo Z, Zhuang M, Li Y, Chen S, Yang Q</b></p><p><b>ADAPTABILITY OF INDOCALAMUS DECORUS TO CLIMATE CHANGE BASED ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES TO ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) are important greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change. The effects of elevated CO2 and/or O3 on plants remain unclear. Plant responses to mixtures of the two gases at high concentrations are likely to be complex. Previous studies have shown that the ability to tolerate elevated levels of the two gases varies among plant species; physiological adaptability in the face of changing atmospheric composition also differs among taxa. However, the effects of mixtures of the two greenhouse gases on the growth and physiology of bamboo are largely unexplored, even though bamboos are important vegetation elements throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the planet. In this study, we used open-topped chambers (OTC) to double the concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3, and examined changes in membrane lipid peroxidation, photosynthetic physiology, and antioxidase activities in Indocalamus decorus leaves. After 103 days of treatment, elevated O3 depressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn) without changing stomatal function, but caused no significant oxidative damage in the leaves. High levels of antioxidase activities were maintained in the leaves, indicating that this species had a strong tolerance to elevated O3. Decreases in reactive oxygen content and antioxidase activity in the leaves highlighted the significant positive effects of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis in I. decorus. When a mixture of both gases was supplied at high concentrations, we detected no oxidative damage, although photosynthetic capacity was reduced. Negative effects of O3 were very marked during the early part of the treatment period, but the effects of CO2 were positive. CO2 mitigated the oxidative damage caused by O3 and promoted the growth of I. decorus. Thus, I. decorus tolerated the two greenhouse gases, and was able to adapt to elevated CO2 and O3 levels. These findings contribute to the current knowledge base on the response of bamboo to global climate change.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Antioxidant Enzyme, Carbon Dioxide, Indocalamus decorus, Membrane Lipid Peroxidation, Ozone, Photosynthetic Physiology</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 311-317 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1571-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1571-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1571-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-10-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1571-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of different silvicultural measures on plant diversity - the case of the Illyrian Fagus sylvatica habitat type (Natura 2000) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1587-008 <p><b>Kutnar L, Eler K, Marinšek A</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SILVICULTURAL MEASURES ON PLANT DIVERSITY - THE CASE OF THE ILLYRIAN FAGUS SYLVATICA HABITAT TYPE (NATURA 2000)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In Slovenia, the Natura 2000 network covers more than 37% of the country. Forests dominate more than 70% of this area, and forest management is a significant driver of diversity. Depending on the options applied, forest management may enhance or decrease forest biodiversity. Dinaric fir-beech forests (part of Natura 2000 habitat type) with remarkable nature-conservation interest and timber production functions were selected for this study. With the aim of testing the effects of different silvicultural measures on plant diversity in these forests, and consequently on biodiversity in a broader sense, three sites in the Slovenian part of a Dinaric fir-beech forest range were studied. The plant species diversity was assessed before and after the implementation of silvicultural measures of three intensities: (1) control plots - no logging; (2) logging of 50% of the growing stock; and (3) logging of 100% of the growing stock. Before the implementation of the silvicultural measures, the mean number of plant species per 400 m² vegetation plots was 48.8, and the mean value of the Shannon’s diversity index was 2.41. Two years after the measures were implemented, different magnitudes of plant species turnover were observed. There were no significant changes in plant diversity status and vegetation composition in the control plots. Two years after 50% of the growing stock was logged, the mean number of species was 73.3, and the mean value of the Shannon index was 3.21. In the plots where all the trees were removed, the mean number of species was 87.4, and the mean value of the Shannon index was 3.42. In parallel with the increases in the diversity parameters, the cover of the herbaceous layer increased significantly with an increase in the silvicultural intensity, indicating that short-term species turnover can mostly be attributed to herbaceous plant species. As a result of changed stand and ecological conditions, an increased plant diversity, a greater biodiversity in a broader sense and an improved habitat suitability for different animal species could be expected.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Management, Silviculture, Nature Conservation, Plant Diversity, Species Turnover, Gap Colonization, Mountain Forest, Dinaric Fir-beech Forest, Natura 2000</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 318-324 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1587-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1587-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1587-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-10-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1587-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Effect of intensive planting density on tree growth, wood density and fiber properties of maple (Acer velutinum Boiss.) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1333-008 <p><b>Naji HR, Nia MF, Kiaei M, Abdul-Hamid H, Soltani M, Faghihi A</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF INTENSIVE PLANTING DENSITY ON TREE GROWTH, WOOD DENSITY AND FIBER PROPERTIES OF MAPLE (ACER VELUTINUM BOISS.)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Planting density is a major factor in determining tree growth and wood quality. Although the effect of low planting density on the variation of tree and wood characteristics has been already reported, the effect of intensive initial densities in plantations has not been fully assessed yet. In this study, the effect of intensive planting densities on tree growth, wood density and fiber cell properties was investigated in the context of the development of densely-stocked maple plantations for wood production. The study was carried out in a 12-year-old Acer velutinum trial plantation in northern Iran, with initial densities of 10000, 4444, and 2500 trees ha-1 planted. The variation of diameter at breast height, annual ring width, stem taper, wood density, and fiber cell properties were examined. As expected, low planting densities showed trees with larger diameter at breast height and annual ring width. The largest trees at higher densities were smaller than those in lower planting densities. However, initial planting density had no significant effect on stem taper, wood density and fiber cell properties. In addition, no significant relationships between tree growth features and wood properties were detected, indicating similar wood properties at all planting densities. Therefore, stand/tree growth attributes under intensive planting densities could not be considered as reliable predictors of the wood properties.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Initial Spacing, Annual Ring Width, Wood Density, Fiber Properties, Acer velutinum</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 325-329 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1333-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1333-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1333-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2015-10-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1333-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Availability of tree cavities in a sal forest of Nepal http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1493-008 <p><b>Bhusal P, Czeszczewik D, Walankiewicz W, Churski M, Baral R, Lamichhane BR, Mikusinski G</b></p><p><b>AVAILABILITY OF TREE CAVITIES IN A SAL FOREST OF NEPAL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tree cavities are important structural elements of forest ecosystem that host numerous birds, mammals and other cavity-dependent organisms. Pattern of cavity distribution in temperate and boreal forests are relatively well studied, yet little is known about cavities in tropical and subtropical forests. We compared cavity availability in relation to tree condition (living tree and snag), tree species and DBH class between two different sites in a subtropical deciduous sal forest in Nepal: the Chitwan National Park Forest (the park site) and the Khorsor Buffer Zone Forest (the buffer site). Surveys for tree cavities were conducted in 2013 on 50 circular sample plots of size 0.1 ha. We recorded 40 cavity trees in the park site and 31 cavity trees in the buffer site. Density of cavities was on average 22.4 ha-1 in the park site and 19.2 ha-1 in the buffer site. Cavities occurred mostly in living trees (85.9% cavity trees) and were formed mostly by damage and decay (natural cavities: 74%) or by woodpecker activity (excavated cavities: 26%). Most were observed on three tree species: Shorea robusta, Dillenia pentagyna and Syzygium operculatum, with a mean diameter of 43 cm (range: 12-111 cm). S. operculatum, Myrsine semiserrata and Semecarpus anacardium were overrepresented among tree species with cavities. In snags, 25.0% of all cavities were found in the park site and 8.3% in the buffer site, while snags represented 4.2% and 2.2% of all trees in the two sites, respectively. Statistical anaysis indicated that tree species, tree condition and particularly diameter (DBH) were important variables for the prediction of cavity presence. We recommend cavity-bearing tree species to be better protected by forest management in order to help maintain the community of cavity dwellers.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chitwan National Park, Natural Cavities, Excavated Cavities, Subtropical Forest, Tree Holes</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 217-225 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1493-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1493-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1493-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-10-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1493-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Sensitivity of European beech trees to unfavorable environmental factors on the edge and outside of their distribution range in northeastern Europe http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1398-008 <p><b>Augustaitis A, Kliučius A, Marozas V, Pilkauskas M, Augustaitiene I, Vitas A, Staszewski T, Jansons A, Dreimanis A</b></p><p><b>SENSITIVITY OF EUROPEAN BEECH TREES TO UNFAVORABLE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE EDGE AND OUTSIDE OF THEIR DISTRIBUTION RANGE IN NORTHEASTERN EUROPE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: European beech is a successful tree species outside its distribution range in northeastern Europe, where Prussian foresters introduced it mainly into Scots pine stands. This forest management practice resulted in new issues related to the sensitivity of European beech to current environmental changes in areas outside its natural range. We hypothesized that recent global environmental changes promoted the northeast migration of European beech outside its distribution range in Europe. To test this hypothesis, dendrochronological analysis of beech tree ring series was performed for eight sites located in Poland, Lithuania and Latvia. Frost in winter months and heat in June, along with drought in the vegetation period, limited beech tree growth outside its natural distribution range in northeast Europe. Higher air concentration of surface ozone and sulphur deposition level reinforced the negative effect of the detected key meteorological variables on beech growth, while higher air concentrations and deposition of nitrate had a positive effect. These factors explained about 50% of the total variation in increment indexes of beech trees at sites on the northeasren edge of their range. The observed trends of beech growth over the last 25 years has determined favorable conditions for planting this tree species outside its natural range in northeastern European forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: European Beech, Tree Increment Indexes, Meteorological Parameters, Ozone, Acidifying Compounds</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 259-269 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1398-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1398-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1398-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-10-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1398-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Impact of climate change on tree-ring growth of Scots pine, common beech and pedunculate oak in northeastern Germany http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1421-008 <p><b>Bauwe A, Jurasinski G, Scharnweber T, Schröder C, Lennartz B</b></p><p><b>IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TREE-RING GROWTH OF SCOTS PINE, COMMON BEECH AND PEDUNCULATE OAK IN NORTHEASTERN GERMANY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tree growth depends, among other factors, largely on the prevailing climatic conditions. Therefore, changes to tree growth patterns are to be expected under climate change. Here, we analyze the tree-ring growth response of three major European tree species to projected future climate across a climatic (mostly precipitation) gradient in northeastern Germany. We used monthly data for temperature, precipitation, and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) over multiple time scales (1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months) to construct models of tree-ring growth for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at three pure stands, and for common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) at three mature mixed stands. The regression models were derived using a two-step approach based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) to extract potentially well explaining variables followed by ordinary least squares regression (OLSR) to consolidate the models to the least number of variables while retaining high explanatory power. The stability of the models was tested through a comprehensive calibration-verification scheme. All models were successfully verified with R²s ranging from 0.21 for the western pine stand to 0.62 for the beech stand in the east. For growth prediction, climate data forecasted until 2100 by the regional climate model WETTREG2010 based on the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenario was used. For beech and oak, growth rates will likely decrease until the end of the 21st century. For pine, modeled growth trends vary and range from a slight growth increase to a weak decrease in growth rates. The climatic gradient across the study area will possibly affect the future growth of oak with larger growth reductions towards the drier east. For beech, site-specific adaptations seem to override the influence of the climatic gradient. We conclude that Scots pine has great potential to remain resilient to projected climate change without any greater impairment, whereas common beech and pedunculate oak will likely face lesser growth under the expected warmer and dryer climate conditions. The results call for an adaptation of forest management to mitigate the negative effects of climate change for beech and oak.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), Precipitation Gradient, Tree-ring Growth Forecast, Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Tree Rings, WETTREG</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 1-11 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1421-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1421-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1421-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-10-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1421-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Leaf transpiration of drought tolerant plant can be captured by hyperspectral reflectance using PLSR analysis http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1634-008 <p><b>Wang Q, Jin J</b></p><p><b>LEAF TRANSPIRATION OF DROUGHT TOLERANT PLANT CAN BE CAPTURED BY HYPERSPECTRAL REFLECTANCE USING PLSR ANALYSIS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A clear understanding of plant transpiration is a crucial step for water cycle and climate modeling, especially for arid ecosystems in which water is one of the major constraints. Traditional field measurements of leaf scale transpiration are always time-consuming and often unfeasible in the context of large spatial and temporal scales. This study focused on a dominant native plant in the arid land of central Asia, Haloxylon ammondendron, with the aim of deriving the leaf-scale transpiration through hyperspectral reflectance using Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) analysis. The results revealed that the PLSR model based on the first-order derivative spectra at wavelengths selected through stepwise regression analysis can closely trace leaf transpiration with a high accuracy (R2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.62 µmol g-1 s-1). The accuracy is also relatively stable even at a spectral resolution of 10 nm, which is very close to the bandwidths of several running satellite-borne hyperspectral sensors such as Hyperion. The results also proved that the first-order derivative spectra within the shortwave infrared (SWIR) domain, especially at 2435, 2440, 2445, and 2470 nm, were critical for PLSR models to predict leaf transpiration. These findings highlight a promising strategy for developing remote sensing methods to potentially characterize transpiration at broad scales.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Arid Land, Leaf Transpiration, PLSR, Derivative Spectra, Drought-tolerant, Haloxylon ammondendron</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 30-37 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1634-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1634-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1634-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-10-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1634-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of plant species on P cycle-related microorganisms associated with litter decomposition and P soil availability: implications for agroforestry management http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1459-008 <p><b>Correa E, Carvalhais L, Utida M, Oliveira CA, Scotti MR</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF PLANT SPECIES ON P CYCLE-RELATED MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH LITTER DECOMPOSITION AND P SOIL AVAILABILITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGROFORESTRY MANAGEMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Cutting dry deciduous forest (preserved site) for wood supply in semi-arid Brazil has led to invasion of a pioneer shrub vegetation called “Carrasco” (disturbed site), which inhibits the sprouting of native species. A land restoration project was undertaken in a cleared Carrasco area where a mixed plantation of native species and Eucalyptus spp. (experimental site) was established to preserve the forest and ensure wood supply for the local population. We considered phosphorus as a limiting soil nutrient to plant growth, and we addressed the roles of litter decomposition and microbial activity on phosphorus release in the disturbed, preserved and experimental sites. The phosphorus released from leaf litter was affected by the vegetation type, which favored specific soil microbial populations during decomposition. The Carrasco vegetation predominantly favored arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), as shown by root colonization in the litter bags; the Eucalyptus plants favored AMF and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM), as well as phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM), and the intercropping system favored AMF and PSM groups. In contrast, the preserved site favored the PSM population. High phosphatase activity was found in the preserved and experimental sites in contrast to the Carrasco soil. Principal component analysis showed that AMF root colonization and phosphatase activity were the main parameters influencing the increase in soil phosphorus. Based on the above results, rehabilitation appeared to be underway in the experimental site, since the samples were more similar to the preserved site than to the disturbed site. This effect was attributed to Eucalyptus camaldulensis that promote the establishment of all phosphorus cycle-related microorganisms (AMF, EM and PSF). E. camaldulensis associated with mycorrhizal fungi and PSM are recommended for inclusion in agroforestry systems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Agroforestry System, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Land Restoration, Litter Decomposition, Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms, Soil Phosphorus</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 294-302 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1459-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1459-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1459-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-10-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1459-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Nutritional, carbon and energy evaluation of Eucalyptus nitens short rotation bioenergy plantations in northwestern Spain http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1505-008 <p><b>González-García M, Hevia A, Majada J, Rubiera F, Barrio-Anta M</b></p><p><b>NUTRITIONAL, CARBON AND ENERGY EVALUATION OF EUCALYPTUS NITENS SHORT ROTATION BIOENERGY PLANTATIONS IN NORTHWESTERN SPAIN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study provides essential information related to the nutrient and carbon levels and the energy potential of Eucalytpus nitens (Deane & Maiden) Maiden bionenergy plantations located in northwestern Spain. Nutritional analysis showed that leaves and bark had the highest concentrations of N, P, K and Mg. Carbon concentration was constant for all above-ground tree components. Nutrients and carbon were analyzed at stand level according to plantation productivity. Stemwood, the main tree component at the end of the rotation, had the highest nutrient content, except for N and Ca, which were highest in leaves and bark respectively. Based on this study, the nutrient content per ha of above-ground biomass was 243-706 kg N, 44-122 kg P, 131-375 kg K, 121-329 kg Ca and 25-67 kg Mg at the end of the bioenergy rotation (6-12 years, depending on site quality) and 19-56 Mg C ha-1. Energy analysis showed a fairly constant Net Calorific Value for wood, 18.32 ± 0.19 MJ kg-1. The results obtained are valuable for selecting the most appropriate forest management system in these bioenergy plantations, and thereby promote the sustainable use of woody crops.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Eucalyptus, Woody Crops, Bioenergy, Site Quality, Nutrient, Carbon, Energy Potential, Calorific Value</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 303-310 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1505-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1505-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1505-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-10-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1505-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Dead wood quality influences species diversity of rare cryptogams in temperate broadleaved forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1483-008 <p><b>Preikša Z, Brazaitis G, Marozas V, Jaroszewicz B</b></p><p><b>DEAD WOOD QUALITY INFLUENCES SPECIES DIVERSITY OF RARE CRYPTOGAMS IN TEMPERATE BROADLEAVED FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Dead wood is one of the most important indicators of forest naturalness and the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests. Standing and lying dead wood, and especially coarse woody debris, plays an important part in creating habitats for many highly specialized organisms, e.g., insects, fungi, lichens and bacteria. Temperate mixed deciduous forests, rich in species, have been studied only to a small extent from the point of view of the ecology of wood-related cryptogams. Our study aimed at the reduction of the gap in knowledge about the ecological characteristics of dead wood-dependent organisms by focusing on species of cryptogams developing on various dead wood structures typical of temperate non-beech forests. Studies were performed in forests located in Lithuania, Poland, Belarus and Russia. We recorded 48 species of cryptogams: 18 species of bryophytes, 24 species of fungi and 6 species of lichens developing on dead wood. Our study stresses the importance of all types of dead wood as a substrate for the development of rare cryptogam species. Logs were the most important substratum type for cryptogams, followed by snags, dead trees and stumps. The cryptogam species richness on logs was several times higher than on the three other types of substrata. Coarse logs of intermediate decay stages hosted the highest number of cryptogams, followed by freshly fallen logs and, finally, well decayed logs. Assessing the importance of dead wood quality for the studied cryptogams, we found that intermediate decay stages are extremely important for fungi, while bryophytes or lichens do not show a clear preference. The highest number of cryptogams was found on Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur and Picea abies, while other tree species had less than half cryptogam species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Macrolichens, Fungi, Bryophytes, Tree Species, Indicator Species, Decay Stages</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 276-285 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1483-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1483-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1483-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-09-28 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1483-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Climatic fluctuations trigger false ring occurrence and radial-growth variation in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1100-008 <p><b>Palakit K, Duangsathaporn K, Siripatanadilok S</b></p><p><b>CLIMATIC FLUCTUATIONS TRIGGER FALSE RING OCCURRENCE AND RADIAL-GROWTH VARIATION IN TEAK (TECTONA GRANDIS L.F.)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The objective of this study was to examine the interaction of extreme growth years in teak (Tectona grandis) with climatic conditions of current, antecedent and subsequent years, in order to explain the nature and the effects of climatic variability on teak growth in northeastern Thailand. A 33-year tree-ring index was constructed and extreme growth years during the period 1976-2008 were identified. A superposed epoch analysis (SEA) was used to study the interaction of climatic data and extreme growth years. Extreme growth years were derived from eight wider and seven narrower annual rings identified using the Cropper’s method. Seventeen false rings were detected using the threshold value ≥ 80% of false ring occurrence for all samples in each growth year. False ring occurrence was associated with narrow ring width formation and triggered by increasing maximum and mean temperatures at the beginning of the rainy season (May to August). In the third year after false ring formation, we observed a pattern of wet year occurrence when annual rainfall and relative humidity in September to December were higher than in adjacent years. Moreover, in the sixth year before false ring formation, a wet year was observed when relative humidity in September to December was higher than in adjacent years. Wider ring width index occurring in a particular year was found to be triggered by a decrease in maximum and mean temperatures in May to August of the current year, suggesting that wet years promote teak growth. The third year after the formation of wider rings was characterized by a low annual rainfall. Our results showed that drought years trigger false ring and narrow ring formation, while wet years trigger wide ring formation in teak. A cycle of wet years between the sixth year prior to, and the third year after, the formation of false rings was also observed, as well as the occurrence of drought in the third year since the formation of wide rings. False ring, narrow ring and wide ring occurrences appear to be good indicators of a 3-6 year climate fluctuation pattern, similar to that of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle in this region.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Extreme Event, False Ring, Pointer Year, Superposed Epoch Analysis, Teak (Tectona grandis), Tree-ring</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 286-293 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1100-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1100-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1100-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-09-28 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1100-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimating biomass of mixed and uneven-aged forests using spectral data and a hybrid model combining regression trees and linear models http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1504-008 <p><b>López-Serrano PM, López-Sánchez CA, Díaz-Varela RA, Corral-Rivas JJ, Solís-Moreno R, Vargas-Larreta B, Álvarez-González JG</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATING BIOMASS OF MIXED AND UNEVEN-AGED FORESTS USING SPECTRAL DATA AND A HYBRID MODEL COMBINING REGRESSION TREES AND LINEAR MODELS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range (Durango, Mexico) is of great ecological interest because of the high degree of environmental heterogeneity in the area. The objective of the present study was to estimate the biomass of mixed and uneven-aged forests in the Sierra Madre Occidental by using Landsat-5 TM spectral data and forest inventory data. We used the ATCOR3® atmospheric and topographic correction module to convert remotely sensed imagery digital signals to surface reflectance values. The usual approach of modeling stand variables by using multiple linear regression was compared with a hybrid model developed in two steps: in the first step a regression tree was used to obtain an initial classification of homogeneous biomass groups, and multiple linear regression models were then fitted to each node of the pruned regression tree. Cross-validation of the hybrid model explained 72.96% of the observed stand biomass variation, with a reduction in the RMSE of 25.47% with respect to the estimates yielded by the linear model fitted to the complete database. The most important variables for the binary classification process in the regression tree were the albedo, the corrected readings of the short-wave infrared band of the satellite (2.08-2.35 µm) and the topographic moisture index. We used the model output to construct a map for estimating biomass in the study area, which yielded values of between 51 and 235 Mg ha-1. The use of regression trees in combination with stepwise regression of corrected satellite imagery proved a reliable method for estimating forest biomass.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Regression Trees, Stepwise Regression, Remote Sensing, ATCOR3, Terrain Features, Image Texture</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 226-234 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1504-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1504-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1504-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-09-21 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1504-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Genetic variation of Fraxinus excelsior half-sib families in response to ash dieback disease following simulated spring frost and summer drought treatments http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1514-008 <p><b>Pliura A, Lygis V, Marčiulyniene D, Suchockas V, Bakys R</b></p><p><b>GENETIC VARIATION OF FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR HALF-SIB FAMILIES IN RESPONSE TO ASH DIEBACK DISEASE FOLLOWING SIMULATED SPRING FROST AND SUMMER DROUGHT TREATMENTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Ten juvenile Fraxinus excelsior half-sib families from two Lithuanian populations have been tested in the controlled environment for their response to ash dieback disease caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, detecting changes of genetic variation and heritability, as well as estimating genotype by environment (G×E) interaction and phenotypic plasticity following artificial spring frost and summer drought treatments. In 2014, a batch of 200 four-year-old ash seedlings was used for each treatment and control (no treatment). Health condition, bud flushing phenology and height were assessed for each seedling, and disease incidence and survival ratios were assessed for each family both before (at the beginning of the vegetation season) and after the treatments (at the end of the vegetation season). Disease incidence ratio increased from 0.77-0.80 up to 0.90-0.95. Tree mortality rates during one vegetation season were significantly lower in the frost treatment (21%) than in the drought treatment (25%) or control (31%). None of the tested F. excelsior families were completely resistant to ash dieback, although significant among-family differences in disease incidence and damage rates suggest an additive mode of gene action and thus a quantitative resistance to the disease. Neither disease incidence rates, nor tree health condition scores differed significantly among the applied treatments (including control) indicating in general a negligible effect of the simulated adverse conditions on health status of the ash seedlings. However, G×E interaction was found to be significant (at P > 0.05) for disease incidence, length of necrotic shoots and tree survival, implying that susceptibility of ash families to the dieback disease unequally depends on environmental conditions, and indicating a presence of genetic variation in plasticity and reaction norms of the tested families across environments (treatments). Substantially increased coefficients of additive genetic variation and heritability in health condition following both frost and drought treatments and compared to control showed that simulated stress conditions may noticeably contribute to expression of differences among the tested F. excelsior families in their resistance traits, thus enabling a better evaluation of performance of different families, an effective family selection for resistance, and achievement of a marked genetic gain.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Common Ash, Dieback, Disease Resistance, Genetic Variation, Heritability, Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (Chalara fraxinea), Phenotypic Plasticity</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 12-22 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1514-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1514-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1514-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-09-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1514-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Stand structure and deadwood amount influences saproxylic fungal biodiversity in Mediterranean mountain unmanaged forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1304-008 <p><b>Persiani AM, Lombardi F, Lunghini D, Granito VM, Tognetti R, Maggi O, Pioli S, Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>STAND STRUCTURE AND DEADWOOD AMOUNT INFLUENCES SAPROXYLIC FUNGAL BIODIVERSITY IN MEDITERRANEAN MOUNTAIN UNMANAGED FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Old-growth forests are key elements of ecosystem diversity and conservation strategies, providing niche differentiation and trophic pathways that produce structural and compositional heterogeneity. In these forests, deadwood is particularly important for saproxylic and mycorrhizal fungi, sustaining forest productivity and environmental services. In this study, the saproxylic fungal diversity in Mediterranean mountain forests, characterized by different management histories and forest types (holm oak and beech), was analyzed. The relationships between saproxylic fungal biodiversity and structural attributes were considered in three forest stands of the Apennines (Italy). In addition, descriptive environmental parameters and forest traits were related to prevailing fungal communities, in order to analyze the species composition and distribution patterns of saproxylic fungi resulting from the ordination processes. The study sites were selected on the basis of their late-serial stage of development. Species frequency was analyzed through multivariate techniques to test the relationships between fungi, structural attributes and environmental variables. A Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to investigate the response of the overall fungal community structure to environmental gradients. Living tree volume, altitude, vegetation type, and the frequency of species with ephemeral sporocarp lifespan played a crucial role in diversifying species distribution patterns. Deadwood volume and decay classes were related to taxonomic and trophic community diversity. However, differences between the considered climatic regions exerted a major role on the occurrence of fungi with ephemeral sporocarps more than deadwood abundance, utilized primarily as fructification substrate.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Apennines Forests, Forest Biodiversity, Old-growth Forest, Saproxylic Fungi, Sporocarp Lifespan, Structural Heterogeneity</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 115-124 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1304-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1304-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1304-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-09-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1304-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Variation of wood and bark density and production in coppiced Eucalyptus globulus trees in a second rotation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1442-008 <p><b>Miranda I, Pereira H</b></p><p><b>VARIATION OF WOOD AND BARK DENSITY AND PRODUCTION IN COPPICED EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS TREES IN A SECOND ROTATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Coppiced Eucalyptus globulus trees with 18 years of age and in a second rotation were analysed in relation to wood and bark density in a spacing trial with five initial plant densities. A total of 25 stumps, with a variable number of stems per stump, from one to three, were analysed. A comparison was made to the previous first rotation single stem trees, also harvested at 18 years of age. The average wood basic density at breast height of the eucalypt coppiced trees was 567 kg m-3, with lower wood density for the closest spacings. The wood of coppiced Eucalyptus globulus trees was 2.5% less dense than that of the single stem trees in the first rotation (average 582 kg m-3). Within the tree, the wood density decreased from stump level to breast height level and then gradually increased until 11.3 m and then decreased slightly. The bark density was, on average, 473 kg m-3, ranging from 455 to 487 kg m-3. The mean bark density was comparable to the bark density in the first rotation. The average bark content was 17.4% of the stem volume, providing 25 to 52 ton ha-1. Compared to the first rotation, the average tree volume in the coppice was lower because the individual trees were smaller by 40 to 66%, while the estimated volume production per ha of the coppice was 1.1 to 1.8 times more due to the increased number of trees that were left in each stump.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Eucalyptus globulus, Wood Density, Plant Density, Coppice, 1st Rotation</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 270-275 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1442-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1442-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1442-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-09-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1442-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Decomposition of Norway spruce and European larch coarse woody debris (CWD) in relation to different elevation and exposure in an Alpine setting http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1591-008 <p><b>Petrillo M, Cherubini P, Sartori G, Abiven S, Ascher J, Bertoldi D, Camin F, Barbero A, Larcher R, Egli M</b></p><p><b>DECOMPOSITION OF NORWAY SPRUCE AND EUROPEAN LARCH COARSE WOODY DEBRIS (CWD) IN RELATION TO DIFFERENT ELEVATION AND EXPOSURE IN AN ALPINE SETTING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: To describe the decay stage of coarse woody debris (CWD) a five decay-class system has been introduced and it is currently the most commonly applied. This system is based on visual, geometric and tactile features of the wood in the field; however, a detailed chemical characterization is often missing. Furthermore, the driving mechanisms (particularly substrate quality vs. environmental conditions) of deadwood decay are controversially discussed. Consequently, we investigated how typical major and minor chemical parameters of wood were correlated with the decay stage. The decomposition patterns of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) CWD of an Alpine setting were analyzed, and how the chemical and physical parameters were affected by the substrate and environmental conditions was checked. Two altitudinal sequences, having a different exposure (north- vs. south-facing sites), were sampled. We measured main biochemical compounds (lignin and cellulose), physical properties (density and water content), element concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn), and the carbon isotopic signature (δ13C) of living trees and CWD at five decomposition stages (decay classes). Most investigated wood physico-chemical parameters such as wood density, water content, lignin and cellulose and even minor constituents (N, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Mn) correlated well to the five decay-class system. Some important components, such as the carbon concentration and δ13C, did not vary with increasing decomposition. Our hypothesis that the different substrate should be traceable during CWD decay had to be rejected, although some statistically significant chemical differences between larch and spruce were measured in the living trees. The chosen tree species were probably not different enough to be chemically traceable in the CWD. Already in decay class 1, these differences were zeroed. The site conditions (expressed by the different altitudes and exposure) influenced only some of the investigated parameters, namely lignin, the δ13C isotopic ratio and nutrients such as P, Ca and K.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Deadwood, Alps, Norway Spruce, European Larch, Decomposition, Lignin, Nutrients, Carbon Isotopes</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 154-164 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1591-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1591-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1591-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-08-28 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1591-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Fragmentation of Araucaria araucana forests in Chile: quantification and correlation with structural variables http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1399-008 <p><b>Molina JR, Martín A, Drake F, Martín LM, Herrera MA</b></p><p><b>FRAGMENTATION OF ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA FORESTS IN CHILE: QUANTIFICATION AND CORRELATION WITH STRUCTURAL VARIABLES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Landscape fragmentation is one of the main threats to South American temperate forests due to population growth, conversion of native forests to plantations of exotic species and non-sustainable timber harvesting. The lack of forest connectivity can interfere with pollination, seed dispersal, biodiversity and landscape quality. Species with relatively limited seed dispersal are potentially more sensitive to the landscape fragmentation. Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch is a long-lived, slow-growing, relict conifer in South America’s temperate forests with large seeds possessing a limited dispersal range. The objective of the study was to identify priority areas for Araucaria conservation based on fragmentation quantification and correlation with structural variables and regeneration conditions. Results from the FRAGSTATS® and CONEFOR® software indicated that Araucaria connectivity has increased in sites located in the central Andean Range in comparison to other sites, because of reduced human and livestock pressure as well as the relative absence of commercial plantations. The proximity index ranged from 6.01 m to 34834.2 m, and the probability of connectivity has significantly increased (175663 ha) in the central Andean Range. Significant relationships were found between the Simpson’s index (or the probability of connectivity) and basal area, and between the mean largest patch index and crown diameter. The largest patch index (r = 0.6; p < 0.05) and the area-weighted mean proximity index (r = 0.767; p < 0.05) were the most important landscape metrics influencing Araucaria regeneration. Furthermore, the integration of spatial pattern analysis obtained from satellite images and aerial photographs with forest and regeneration characterization from field sampling allowed to identify the most vulnerable areas. The methodology presented here can assist in the identification of target areas for spatial conservation, including management needs under the current budget restrictions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Landscape Conservation, Landscape Metrics, Landscape Connectivity, Spatial Pattern Indicators</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 244-252 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1399-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1399-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1399-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-08-28 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1399-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of black locust and black pine on extremely degraded sites 60 years after afforestation - a case study of the Grdelica Gorge (southeastern Serbia) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1512-008 <p><b>Lukić S, Pantić D, Simić SB, Borota D, Tubić B, Djukić M, Djunisijević-Bojović D</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF BLACK LOCUST AND BLACK PINE ON EXTREMELY DEGRADED SITES 60 YEARS AFTER AFFORESTATION - A CASE STUDY OF THE GRDELICA GORGE (SOUTHEASTERN SERBIA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The selection of tree species can affect the success of afforestation in the rehabilitation of degraded forest sites and forest restoration. In general, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.) represent the most commonly used species in the afforestation of soils that have been degraded by erosion. As far as the extent of the ameliorative effects of black locust and black pine are concerned, it was found that they may play an important role in the selection of species for the afforestation of extremely degraded sites. This study is aimed at determining the potential of black locust and black pine to affect several soil properties, erosion control and C stock, thus creating favourable site conditions for the restoration of previous forest vegetation. This research was conducted in the Grdelica Gorge in south east Serbia, where eight sample plots with an average size of 0.47 ha were established 60 years ago on terrain afforested with black locust and black pine. In each sample plot, we measured the diameter at breast height of all black locust and black pine trees, and the height of 10 black locust and 10 black pine trees in each diameter class. In addition, samples of mineral soil (from depths of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm) were taken at 4 randomly selected soil profiles in each sample plot, and 8 samples of litter (30 × 30 cm) were also collected. Additionally, laboratory analyses of the physical and chemical properties of the soil and litter were performed in 2 replicates. The obtained results showed that: (1) at the 0-5 cm depth, there was no statistically significant difference in the reaction of the soil solution, although a significant difference in the reaction of the soil solution between the soils under the two species was observed at soil depths greater than 5 cm; (2) there was a significantly higher N content under black locust in the 0-5 cm soil layer; (3) the reduction of soil loss under black locust is statistically significant in all observation periods; (4) black pine is more efficient in C storage. Our results demonstrate that black locust has the potential to improve soil properties and reduce soil loss caused by erosion, while its favourable impact does not decrease over time, making it more suitable for afforestation on degraded land in the examined area.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Afforestation, Black Locust, Black Pine, Soil Properties, Soil Losses, Carbon Stock</p><p><i>iForest 9 (2): 235-243 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1512-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1512-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1512-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-08-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1512-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Carbon storage in degraded cork oak (Quercus suber) forests on flat lowlands in Morocco http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1364-008 <p><b>Oubrahim H, Boulmane M, Bakker MR, Augusto L, Halim M</b></p><p><b>CARBON STORAGE IN DEGRADED CORK OAK (QUERCUS SUBER) FORESTS ON FLAT LOWLANDS IN MOROCCO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The present study aims to quantify the carbon stored in a degraded cork oak (Quercus suber L.) ecosystem in the north west of Morocco, in view of potential management implications. To this end, carbon stocks were evaluated in the first 100 cm of the soil, the cork oak trees, and the understorey species (both above- and belowground). Results show that the total carbon stocks in the cork oak ecosystem ranges from 65 to 237 Mg ha-1 with a mean value of 121 Mg ha-1. The first 100 cm of the soil (including the forest floor) represents the largest carbon pool (~51% of the total organic carbon) of the ecosystem. Tree biomass (above- and belowground tissues of cork oak) represents the second largest pool (47%), whereas the contribution of the understorey is less than 2%. Within the first 100 cm of the soil, over 87% of all the soil organic carbon is situated in the first 40 cm of the soil depth. The amount of carbon stored here ranges from 30 to 110 Mg ha-1and these organic carbon stocks vary considerably with the stand basal area of the cork oak (R2 = 0.82). In practice, the carbon stocks of the different pools considered are strongly correlated with the stand density of the cork oak stands. In the semi-arid forest ecosystems of our study, management prescriptions aiming at increasing the standing biomass of the cork oak should thus considerably contribute, both directly through tree biomass and indirectly through increased soil organic matter, to efficient carbon sequestration.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Quercus suber, Mamora, Carbon Storage, Biomass, Litter and Soil</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 125-137 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1364-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1364-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1364-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-08-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1364-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Coupling daily transpiration modelling with forest management in a semiarid pine plantation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1290-008 <p><b>Fernandes TJ, Campo ADD, García-Bartual R, González-Sanchis M</b></p><p><b>COUPLING DAILY TRANSPIRATION MODELLING WITH FOREST MANAGEMENT IN A SEMIARID PINE PLANTATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Estimating forest transpiration is of great importance for Adaptive Forest Management (AFM) in the scope of climate change prediction. AFM in the Mediterranean region usually generates a mosaic of different canopy covers within the same forest. Several models and methods are available to estimate forest transpiration, but most require a homogeneous forest cover, or an individual calibration/validation process for each cover stand. Hence, a model capable of reproducing accurately the transpiration of the whole canopy-cover mosaic is necessary. In this paper, the use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is proposed as a flexible tool for estimating forest transpiration using the forest cover as an input variable. To that end, sap flow, soil water content and other environmental variables were experimentally collected under five Aleppo pine stands of different canopy covers for two years. These sets of inputs were then used for the ANN training. Stand transpiration was accurately estimated using climate data, soil water content and forest cover through the ANN approach (correlation coefficient R = 0.95; Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient E = 0.90; root-mean-square error RMSE = 0.078 mm day-1). Finally, the input value for soil water content (when not available) was computed using the process-based model Gotilwa+. Then, this computed soil water content was used as input in the proposed ANN. This combination predicted the forest transpiration with values of R = 0.90, E = 0.63, and RMSE = 0.068 mm day-1. Artificial Neural Network proved to be a useful and flexible tool to predict the transpiration dynamics of an Aleppo pine stand regardless of the heterogeneity of the forest cover produced by adaptive forest management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Adaptive Forest Management, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Forest Water-use, Pinus halepensis Mill.</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 38-48 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1290-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1290-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1290-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-08-06 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1290-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Modeling extreme values for height distributions in Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus stands in northwestern Spain http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1447-008 <p><b>Gorgoso-Varela JJ, García-Villabrille JD, Rojo-Alboreca A</b></p><p><b>MODELING EXTREME VALUES FOR HEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS IN PINUS PINASTER, PINUS RADIATA AND EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS STANDS IN NORTHWESTERN SPAIN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Methods of estimating extreme height values can be used in forest modeling to improve fits to the marginal distribution of heights in the following bivariate diameter-height models: the SBB Johnson’s distribution, the bivariate beta (GDB-2) distribution, the bivariate Logit-Logistic (LL-2) distribution and the power-normal (PN) distribution. Some applications to LiDAR derived data are also possible, e.g., for error calibration. Practical applications in forest management may also be considered, e.g., for pruning. In probability theory and statistics, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution, also known as the Fisher-Tippett distribution, is a family of continuous probability distributions that combine the Gumbel, Fréchet and Weibull distributions. This study compared the three distributions for fitting extreme values of tree heights (maximum and minimum heights), which were measured in 185 permanent research plots in Pinus pinaster Ait. stands, 97 research plots in Pinus radiata D. Don stands, and 128 research plots in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Most of the eucalyptus stands were measured three times giving a total of 304 measurements. All plots are located in northwestern Spain. The Bias, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) of the mean relative frequency of trees were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the different functions, as well as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic Dn. The Gumbel and the Weibull cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) proved suitable for describing extreme values of height distributions of the above-mentioned tree species in northwestern Spain. The Fréchet distribution was only used to model maximum values and yielded the poorest results in all cases.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Gumbel, Fréchet, Weibull, Minimum Height, Maximum Height</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 23-29 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1447-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1447-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1447-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-07-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1447-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Spatially explicit estimation of forest age by integrating remotely sensed data and inverse yield modeling techniques http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1529-008 <p><b>Frate L, Carranza ML, Garfì V, Febbraro MD, Tonti D, Marchetti M, Ottaviano M, Santopuoli G, Chirici G</b></p><p><b>SPATIALLY EXPLICIT ESTIMATION OF FOREST AGE BY INTEGRATING REMOTELY SENSED DATA AND INVERSE YIELD MODELING TECHNIQUES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this work we present an innovative method based on the application of inverse yield models for producing spatially explicit estimations of forest age. Firstly, a raster growing stock volume map was produced using the non-parametric k-Nearest Neighbors estimation method on the basis of IRS LISS-III remotely sensed imagery and field data collected in the framework of a local forest inventory. Secondly, species specific inverted yield equations were applied to estimate forest age as a function of growing stock volume. The method was tested in 128.000 ha of even-aged forests in central Italy (Molise region). The accuracy of the method was assessed using an independent dataset of 305 units from a local standwise forest inventory. The results demonstrated that the forest age map was accurate, with a root mean square error of 15.8 years (30% of the mean of field values), thus at least useful for supporting forest management purposes, such as the assessment of harvesting potential, and of ecosystem services. Thanks to the use of remotely sensed data and spatial modeling, the approach we propose is cost-effective and easily replicable for vast regions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: k-Nearest Neighbors, Mapping, Forest Inventory, Growing Stock, IRS LISS-III</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 63-71 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1529-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1529-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1529-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-07-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1529-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Chloroplast microsatellites as a tool for phylogeographic studies: the case of white oaks in Poland http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1597-008 <p><b>Chmielewski M, Meyza K, Chybicki IJ, Dzialuk A, Litkowiec M, Burczyk J</b></p><p><b>CHLOROPLAST MICROSATELLITES AS A TOOL FOR PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC STUDIES: THE CASE OF WHITE OAKS IN POLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Assessing the distribution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotype variation is useful for studying the phylogeography of angiosperms. In the last two decades the cpDNA phylogeography of white oaks in Europe has been extensively studied, mostly based on the PCR-RFLP technique. However, PCR-RFLPs have low mutation rates and are primarily useful for reconstructing patterns at large geographical scales and lack resolution at fine spatial scales. Here we evaluate the usefulness of chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) as an alternative to PCR-RFLPs in Polish oak populations which have been underrepresented in previous studies. Eighty-five cpSSR haplotypes were detected using 14 cpSSR loci and a broad collection of 6680 trees sampled throughout Poland. Haplotype diversity was significantly lower in Q. petraea (He = 0.798) than in Q. robur (He = 0.820). Only 17 haplotypes (H01-H17) were found in 13 or more individuals, comprising together 97.9% of the sample. Most frequent cpSSR haplotypes were related to PCR-RFLP haplotypes, establishing the cross-references between the two marker systems. There was significant concordance between the matrices of genetic distances obtained by PCR-RFLP haplotypes and cpSSR haplotypes. Phylogenetic relationships among cpSSR haplotypes supported the existence of the three predominant maternal lineages of oaks in Poland: Iberian (7.8%), Apennine (20.6%) and Balkan (65.5%). The results are discussed with regards to the usefulness of cpSSR markers for phylogeographic studies.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chloroplast Microsatellites, PCR-RFLP, White Oaks, Phylogeography</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 765-771 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1597-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1597-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1597-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-07-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1597-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of drought and nutrient deficiency on grafts originating from sound and shaken sweet chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1572-008 <p><b>Mutabaruka C, Cook HF, Buckley GP</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF DROUGHT AND NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY ON GRAFTS ORIGINATING FROM SOUND AND SHAKEN SWEET CHESTNUT TREES (CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Scions taken from felled, shaken or sound sweet chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were grafted and grown for one year in a polythene tunnel in order to compare their responses to water and nutrient stresses. Phenological characteristics of the original trees were strongly reproduced in the grafts grown both in this controlled environment and later on in the field. Grafts originating from shaken trees flushed up to six days later, senesced earlier and produced larger spring vessels. Artificially imposed drought reduced stomatal densities by 5.6% and xylem vessel diameters by up to 35%. Fertiliser additions significantly increased stem increments and promoted earlier flowering, with hermaphrodite flowering filaments more common in grafts from shaken trees. It is considered that, because of their larger spring vessels, shaken trees may be more vulnerable to cavitation and therefore to drought, even though moisture stress is mitigated by some plasticity in earlywood vessel diameter.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Shake Defect, Castanea Sativa, Moisture Stress, Soil Fertility</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 109-114 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1572-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1572-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1572-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-07-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1572-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Analysis of factors influencing deployment of fire suppression resources in Spain using artificial neural networks http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1329-008 <p><b>Costafreda-Aumedes S, Cardil A, Molina DM, Daniel SN, Mavsar R, Vega-Garcia C</b></p><p><b>ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING DEPLOYMENT OF FIRE SUPPRESSION RESOURCES IN SPAIN USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In Spain, the established fire control policy states that all fires must be controlled and put out as soon as possible. Though budgets have not restricted operations until recently, we still experience large fires and we often face multiple-fire situations. Furthermore, fire conditions are expected to worsen in the future and budgets are expected to drop. To optimize the deployment of firefighting resources, we must gain insights into the factors affecting how it is conducted. We analyzed the national data base of historical fire records in Spain for patterns of deployment of fire suppression resources for large fires. We used artificial neural networks to model the relationships between the daily fire load, fire duration, fire type, fire size and response time, and the personnel and terrestrial and aerial units deployed for each fire in the period 1998-2008. Most of the models highlighted the positive correlation of burned area and fire duration with the number of resources assigned to each fire and some highlighted the negative influence of daily fire load. We found evidence suggesting that firefighting resources in Spain may already be under duress in their compliance with Spain’s current full suppression policy.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fire Management, Neural Networks, Regional Models, Suppression Resources, Wildfire</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 138-145 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1329-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1329-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1329-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-07-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1329-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of artificial defoliation and simulated insect damage on the growth of Betula pendula saplings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1522-008 <p><b>Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I, Araminiene V, Stakenas V</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL DEFOLIATION AND SIMULATED INSECT DAMAGE ON THE GROWTH OF BETULA PENDULA SAPLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: One-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings were subjected to artificial insect damage and defoliations of varying intensities, and subsequent growth indexes, biomass allocation patterns and photosynthesis were monitored during a 60-day period. Seven treatments were conducted in which the leaves of saplings were perforated with three or six holes per each leaf, and damaged by clipping one-third of each leaf, or they received 25, 50 and 75% defoliations during a single growing season (from April to August of 2014). Simulated insect damage and artificial defoliation decreased growth. The 75% defoliation significantly reduced the total dry mass of birch saplings at harvest by 30%, while such reduction did not influence the total productivity. The dry mass of leaves was reduced by 45% when saplings were defoliated by 75% compared to not defoliated saplings. Moreover, the total production of leaves significantly increased in the 75% defoliated saplings compared with control saplings. Artificial defoliation increased the relative biomass allocation to foliage, and this was more evident in defoliated than in mechanically insect-damaged saplings. Despite losing 25, 50 or 75% of leaf mass due to clipping, defoliated birch saplings recovered similar dry masses and root/shoot ratios by harvest as the non-defoliated saplings. Perforation and clipping parts of the leaves, as well as the artificial defoliations, caused the regrowth of biomass that did not significantly change compared to healthy silver birch saplings, and this phenomenon could be assessed as equal-compensatory growth.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Betula pendula, Artificial Defoliation, Artificial Insect-Damage, Growth Compensation</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 95-100 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1522-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1522-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1522-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-07-15 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1522-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Chemometric technique performances in predicting forest soil chemical and biological properties from UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra with small, high dimensional datasets http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1495-008 <p><b>Bellino A, Colombo C, Iovieno P, Alfani A, Palumbo G, Baldantoni D</b></p><p><b>CHEMOMETRIC TECHNIQUE PERFORMANCES IN PREDICTING FOREST SOIL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES FROM UV-VIS-NIR REFLECTANCE SPECTRA WITH SMALL, HIGH DIMENSIONAL DATASETS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Chemometric analysis applied to diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is increasingly proposed as an effective and accurate methodology to predict soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Its effectiveness, however, largely varies in relation to the calibration techniques and the specific soil properties. In addition, the calibration of UV-Vis-NIR spectra usually requires large datasets, and the identification of techniques suitable to deal with small sample sizes and high dimensionality problems is a primary challenge. In order to investigate the predictability of many soil chemical and biological properties from a small dataset and to identify the most suitable techniques to deal with this type of problems, we analysed 20 top soil samples of three different forests (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus cerris and Quercus ilex) in southern Apennines (Italy). Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in the UV-Vis-NIR range (200-2500 nm) and 22 chemical and biological properties were analysed. Three different calibration techniques were tested, namely the Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR), the combinations wavelet transformation/Elastic net and wavelet transformation/Supervised Principal Component (SPC) regression/ Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), a kind of preconditioned LASSO. Calibration techniques were applied to both raw spectra and spectra subjected to wavelet shrinkage filtering, in order to evaluate the influence on predictions of spectra denoising. Overall, SPC/LASSO outperformed the other techniques with both raw and denoised spectra. Elastic net produced heterogeneous results, but outperformed SPC/LASSO for total organic carbon, whereas PLSR produced the worst results. Spectra denoising improved the prediction accuracy of many parameters, but worsen the predictions in some cases. Our approach highlighted that: (i) SPC/LASSO (and Elastic net in the case of total organic carbon) is especially suitable to calibrate spectra in the case of small, high dimensional datasets; and (ii) spectra denoising could be an effective technique to improve calibration results.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Elastic Net, PLSR, SPC/LASSO, Wavelets, Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy, Sample Size</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 101-108 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1495-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1495-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1495-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-07-15 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1495-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Sweetgum: a new look http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1462-008 <p><b>Adams JP, Lingbeck JM, Crandall PG, Martin EM, O’Bryan CA</b></p><p><b>SWEETGUM: A NEW LOOK</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) is the only species of its genus in the Western hemisphere. The species is a relatively early successional species with wide seed dispersal, fast growth and is considered one of the most adaptable tree species in North America, growing across a wide range of soil types, altitudes, and hydrologic conditions. This species has routinely been considered a lesser desired species by many forest managers trying to grow tree plantations or even in natural stands because the species tends to rapidly invade and dominate a site. However, because of sweetgum’s adaptability, ease of propagation and field planting, and fast growth rate, the tending of sweetgum as a potential crop for improved markets has been reinvigorated. Managing sweetgum also opens the possibility of development of new products and markets that supplement the traditional markets and can produce further value-added products. Increasingly, sweetgum is not viewed with as much antipathy amongst foresters and its potential as valuable resources is being rediscovered.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., Fast-growing species, Potential crop, Value-added products</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 719-727 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1462-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1462-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1462-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2015-06-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1462-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Developing a stand-based growth and yield model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast) in Tunisia http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1389-008 <p><b>Sghaier T, Sánchez-González M, Garchi S, Ammari Y, Cañellas I, Calama R</b></p><p><b>DEVELOPING A STAND-BASED GROWTH AND YIELD MODEL FOR THUYA (TETRACLINIS ARTICULATA (VAHL) MAST) IN TUNISIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast) is a Mediterranean forest species mainly occupying semiarid environments in North African countries, where it provides important ecological and economical services, such as biodiversity conservation, soil protection against erosion, fuelwood, timber for fencing, construction and handicraft, resins, etc. Despite the importance of the species, there is a severe lack of scientific knowledge as regards the management of these forests or modeling tools to support multifunctional forest management decision making. In the present work, we developed a stand-level integrated model for the management of Thuya forests in Tunisia. The model comprises a family of site index curves, built using the Generalized Algebraic Difference Approach (GADA) method, which provides predictions for stand growth, aboveground biomass, total and merchantable volumes, along with a non-linear system of stand level equations presented as stand density management diagrams (SDMD). The developed model has been used to define, characterize and compare four different management specific schedules for different site qualities and multifunctional objectives.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Site Index Model, Stand Density Management Diagram, Semiarid Environments, Stand-level Model, Management Schedule, Thinning</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 79-88 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1389-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1389-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1389-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-06-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1389-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Spatial and temporal variation of drought impact on black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) water status and growth http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1299-008 <p><b>Mantovani D, Veste M, Böhm C, Vignudelli M, Freese D</b></p><p><b>SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION OF DROUGHT IMPACT ON BLACK LOCUST (ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA L.) WATER STATUS AND GROWTH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Stimulated by the rising demand for bioenergy, forestry practices for energy production are of increasing importance worldwide. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a suitable tree species for biomass production in short-rotation plantations in East Germany, especially on marginal land where insufficient water and nutrients are a limiting factor for tree growth. Our study aims to clarify the spatial and temporal variability of the black locust growth through the analysis of the plant water status, and to evaluate the effect of adverse edaphic conditions on growth performances, amplified by periods of summer drought. The study was carried out at two sites presenting comparable climatic but different edaphic conditions: (i) fertile agricultural soil; and (ii) heterogeneous unstructured soil from a reclaimed post-mining area. During the vegetation period, the growth rate decreased in both sites following the plant water status in terms of pre-dawn leaf water potential. Particularly in the post-mining area, due to the adverse edaphic conditions, below the critical pre-dawn water potential value of -0.5 MPa, the stem growth was drastically reduced during a period of summer drought. However, the trees could cope with the extreme soil and weather conditions in the post-mining site without perishing.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Agroforestry, Drought Stress, Soil Water Availability, Soil Heterogeneity, Reclamation</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 743-747 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1299-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1299-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1299-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-06-18 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1299-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Latent infection of Biscogniauxia nummularia in Fagus sylvatica: a possible bioindicator of beech health conditions http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1436-008 <p><b>Luchi N, Capretti P, Feducci M, Vannini A, Ceccarelli B, Vettraino AM</b></p><p><b>LATENT INFECTION OF BISCOGNIAUXIA NUMMULARIA IN FAGUS SYLVATICA: A POSSIBLE BIOINDICATOR OF BEECH HEALTH CONDITIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Biscogniauxia nummularia is a xylariaceous fungus known as a common endophyte of European beech, living in plant tissues without development of symptoms, or even inducing strip-cankers and wood decay on trees stressed by drought. We studied the presence of the fungus in apparently healthy beech trees, growing in two different bioclimatic zones characterized by Continental and Mediterranean climates. Asymptomatic twigs were collected in each zone over the season and evaluated for the presence of B. nummularia infections using both cultural and qPCR methods. Results from qPCR indicated differences in the detection of B. nummularia among the seasons and between the study sites. In both sites the highest frequency of detection was in summer. B. nummularia was more frequently detected in the Mediterranean bioclimatic area, where drought is more common. These results suggest that B. nummularia may be a possible bioindicator of beech health stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fagus sylvatica, Latent Pathogen, Real Time PCR, Xylariaceae</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 49-54 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1436-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1436-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1436-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-06-18 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1436-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of tree species, stand age and land-use change on soil carbon and nitrogen stock rates in northwestern Turkey http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1567-008 <p><b>Sariyildiz T, Savaci G, Kravkaz IS</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF TREE SPECIES, STAND AGE AND LAND-USE CHANGE ON SOIL CARBON AND NITROGEN STOCK RATES IN NORTHWESTERN TURKEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Effects of tree species, stand age and land-use change on soil carbon and nitrogen stock rates were investigated in the northwest of Turkey using 4 common tree species as black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Uludag fir (Abies nordmanniana ssp. bornmuelleriana). Three tree species (black pine, Scots pine and Oriental beech) were used to investigate the differences in soil C and N among tree species. Old and young Uludag fir stands and adjacent grassland were used to study the differences in soil C and N with stand age and land-use change. Mineral soil samples were taken from 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil depths, and analyzed for pH, soil texture, bulk density, total soil carbon and total nitrogen. The total soil carbon and total nitrogen pools were then calculated by multiplying soil volume, soil bulk density, and the total soil carbon or total nitrogen content. Results showed significant differences in soil carbon and nitrogen contents, carbon/nitrogen ratios and stock rates among the three species, and between old and young fir stands and grassland. In general, when 0-20 cm soil depth was considered, mean soil carbon stock rate was the highest under black pine (79 Mg C ha-1) followed by Scots pine (73 Mg C ha-1) and beech (67 Mg C ha-1), whereas mean soil nitrogen stock rate was the highest under beech (9.57 Mg N ha-1) followed by Scots pine (5.77 Mg N ha-1) and black pine (4.20 Mg N ha-1). Young fir stands showed lower soil carbon stock, but higher soil nitrogen stock rates compared to old fir stands and grassland. Our results demonstrated that tree species, stand tree age and land-use change can have significant effects on soil carbon and nitrogen content and stocks rates. These findings can help to enhance forest management activities, such as selection of tree species for carbon sequestration in plantation systems, design of sustainable agroforestry systems, and improvement of biogeochemical models.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Soil, Climate Change, Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Budget, Grassland, Turkey</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 165-170 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1567-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1567-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1567-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-06-18 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1567-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Relationship between tree growth and physical dimensions of Fagus sylvatica crowns assessed from terrestrial laser scanning http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1566-008 <p><b>Seidel D, Schall P, Gille M, Ammer C</b></p><p><b>RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TREE GROWTH AND PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS OF FAGUS SYLVATICA CROWNS ASSESSED FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Measurements of physical tree crown dimensions were of subjective character in the past, even though they can be considered important for the management of many silvicultural operations, such as timing of thinning operations. In our study we investigated if and how measures of physical crown dimensions of trees differed when quantified conventionally versus based on 3D-terrestrial laser scanning and how they are related to basal area increment. Some 24 randomly selected predominant or dominant beech trees between 90 and 110 yrs of age and of varying height were used as study trees. We hypothesized that tree crown dimensions obtained from scans are more closely related to tree radial growth than those obtained from conventional field measurements. It was found that from a variety of compared crown size characteristics the scan-based tree attributes mean crown radius, maximum area of the crown and crown projection area were most closely related to individual tree growth. We conclude that the horizontal extension of a tree crown in general is to be considered one of the most important drivers of tree growth. We also conclude that terrestrial laser scanning is a powerful tool to reliably measure physical crown dimensions and TLS-based measurements are more reliable than conventional ones.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tree Geometry, Crown Structure, Crown Surface Area, Basal Area Increment</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 735-742 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1566-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1566-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1566-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-06-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1566-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Evaluation and correction of optically derived leaf area index in different temperate forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1350-008 <p><b>Liu Z, Jin G, Zhou M</b></p><p><b>EVALUATION AND CORRECTION OF OPTICALLY DERIVED LEAF AREA INDEX IN DIFFERENT TEMPERATE FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent years optical techniques for rapid LAI measurements have been developed, but few studies have been performed to evaluate the accuracy of optical estimation of LAI in mixed deciduous-evergreen forest stands. In this paper, we assessed the accuracy of digital hemispherical photography (DHP) and the LAI-2000 for the estimation of effective LAI (Le) by comparison with litter collection LAI (LAIlit) in four mixed deciduous broadleaf and evergreen needleleaf forests and one deciduous needleleaf forest. We also evaluated the relative contribution of major error sources to the determination of LAI by optical methods, including the woody-to-total area ratio (α), the element clumping index (ΩE) and the needle-to-shoot area ratio (γE). Additionally, incorrect automatic photographic exposure has been considered for DHP. DHP Le underestimated LAIlit by an average of 44-70% in different forests, and the difference between LAIlit and DHP Le after correction for the automatic exposure, α, ΩE and γE ranged from 1% to 21% in five forest stands. In contrast, LAI values from LAI-2000 were more similar to the direct litter collection LAI. The LAI-2000 Le underestimated LAIlit by an average of 13-40% in these forests, while the accuracy of the best estimates of LAI using LAI-2000 methods is over 93% after considering α, ΩE and γE. The error caused by automatic exposure to DHP Le is larger than other factors in all forest stands, and the γE was the main uncertainty to LAI-2000 Le in most forest stands. Moreover, optical LAI (both DHP and LAI-2000) was significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with LAIlit, especially the corrected LAI obtained by the LAI-2000 (R2 = 0.83, RMSE = 1.04). Our results demonstrate that the above factors affect the estimation of LAI by optical methods, thus the species composition of a forest stand should be seriously considered in order to improve the accuracy of LAI by optical methods.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Leaf Area Index (LAI), Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP), LAI-2000, Woody Materials, Clumping Effects, Automatic Exposure, Litter Collection, Correlation</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 55-62 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1350-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1350-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1350-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-06-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1350-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Height-diameter models for maritime pine in Portugal: a comparison of basic, generalized and mixed-effects models http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1520-008 <p><b>Gómez-García E, Fonseca TF, Crecente-Campo F, Almeida LR, Diéguez-Aranda U, Huang S, Marques CP</b></p><p><b>HEIGHT-DIAMETER MODELS FOR MARITIME PINE IN PORTUGAL: A COMPARISON OF BASIC, GENERALIZED AND MIXED-EFFECTS MODELS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tree height is a key variable in forest monitoring studies and for forest management. However, tree height measurement is time consuming, and the recommended procedure is to use estimates from height-diameter models. Here, we compare height-diameter model forms and approaches for predicting tree height (h) as a function of tree diameter at breast height (d) and additional stand level covariates. Four model forms were evaluated: (i) basic models (which only used d as predictor variable); (ii) generalized models (which used d and stand-level predictor variables); (iii) a mixed-effects model based on the best basic model; and (iv) a mixed-effects model based on the best generalized model. Several alternatives aimed at minimizing height measurement effort were tested in terms of accuracy and applicability. From a practical point of view, the selected generalized model is recommended for estimating the height of maritime pine in Portugal. The results also show that a calibrated basic mixed model provides more accurate results than a basic model locally fitted when the number of h-d observations is limited.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pinus pinaster Ait., Sampling Design, Local Model, Stand Variables, Generalized h-d Relationship, Calibration</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 72-78 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1520-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1520-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1520-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-06-11 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1520-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Optimum light transmittance for seed germination and early seedling recruitment of Pinus koraiensis: implications for natural regeneration http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1397-008 <p><b>Zhang M, Yan Q, Zhu J</b></p><p><b>OPTIMUM LIGHT TRANSMITTANCE FOR SEED GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING RECRUITMENT OF PINUS KORAIENSIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR NATURAL REGENERATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Light transmittance regulated by canopy openness influences the microsite conditions for natural regeneration. The successful transition from seed germination to subsequent seedling recruitment (i.e., early seedling survival and growth) determines the natural regeneration potential. However, there is little information on the effect of varying light transmittance on seed germination and seedling recruitment of Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. (Korean pine). We aimed to determine the optimum light requirements for this transition process in P. koraiensis to propose practical measures for improving its natural regeneration. The transition process was studied under five light transmittance regimes (100%, 60%, 30%, 15% and 5% of full light) over two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). The highest germination percentage in both years occurred at 30% light transmittance. Generally, mean germination time (MGT) declined with increased light transmittance. Seedling survival exhibited no significant differences between treatments for 1-year-old seedlings, but was higher at 30% than at 5% light transmittance for the 2-year-old seedlings. In contrast, seedling height, root collar diameter and total biomass were highest at 60%-100% light transmittance for both 1- and 2-year-old seedlings. Furthermore, the light transmittance also influenced the growth characteristics of P. koraiensis seedlings through regulating MGT. These results suggest that growth of P. koraiensis seedling requires a higher light transmittance (60%-100%) than that required for seed germination, even though 30% light transmittance was favorable to the earlier emergence with larger specific leaf area. Silvicultural measures such as thinning are recommended to increase light irradiance in the forest understorey with the aim of improving the natural regeneration of P. koraiensis.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Germination, Light Transmittance, Natural Regeneration, Seedling Emergence, Seedling Survival</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 853-859 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1397-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1397-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1397-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-05-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1397-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Physical and mechanical characteristics of poor-quality wood after heat treatment http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1229-007 <p><b>Romagnoli M, Cavalli D, Pernarella R, Zanuttini R, Togni M</b></p><p><b>PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POOR-QUALITY WOOD AFTER HEAT TREATMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Poor-quality Corsican pine (Pinus nigra subsp. laricio (Poir.) Maire) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) wood samples were heat treated to improve wood quality and subsequent economic value. Wood properties were measured to assess quality in treated and non-treated materials, including density, hardness, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and compression strength. The results showed higher dimensional stability in heat-treated wood, yet mechanical performance in compression and bending strength were only marginally affected by loss of density. Despite having a relatively low density , Corsican pine sapwood has potential in manufacturing higher-value products. In contrast, heat treatment applied to Douglas fir wood did not appear economically viable; insufficient differences were detected between the naturally desirable characteristics of this species and heat-treated samples.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Thermowood, Density, Compressive Strength, Bending Strength, Sapwood, Wood Quality, Douglas Fir, Corsican Pine</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 884-891 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1229-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1229-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1229-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-05-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1229-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Impact of wheeled and tracked tractors on soil physical properties in a mixed conifer stand http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1382-008 <p><b>Cambi M, Certini G, Fabiano F, Foderi C, Laschi A, Picchio R</b></p><p><b>IMPACT OF WHEELED AND TRACKED TRACTORS ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN A MIXED CONIFER STAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Damage to forest soil caused by vehicle traffic mainly consists of soil compaction, displacement, and rut formation. Severity of the damage depends on vehicle mass, weight of the carried loads, ground morphology, and soil properties, such as moisture. This paper investigates the impacts of two types of vehicles (tracked or wheeled tractor), traffic intensities (one or five skidding cycles) and soil moisture (24% or 13% by weight) on compaction of a loam textured soil in a mixed conifer stand of central Italy. Changes in porosity, bulk density, shear and penetration resistances were analyzed. The latter three parameters were significantly higher in the trafficked soil portions than in the undisturbed ones in all treatments, while the opposite was true for porosity. The impact on soil bulk density and porosity was stronger for the wheeled tractor working on moist soil, while no significant effect of soil moisture was recorded for the tracked tractor. Shear and penetration resistances increased as a consequence of traffic, depending on both tractor type and soil moisture. The largest impact on shear resistance was recorded for the wheeled tractor on moist soil, while significant differences in penetration resistance were observed only between tracked and wheeled tractors in dry soil conditions. In order to preserve soil quality during logging activities, we recommend to operate under dry soil conditions and to limit vehicle movement on existing or new planned trails.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Compaction, Rutting, Skid Trails, Soil Degradation, Forest Management</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 89-94 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1382-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1382-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1382-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-05-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1382-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Characterization of two poplar homologs of the GRAS/SCL gene, which encodes a transcription factor putatively associated with salt tolerance http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1330-008 <p><b>Galovic V, Orlovic S, Fladung M</b></p><p><b>CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO POPLAR HOMOLOGS OF THE GRAS/SCL GENE, WHICH ENCODES A TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR PUTATIVELY ASSOCIATED WITH SALT TOLERANCE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: To cope with soil salinity, which is one of the most severe forms of abiotic stress, efforts are being undertaken to enhance the salt tolerance of economically important poplar clones in the Vojvodina region of Serbia. One approach is to screen nucleotide diversity in candidate genes (CG) in several poplar clones of high economic importance to Serbia to search for associations with salt stress tolerance. As plant-specific GRAS/SCL transcription factors (TFs) play diverse roles in abiotic stress resistance, two poplar homologs of GRAS/SCL TFs were chosen to differentiate the species background with respect to salt tolerance. A BLAST search of the Populus trichocarpa genome using the P. euphratica gene GRAS/SCL TF_GH611858 sequence identified two putative orthologs, Scaf_5 and Scaf_7, with identities of 100% and 94%, respectively. Primers were designed in identical sequences of Scaf_5 and Scaf_7 to amplify fragments of GRAS/SCL TF orthologs in four poplar clones that are economically important to Serbia. The primers spanned regions where, at least in P. trichocarpa, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are present, thereby increasing the probability of distinguishing Scaf_5 and Scaf_7 orthologs in the four clones. Alignments and analyses of the gene fragments revealed that both orthologs were representative of the genetic diversity between different poplar clones, and the identified SNP markers differentiated the four poplar clones with respect to salt tolerance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Candidate Gene, Nucleotide Polymorphism, Tree Genomics, Poplar</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 780-785 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1330-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1330-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1330-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1330-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Bud flush phenology and nursery carryover effect of paper birch provenances http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1367-008 <p><b>Dhar A, Balliet N, Hawkins CD, Carlson MR, Berger VG, Mahoney R</b></p><p><b>BUD FLUSH PHENOLOGY AND NURSERY CARRYOVER EFFECT OF PAPER BIRCH PROVENANCES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) is an ecologically valuable species with a broad geographic distribution across the North America. Its diversity, versatility and enduring nature make it an ideal candidate for a selective breeding program in this region. However, an understanding of the genecology of this species is fundamental to deploy it successfully. Ten paper birch provenances were collected from British Columbia (BC, Canada) and northern Idaho (USA) along elevational transects to determine whether observed bud flush phenology was due to genetics and /or environmental variation or their interaction. Seedlings were grown at three different nurseries: University of Idaho (46°44’N), Landing (50°17’N) and Little Forestry (54°00’N) and planted in a randomized single tree interlocking block design in three common gardens at Sandpoint, ID (48°13’N), Skimikin, BC (50°45’N) and Red Rock, BC (53°45’N). Results indicate that variation in the timing of bud flush is a complex interaction among local genetic characteristics and environmental conditions of the growing site. Birch bud flush followed a general geographic trend where provenances at the southern common garden (Sandpoint) required less time (Day of Year, DoY) and fewer growing degree days (GDD) compared to central (Skimikin) and northern (Red Rock) common gardens. Although there were significant differences in the timing of bud flush among provenances along an elevational gradient, none of the regions showed the expected linear elevational cline, trends were inconsistent. Further, birch bud flush was significantly influenced by nursery displacement effects in the initial year of establishment but disappeared within three years. These results provide an opportunity to characterize bud flush phenology of paper birch and would be useful for improving operational paper birch seed transfer programs in BC.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Betula papyrifera, Common Garden, Elevational Cline, Growing Degree Day (GDD), Day Of Year (DoY), Nursery Carry Over Effect, Provenance Trial, Seed-transfer</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 809-817 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1367-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1367-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1367-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1367-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Effects of different mechanical treatments on Quercus variabilis, Q. wutaishanica and Q. robur acorn germination http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1423-008 <p><b>Liu Y, Hou L, Li Q</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT MECHANICAL TREATMENTS ON QUERCUS VARIABILIS, Q. WUTAISHANICA AND Q. ROBUR ACORN GERMINATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Delayed and uneven germination of acorns has a negative effect on seedling quality and yield in seedlings. To address this issue, the effects of different mechanical treatments were studied, including a control (CK), removal of cup scar (RS), removal of pericarp (RP), removal of pericarp and 1/2 of the cotyledon (HC) and removal of pericarp and 2/3 cotyledon (TC), on the germination of Quercus variabilis, Q. wutaishanica and Q. robur acorns and pericarp thickness. The results showed that (1) RP and HC treatments significantly decreased root and shoot mean germination time, increased rooting and shooting germination percentage, and improved the root and shoot synchronization and vigor indexes of the three species’ acorns; (2) the acorns from the TC treatment significantly reduced root and shoot mean germination time and significantly induced the root and shoot synchronization index for all three species; and (3) the RS treatment significantly reduced the root and shoot mean germination time of the three species. Therefore, RP and HC treatments can effectively accelerate germination and regular seedling, which are important in the propagation of Q. variabilis, Q. wutaishanica and Q. robur seedlings. Even and quick germination help reduce acorn predation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pericarp and Cotyledon Excision, Pericarp Thickness, Acorn Germination, Quercus wutaishanica</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 728-734 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1423-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1423-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1423-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Reports 2015-05-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1423-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Impact of wildfire on the edaphic microarthropod community in a Pinus pinaster forest in central Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1404-008 <p><b>Lisa C, Paffetti D, Nocentini S, Marchi E, Bottalico F, Fiorentini S, Travaglini D</b></p><p><b>IMPACT OF WILDFIRE ON THE EDAPHIC MICROARTHROPOD COMMUNITY IN A PINUS PINASTER FOREST IN CENTRAL ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of the soil microarthropod community to wildfire in forest ecosystems. The edaphic microarthropod communities of pine stands burned in 2001, in 2009, both in 2001 and in 2009, in 2012 were compared to an area never burned. Sampling was conducted in the spring and autumn of 2011 and 2012 in the areas burned in 2001, in 2009 and those never burned, while in the area burned in 2012, soil samples were collected in March (10 days after fire), June and September. The abundance and biodiversity of the microarthropod community were assessed. A multitemporal analysis was also carried out to assess the effect of fire on soil microarthropod abundance 5 months, 2-3 years and 10-11 years after fire. The results showed that the abundance of edaphic microarthropod communities decreased dramatically in areas burned twice, but also in areas burned once in 2009 and five months after the fire in the area burned in 2012. Different taxonomic groups did not seem to respond to fire in the same way, some taxa being more sensitive than others. Pseudoscorpionida decreased in both the short- and the long-term, while Diplopoda, Thysanoptera and Symphyla showed a reduction in the intermediate- and long-term. In the short-term, Diptera and Coleoptera larvae appeared to be the most influenced taxonomic groups. Our study shows that biomonitoring is a valuable tool to investigate the reaction of forest ecosystems to fire, and that edaphic microarthropods can provide interesting answers about the direct and indirect effects of fire on soil.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomonitoring, Microarthropod Community, Forest Fires, Pinus pinaster Aiton</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 874-883 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1404-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1404-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1404-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-05-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1404-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: First vs. second rotation of a poplar short rotation coppice: leaf area development, light interception and radiation use efficiency http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1457-008 <p><b>Broeckx LS, Vanbeveren SP, Verlinden MS, Ceulemans R</b></p><p><b>FIRST VS. SECOND ROTATION OF A POPLAR SHORT ROTATION COPPICE: LEAF AREA DEVELOPMENT, LIGHT INTERCEPTION AND RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Given the high expectations for lignocellulosic biomass as one of the potential solutions for energy security and climate change mitigation, commercial scale studies over several rotations are crucial to assess the potential and the sustainability of short rotation coppice (SRC) cultures for bioenergy. The first and the second rotation of the SRC poplar (Populus) plantation of the present study differed significantly in biomass yield and in productivity determinants and their relationships. Coppicing enhanced leaf area development, radiation interception and woody biomass productivity. High total leaf area and radiation use efficiency (RUE) equally contributed to the high biomass yield during the establishment rotation, while RUE became the most important determinant of biomass yield after coppice. The study confirmed the significant genotypic variation in biomass productivity and its underlying determinants, also among more recently selected poplar genotypes. The absence of a correlation between intercepted radiation and RUE suggests the potential of selecting for genotypes combining high total leaf area and photosynthetic carbon uptake in future breeding programs for yield maximization towards sustainable bioenergy cultivation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Genotypic Variation, Leaf Area Index, Aboveground Woody Biomass Productivity, Bioenergy, Populus, POPFULL</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 565-573 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1457-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1457-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1457-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-04-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1457-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Does management improve the state of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) on Belasitsa Mountain, southwest Bulgaria? http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1420-008 <p><b>Zlatanov T, Velichkov I, Georgieva M, Hinkov G, Zlatanova M, Gogusev G, Eastaugh CS</b></p><p><b>DOES MANAGEMENT IMPROVE THE STATE OF CHESTNUT (CASTANEA SATIVA L.) ON BELASITSA MOUNTAIN, SOUTHWEST BULGARIA?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Chestnut forests in the Belasitsa Mountain region of southwest Bulgaria were traditionally intensively managed as orchard-like stands for nut production. More recently, management intensity has been sharply reduced as a result of rural abandonment, which combined with the effects of chestnut blight has led to marked structural changes in these forests. The focus of this paper is on the seed-based regeneration potential and seedling survival of chestnut in mixed stands managed over the past 15 years. Results suggest that management of stands under a high-forest system is appropriate, and regeneration from seed has advantages over coppicing if competing species can be controlled. An investigation into “sanitation cutting” performed since the 1990s shows that this had not a successful response to blight infestations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Castanea sativa, Chestnut Blight, High-forest System, Seed-based Regeneration</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 860-865 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1420-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1420-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1420-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-04-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1420-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Earlywood vessel features in Quercus faginea: relationship between ring width and wood density at two sites in Portugal http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1346-008 <p><b>Sousa VB, Louzada JL, Pereira H</b></p><p><b>EARLYWOOD VESSEL FEATURES IN QUERCUS FAGINEA: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RING WIDTH AND WOOD DENSITY AT TWO SITES IN PORTUGAL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Wood anatomy holds relevant information for tree development and timber quality (e.g., wood density), which is important for the sustainability of the species. Quercus faginea Lam. (Portuguese or Lusitanian oak) is an autochthonous Mediterranean oak species characterized by a shrinking natural distribution area and use abandonment. We studied the variation of several wood properties and their relationships with the aim of determining and possibly increasing the wood economic value of this species. The anatomical features of earlywood vessels (area, number, frequency and proportion) were investigated in twenty Q. faginea trees sampled at two locations within the natural distribution of the species in Portugal. Moreover, we analyzed the variation of vessel features from pith to bark, the radial growth and the wood density to search for patterns and relationships among the analyzed parameters. Mean earlywood vessel area increased with cambial age up to 60-70 years and then leveled off. An inverse pattern was found for the number of vessels per ring beyond that age. Similar radial patterns of all vessel features were found at both sites, and no significant differences in earlywood vessel area were found between sites. The within-tree development of earlywood vessels was age-related, though not influenced by growth. Earlywood vessel features explained the variation of wood density, i.e., wood density of Q. faginea was strongly negatively correlated with both mean vessel area and proportion.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Quercus faginea, Earlywood Vessels, Wood Density, Ring Width, Variation</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 866-873 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1346-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1346-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1346-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-04-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1346-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Changes in vegetation diversity and composition following livestock removal along an upland elevational gradient http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1557-008 <p><b>Davies GM, Bodart J</b></p><p><b>CHANGES IN VEGETATION DIVERSITY AND COMPOSITION FOLLOWING LIVESTOCK REMOVAL ALONG AN UPLAND ELEVATIONAL GRADIENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: European heathland habitats are cultural landscapes derived from previously-forested ecosystems. Heathlands are of significant conservation interest but have experienced prolonged degradation due to a range of factors including overgrazing by domestic livestock. There is growing recognition of the need to restore upland landscapes to produce a diverse mosaic of woodlands, heathlands and forest edge ecotones. In some studies stock removal has been sufficient to promote heathland recovery, but often more intensive interventions are required. Few studies have specifically examined how abiotic gradients associated with changing elevation might relate to restoration success. We examined differences in vegetation between grazed and restored areas over a 500 m elevational gradient split across two hillsides that were part of a landscape-scale restoration project in the Scottish Southern Uplands. Species alpha and gamma diversity showed non-linear responses to elevation but the effects of grazing differed between sites. Grazing increased diversity on the lower elevation site but reduced it at higher elevations. The differing effects of grazing with elevation can be interpreted in the context of levels of competition and likely impacts on rates of colonization and extinction. Differences in community composition were assessed using PERMANOVA, NMDS and Cluster Analysis and were primarily controlled by elevation with no significant effect of grazing. The keystone heathland species Calluna vulgaris was not recorded in any of our monitoring plots but some other dwarf shrubs were common. Changes in community structure following stock removal are slow on upland sites but initial impacts interact strongly with abiotic site conditions and pre-restoration vegetation composition. During large-scale restoration it is therefore vital to consider how widely-applied treatments might differ in their effects across landscapes. Changes in diversity may provide a useful early indicator of important ecological processes and likely directions of change.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Calluna vulgaris, Community Change, Grazing, Heathland, Moorland, Restoration, Scotland</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 582-589 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1557-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1557-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1557-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-04-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1557-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Methods to inventory and strip thin in dense stands of aspen root suckers http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1461-008 <p><b>Headlee WL, Hall RB</b></p><p><b>METHODS TO INVENTORY AND STRIP THIN IN DENSE STANDS OF ASPEN ROOT SUCKERS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Aspen and their hybrids have demonstrated high biomass productivity and can produce abundant regeneration in the form of root suckers. This makes aspen particularly intriguing for bio-energy production, because replanting costs can be avoided and additional biomass can be obtained by thinning the regenerating stands. Mechanical strip thinning (removal of stems in parallel strips) has been proposed as a fast and efficient method for capturing biomass that would otherwise be lost to mortality in such stands. However, determining the appropriate width for the residual rows is challenging, due to the difficulty of conducting inventories with traditional sampling tools and the variability in gap sizes between root suckers in the residual rows. In this study, we describe the development and testing of a simple inventory tool that may be used to conduct either fixed-area or variable-radius sampling in these stands. Also described is the development and testing of an equation that uses such inventory data along with Poisson distribution theory to predict the size of the largest gap between root suckers within residual rows, which in turn can be used to inform strip thinning operations. Based on the promising results of our limited tests, we encourage further evaluation of these methods with regeneration from planted and natural aspen stands, as well as other root suckering species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bio-energy, Coppice, Poisson Distribution, Populus, Thinning</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 590-595 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1461-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1461-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1461-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-04-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1461-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Soil chemical and physical status in semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments affected by atmospheric deposition in central-eastern São Paulo State, Brazil http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1258-007 <p><b>Lopes MIMS, Ribeiro Dos Santos A, Zuliani Sandrin Camargo C, Bulbovas P, Giampaoli P, Domingos M</b></p><p><b>SOIL CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL STATUS IN SEMIDECIDUOUS ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENTS AFFECTED BY ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION IN CENTRAL-EASTERN SãO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The expansion of agricultural, urban and industrial areas in the São Paulo State (SE Brazil) led to the fragmentation of the original semideciduous Atlantic Forest into small, patchy forest remnants. Anthropogenic activities produce a variety of pollutants affecting many ecological processes in these remaining forest fragments through soil acidification and fertilization. In this study, we investigated the soil chemical and physical status of six forest remnants (Paulínia, Holambra, Americana, Jaguariúna, Campinas and Cosmópolis) differently affected by industrial, rural and urban pollution in central-eastern São Paulo in order to determine the soil potential to buffer the inputs of pollutants. Soil samples from 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm depths were collected in the dry and the wet season and the following variables were analyzed: soil texture, pH in CaCl2 solution, exchangeable cations and exchange capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, extractable sulfur, phosphorus and heavy metals. Distinct buffering capacities were observed in industrial and in rural and urban areas, primarily due to the natural characteristics of the soils, such as soil texture, acidification and organic matter. The forest soils affected by atmospheric deposition from the industrial complex (Paulínia and Americana) were more sandy and acidic (pH = 3.6) than those near rural and urban sources (pH = 4.5). The optimal chemical conditions (high contents of organic matter, exchangeable bases, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur) were found in the clay soils of forest remnants located in Campinas and Jaguariúna, which were more affected by rural or urban pollution than by industrial emissions. Such clay soils provide the highest buffering capacity against environmental impacts in the study region.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tropical Soils, Atlantic Forest, Urban, Rural and Industrial Pollution, Soil Acidification, Buffering Capacity</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 798-808 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1258-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1258-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1258-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-04-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1258-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Patterns of carbon allocation in a chronosequence of Caragana intermedia plantations in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1193-007 <p><b>Tian Y, Cao J, Yang X, Shan N, Shi Z</b></p><p><b>PATTERNS OF CARBON ALLOCATION IN A CHRONOSEQUENCE OF CARAGANA INTERMEDIA PLANTATIONS IN THE QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Revegetation is being considered as a mitigation option to improve the ecological environment and reduce the atmospheric carbon (C) dioxide concentrations of regions experiencing desertification. This study assessed the development of the above- and belowground ecosystem C pools in a chronosequence of four Caragana intermedia plantations (3, 12, 27, and 37 years old) in the desertified region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. The biomass C stock of the total shrub and under-canopy increased with stand age. The soil inorganic carbon (SIC) pool in the soil C stocks was approximately 3 to 7 times larger than the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. Both SIC and SOC increased after revegetation. However, the contribution of SIC to the total ecosystem C stock decreased from 87% in the 3-year-old plantation to 85%, 75%, and 72% in the 12-, 27-, and 37-year-old plantations, respectively. The total ecosystem C pool exhibited a greater increase in the shrub plantations than in the mobile dunes, but the total C stock of the stands changed slightly with time. Soil C, including SOC and SIC, was the major contributor to the total ecosystem C stock for all shrub plantations. The aboveground shrub biomass became the secondary ecosystem C pool in older srands. The results of this study indicate that revegetation in desertification ecosystems has a significant impact on SIC, SOC, and total ecosystem C pools. Furthermore, the total ecosystem C pool reached a relatively stable state after sand-binding stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass Carbon, Shrub Plantation, Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Inorganic Carbon</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 756-764 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1193-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1193-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1193-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-04-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1193-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Drought effects on the floristic differentiation of Greek fir forests in the mountains of central Greece http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1214-007 <p><b>Samaras DA, Gaertner S, Reif A, Theodoropoulos K</b></p><p><b>DROUGHT EFFECTS ON THE FLORISTIC DIFFERENTIATION OF GREEK FIR FORESTS IN THE MOUNTAINS OF CENTRAL GREECE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Greek fir (Abies cephalonica Loudon) grows in montane Mediterranean climates characterized by dry, warm summers. Drought is an important climatic feature of these montane ecosystems as it affects the floristic composition, structure and distribution of plant communities. The Oxia-North Vardousia mountain system is one of the few areas in Greece with an extensive, well-preserved Greek fir forest. This study aims at describing the Greek fir forest vegetation of such area and determining the drought-related factors affecting their floristic composition and differentiation. Vegetation relevés were classified and ordinated. The impact of drought-related variables on the vegetation composition was analyzed. A cluster analysis was used to reveal the most important factor for the discrimination of the main plant communities and to determine the drought threshold between them. Two plant communities that reflect the differentiation of the Greek fir forests in central Greece into xerophytic and mesophytic forest communities were described. Each community was divided into two sub-communities. The elevational distribution of Greek fir forests in the mountains of central Greece follows a drought gradient linked to the two main climatic components of drought, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. The combination of these two drought-related variables into a suitable humidity index was found to adequately differentiate the xerophytic from the mesophytic forest communities and define their drought threshold.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Abies cephalonica, Aridity, Habitat Differentiation, Humidity Index, Plant Communities, Synecology, Syntaxonomy, Sterea Ellas</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 786-797 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1214-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1214-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1214-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-04-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1214-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimating the mechanical stability of Pinus nigra Arn. using an alternative approach across several plantations in central Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1300-007 <p><b>Cantiani P, Chiavetta U</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATING THE MECHANICAL STABILITY OF PINUS NIGRA ARN. USING AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH ACROSS SEVERAL PLANTATIONS IN CENTRAL ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Black pine has been used often in central and southern Italy to reforest mountainous areas depleted by the intensive use of natural resources. The main purpose of establishing pine forests in Italy was to protect the soil from excessive erosion, and also to facilitate the natural succession toward mixed forests with deciduous species. The most common silvicultural treatments in Europe currently aim at maximizing the stability of the stands and facilitating the transition from pure to mixed stands comprising a larger component of native tree species. In this work, we investigated the relationships between the living whorls number and four indexes of individual tree stability: the slenderness ratio, the crown depth, the crown projection, and an eccentricity index of the canopy. The data set used was composed of 1098 trees from ten black pine plantations located in central Italy. Our results demonstrate that the living whorls number can be handily used to predict the slenderness ratio with an error of 18%. A non-parametric model based on a reduced number of field measures was obtained as a support for thinning operations aimed at improving single tree stability.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Black Pine, Tree Stability, Living Whorl Number, Slenderness Ratio, Crown Depth, Crown Projection, Crown Eccentricity</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 846-852 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1300-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1300-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1300-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-04-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1300-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of salt and drought on growth, physiological and biochemical responses of two Tamarix species http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1233-007 <p><b>Dawalibi V, Monteverdi MC, Moscatello S, Battistelli A, Valentini R</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF SALT AND DROUGHT ON GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF TWO TAMARIX SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tamarix trees are considered of particular interest for afforestation and reforestation of degraded areas prone to salinity and drought. In this study, a comparison of the performance and physiological responses of two species of Tamarix grown in saline and dried soils was carried out. Stem cuttings of T. aphylla and T. jordanis were collected from a location in the Negev desert and the plantlets obtained were subjected to four different soil treatments under semi-controlled conditions for 14 days. The treatments were: fresh water (C); salt (S: 150 mM of NaCl); drought (D: 50% field capacity); and a combined stress (DS: 150 mM of NaCl + 50% FC). Results showed a higher tolerance to salt stress of T. jordanis as compared with T. aphylla. The maintenance of high amount of cell carbohydrates, the high capacity of carbon assimilation and the active growth were considered as markers of salt tolerance in Tamarix spp. T. aphylla showed better performances in terms of growth and biomass production than T. jordanis in dry conditions. The high accumulation of sugars found in the leaves of T. aphylla under mild drought is considered a mechanism of acclimatization. The combined stress (salt+drought) lowered the performance of plants as compared to salt and drought stress applied alone. The possible role of the accumulation of proline observed in the leaves of both species under stressful conditions is discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tamarix, Afforestation, Salinity, Drought, Tolerance</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 772-779 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1233-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1233-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1233-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-03-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1233-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Wildfires in Algeria: problems and challenges http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1279-007 <p><b>Meddour-Sahar O</b></p><p><b>WILDFIRES IN ALGERIA: PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the scenario of the Mediterranean area, where about 54 000 fires and 0.4 million hectares of forest are burned and annually registered (2006-2010), the rank for Algeria is non-negligible with 4.11 million hectares of forest. The annual number of fires and the size of area burned depict a critical situation, which became rather dramatic in 2012. Climate change projections and the estimated changes to wildfire risk for the future decades (2030-2060) indicate that the entire Maghreb region, including Algeria, will be among the most affected areas of the Mediterranean. Longer fire seasons will be experienced and extended by an additional month with each passing year. Despite Algeria’s recent investments in technical means for controlling forest fires, the current suppression-oriented model seems unable to cope with such a phenomenon. Furthermore, the model is unfit in view of the approaching scenario, when fire-exclusion policies need to be complemented with fuel-reduction techniques and fire prevention management. This study aims to establish an understanding of the context and public policy issues related to wildfire management in Algeria. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires to foresters with the objective of identifying obstacles and constraints hindering the efficacy of pro-active measures. Analysis of the data gathered indicates that Algerian foresters are well aware of the importance of prevention, contrasting with current governmental policies that are predominantly oriented towards improving the technical extinction apparatus. A SWOT analysis suggests possible strategic options for improving the efficiency of wildfire control by building on strengths, eliminating weaknesses, exploiting opportunities, and mitigating threats. The results of this study may be adapted to other countries with similar problems as those of Algeria.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Algeria, Forest Fires, MENA, Prevention Policy, SWOT Analysis</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 818-826 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1279-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1279-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1279-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-03-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1279-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Vertical position of dry mass and elemental concentrations in Pinus sylvestris L. canopy under the different ash-nitrogen treatments http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1342-007 <p><b>Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I, Stakenas V, Mikšys V, Kabašinskas A</b></p><p><b>VERTICAL POSITION OF DRY MASS AND ELEMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS IN PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. CANOPY UNDER THE DIFFERENT ASH-NITROGEN TREATMENTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Compensatory biofuel ash fertilisation is recommended for managed Pinus sylvestris L. forests growing on nutrients poor Arenosols in Lithuania. We conducted an experiment between 2002 and 2005, investigating the effects of biofuel ash and nitrogen fertilisation applied to Scots Pine stands on nutrient poor Arenosols. We studied the effects of three fertilization treatments (biofuel ash, nitrogen and ash applied together with nitrogen) on dry mass and concentrations of the main nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and other elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in different compartments and layers of the canopy. The biofuel ash, nitrogen fertilizers and ash applied together with nitrogen led to heavier needles in the upper and middle layers of the canopy with less effect toward the canopy base. The complex ash plus nitrogen treatment gave the strongest significant response. All treatments resulted in an increase in dry mass, but not in the length of the current year needles. The additional input of nitrogen induced higher increase in dry mass compared to the changes of N concentration in the youngest needles. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the youngest needles produced new mass per amount of nitrogen more effectively compared to older needles.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pinus sylvestris, Biofuel Ash, Canopy, Biomass, Nutrients</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 838-845 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1342-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1342-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1342-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-03-25 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1342-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The opinions of some stakeholders on the European Union Timber Regulation (EUTR): an analysis of secondary sources http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1271-008 <p><b>Giurca A, Jonsson R</b></p><p><b>THE OPINIONS OF SOME STAKEHOLDERS ON THE EUROPEAN UNION TIMBER REGULATION (EUTR): AN ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY SOURCES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) is the most recent effort by the European Union (EU) to curb imports of illegally sourced timber. The regulation raises important questions concerning the international timber trade. In order to successfully implement this regulation it is of paramount importance to classify the actors concerned, and examine how they regard it. The current study collects and summarizes opinion statements of stakeholders as found in different online publications. Though the problem of illegal logging and its associated trade is acknowledged by all parties, there are concerns as to whether the EUTR is the proper instrument to address this issue. Whilst some stakeholders see the EUTR as advantageous for their businesses, others see it as an impediment. Law enforcement, lack of guidance, and bureaucracy were other issues raised. The trade-off between effective legislation and ease of trade was also highlighted. Transparent and consistent application of the EUTR, with clear guidelines for exerting due diligence, should diminish the degree of possible unwanted side-effects such as trade diversion and substitution of temperate timber for tropical timber.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: EUTR, Actors, Opinions, Content Analysis, Frames</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 681-686 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1271-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1271-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1271-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-03-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1271-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Spread intensity and invasiveness of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) in Lithuanian forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0763-007 <p><b>Straigyte L, Baliuckas V</b></p><p><b>SPREAD INTENSITY AND INVASIVENESS OF SYCAMORE MAPLE (ACER PSEUDOPLATANUS L.) IN LITHUANIAN FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The primary objectives of this study were to estimate seedling abundance, spread intensity, and invasiveness of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) in Lithuanian forests. The species was introduced to Lithuania in 1802, and since then has subsequently become gradually invasive. Seedling understory abundance, colonization and dispersal were investigated in six forest blocks covering the principal sycamore distribution areas in southwestern Lithuania. Seedlings height and densities in the undestory were evaluated, and seedlings assigned to four height groups. Species invasiveness was estimated applying the Pest Plant Prioritization Process (PPPP), based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results showed the average spread distance from the parent tree was 257 m, with a mean seedling number per hectare of 2064. Sycamore maple invasive score was 0.6426 (range: 0-1), the current relative to potential distribution rating was 0.57, and the social, environmental, and economic impact score was 0.1682. Such values were used to assess the Pest Plant Score for sycamore maple, obtaining a value (0.3537) lower than expectations (0.5). Results indicated that the species exhibits invasive properties and a rapid spread in the study area. Some implications of the above results in view of the upcoming climate change and the use of sycamore maple in Lithuanian forest plantations are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sycamore, Seedling spread, PPPP, Invasiveness, Pest Plant Score</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 693-699 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0763-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0763-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0763-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-03-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0763-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Litter quality changes during decomposition investigated by thermal analysis http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1297-007 <p><b>Gioacchini P, Montecchio D, Ferrari E, Ciavatta C, Masia A, George E, Tonon G</b></p><p><b>LITTER QUALITY CHANGES DURING DECOMPOSITION INVESTIGATED BY THERMAL ANALYSIS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The litter decomposition process depends on the litter chemical composition, especially the ratio between more labile compounds, cellulose, and the recalcitrant lignin and waxes. Their determination is crucial to predict the process, though lignin measurement presents some limitations due to drawbacks of the different methods. Thermal analysis has been successfully applied to several organic materials in order to obtain quali-quantitative information of the chemical structure of the sample. In this work TG-DTA was used in a short-term litter decomposition study of two broadleaf forest stands of contrasting ages, and the results were compared to those obtained with a chemical method (Klason’s method) commonly used to quantify cellulose and lignin. TG-DTA was applied to the litter and to the cell walls (CW) extracted from the litter, whose cellulose and lignin content was determined using the Klason’s method. When applied to litter, thermal analysis showed a weak correlation with the Klason’s method, though it allowed the detection of the dynamics of waxes, that increased during the decomposition and could influence the later stages of the process. Contrastingly, a good correlation between cellulose and lignin determined with the two methods was found when TG-DTA was applied to the CW. In this case TG-DTA, according to NMR data, also highlighted the changes in the CW chemical structure compared with that of the litters, in particular the loss of waxes and the decreased thermostability of aromatic components. Moreover, a new concept of quality of the decomposing litter, based on the balance between the energy stored in the litter and the energy needed to release it obtained by thermal analysis, was recently introduced. Samples of the old forest litter had an initial energetic balance more favorable than those collected in the young stand. At the end of the period, the decrease in litter quality was greater in the young than in the old forest samples, due to the combined effect of the higher degradation of thermolabile substances and the accumulation of more thermostable components. Thermal analysis seems to have a good potential in litter decomposition studies, as it can link structural and energetic changes during the process.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Thermal Analysis, Litter Quality, NMR, Cellulose, Lignin, Cell Wall</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 827-837 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1297-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1297-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1297-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-03-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1297-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: On the geometry and allometry of big-buttressed trees - a challenge for forest monitoring: new insights from 3D-modeling with terrestrial laser scanning http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1449-007 <p><b>Nölke N, Fehrmann L, I Nengah SJ, Tiryana T, Seidel D, Kleinn C</b></p><p><b>ON THE GEOMETRY AND ALLOMETRY OF BIG-BUTTRESSED TREES - A CHALLENGE FOR FOREST MONITORING: NEW INSIGHTS FROM 3D-MODELING WITH TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In many old-growth natural and close-to-natural forest types, notably in humid tropical forests, a relatively small number of very tall trees contribute considerably to stand basal area and biomass. Such trees often show distinct buttress roots with irregular non-convex shapes. Buttresses are complex structures in the lowest stem section, where most tree biomass is located. The methods used to assess the diameter of buttressed trees have a large impact on the determination of volume and biomass, as well as on the resulting estimates of the aboveground carbon stock in tropical forests. As the measurement of diameter at breast height (DBH at 1.3 m) is not feasible in such conditions, the diameter above buttress (DAB), where the cylindrical bole of the tree begins, is usually measured and included as an independent variable in biomass models. We conducted a methodological study aimed at determining the volume and biomass of individual buttressed trees belonging to several tropical species by the application of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The geometry and allometry of the buttresses, as well as the change with height along the stem in buttress volume and cross-sectional area were analyzed. Our results suggest that the relationship between cross-sectional areas at DAB height (ADAB) and the actual tree basal area measured at 1.3 m height is relatively strong (R² = 0.87) across a range of different species, buttress morphologies and tree dimensions. Furthermore, the change in stem cross-sectional area with tree height was surprisingly similar and smooth. Despite the small number of trees sampled, the methodological approach used in this study provided new insights on the very irregular geometry of buttressed trees. Our results may help improving the volume and biomass models for buttressed trees, that are crucial contributors to carbon stocks in tropical forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass, Morphology, Volume, Form Factor</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 574-581 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1449-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1449-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1449-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-03-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1449-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Potential impacts of regional climate change on site productivity of Larix olgensis plantations in northeast China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1203-007 <p><b>Shen C, Lei X, Liu H, Wang L, Liang W</b></p><p><b>POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON SITE PRODUCTIVITY OF LARIX OLGENSIS PLANTATIONS IN NORTHEAST CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Climate change is expected to substantially affect forest site productivity. However, its effects may vary depending on the climate scenario, region and tree species. We chose Larix olgensis in northeast China to investigate the responses of forest site productivity to regional climate change using a generalized additive model (GAM). Based on site index data and climate variables from 335 townships across the Jilin Province, we developed a climate-sensitive forest site index model, which accounted for 72.9% of the variation in the site index at the referred age of 20 (SI20). Our results indicated that climatic and geographic factors significantly affect forest site productivity. The geographic location, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and mean temperature differential were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables. We predict that the change of mean SI20 would vary from 0.3 m to -0.8 m (2.2% to -5.9%) by 2050 and from 0.5 m to -1.6 m (3.7% to -11.8%) by 2070 under three BC-RCP scenarios with rising temperature and increasing precipitation. Our study suggests that climate is an important factor affecting forest site productivity. Future climate changes could affect the forest site productivity both positively and negatively for Larix olgensis in northeast China. The relationship between climate and forest site productivity has strong implications for adaptive forest management and needs to be considered in forest management planning under future climate change.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Site Productivity, Climate Change, Potential Impacts, Larix Olgensis</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 642-651 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1203-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1203-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1203-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-03-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1203-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Behavior of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) wood to different thermal treatments http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1348-007 <p><b>Todaro L, Rita A, Negro F, Moretti N, Saracino A, Zanuttini R</b></p><p><b>BEHAVIOR OF PUBESCENT OAK (QUERCUS PUBESCENS WILLD.) WOOD TO DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Quercus pubescens Willd. is a common oak species in the Mediterranean area, where it is currently exploited mainly for purposes such as firewood. To improve the technological properties of its wood, various steaming and/or heat treatments were applied to 160 wood samples from a southern Italian stand, cut from either sapwood or heartwood, while 20 samples served as controls. Steaming was carried out in an autoclave at 120 °C, whereas heat treatments were performed in an oven at 150 or 200 °C for 3 or 6 h. The equilibrium moisture content, swelling, mass loss, wood density, compression strength, color variation, and lignin content of the samples were measured and compared among treatments. The swelling and water adsorption of wood samples decreased due to the hydrothermal treatments. The mass loss was strictly related to the temperature and duration of the heat treatments, whereas it was not influenced by the steaming treatment. The average axial compression strength value was positively influenced by the combination of steaming and heat treatments. A significant and general darkening of color was also observed for the harshest treatments, while an increase of lignin content was detected mainly in the sapwood. Thus, pubescent oak wood subjected to steaming and heat treatments may acquire useful characteristics suitable for its industrial use.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Steaming, Moisture Content, Swelling, Color, Strength, Ray Cells</p><p><i>iForest 8 (6): 748-755 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1348-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1348-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1348-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-02-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1348-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Influences of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) afforestation on soil microbial biomass and activity http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1410-007 <p><b>Bolat I, Kara O, Sensoy H, Yüksel K</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCES OF BLACK LOCUST (ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA L.) AFFORESTATION ON SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS AND ACTIVITY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Black locust is a tree species considered suitable for afforestation in Turkey because of its rapid growth and ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in disturbed soil ecosystems. Quantitative indicators of soil health and quality can be usefully derived from a data set of soil physical, chemical and microbial characteristics. In this study changes in soil characteristics after afforestation with black locust were assessed by comparing several afforestation sites with control (no vegetation) sites randomly chosen along the roadside in Ulus-Bartin, the western Black Sea region (Turkey). Results showed that some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil (soil bulk density, clay content, soil organic C and total N) were higher at the afforestation sites as compared with the control sites. Similarly, afforestation sites showed higher values for mean soil microbial biomass C (afforestation: 311.97 µg g-1;control: 149.68 µg g-1) and N (afforestation: 43.07 µg g-1; control: 19.21 µg g-1), and basal respiration (afforestation: 0.303 µg CO2-C g-1 h-1; control: 0.167 µg CO2-C g-1 h-1). However, the mean metabolic quotient (qCO2) assessed at the control sites was higher (1.47 mg CO2-C g-1 Cmic h-1) than that observed the afforestation sites (0.96 mg CO2-C g-1 Cmic h-1), likely due to difficulties in the utilization of organic substrates by the microbial community. In addition, the correlation between the qCO2 and Cmic/Corg percentages was negative (r = - 0.586, P < 0.01) in both sites. Our results indicated that afforestation with black locust could be advantageous, not only for soil improvement and regeneration, but also for sustainable land management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Basal Respiration, Cmic/Corg Percentage, Cmic/Nmic Ratio, Metabolic Quotient (qCO2), Nitrogen Fixation</p><p><i>iForest 9 (1): 171-177 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1410-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1410-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1410-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2015-02-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1410-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A comparison of models for quantifying growth and standing carbon in UK Scots pine forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1403-008 <p><b>Lonsdale J, Xenakis G, Mencuccini M, Perks M</b></p><p><b>A COMPARISON OF MODELS FOR QUANTIFYING GROWTH AND STANDING CARBON IN UK SCOTS PINE FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Scots pine is the most abundant native conifer in the UK. A stand level dynamic growth (SLeDG) model is parametrised for British Scots pine stands for the first time. This model predicts stands annually based on their current state, and allows for changes in forest management. Stand growth and carbon storage predictions using this model were compared with those of the yield look-up package ForestYield, and a process-based model (3PGN). Predictions were compared graphically over an 100 year rotation, and strengths and weaknesses of each were considered. The SLeDG parametrisation provided forecasts of Scots pine growth with percentage mean absolute difference < 12% for all state variables. The model comparison showed that similar outputs were predicted by all three models, with the greatest variation in the yield table based prediction of volume and biomass. Future advances in data availability and computing power should allow for greater use of process-based models, but in the interim more flexible dynamic based growth models may be more useful than static yield tables for providing predictions which extend to non-standard management prescriptions and estimates of early growth and yield.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Growth, Yield, Carbon, Modelling, Dynamical-systems, 3PG, ForestYield</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 596-605 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1403-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1403-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1403-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-02-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1403-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Soil respiration and carbon balance in a Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) forest in subtropical China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1360-007 <p><b>Tang X, Fan S, Qi L, Guan F, Cai C, Du M</b></p><p><b>SOIL RESPIRATION AND CARBON BALANCE IN A MOSO BAMBOO (PHYLLOSTACHYS HETEROCYCLA (CARR.) MITFORD CV. PUBESCENS) FOREST IN SUBTROPICAL CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Understanding spatial and temporal variation in soil respiration (RS) in different forest ecosystems is crucial to estimate the global carbon balance. Bamboo forest is a special forest type in southern China covering an area of 5.38 million ha, 70% of which are Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla (Carr.) Mitford cv. Pubescens) forests. Bamboo forests contribute more than 10% to the whole carbon stock of forest ecosystems in China, and therefore play a critical role in the regional and national carbon balance. However, little information on the seasonal dynamic of RS and the carbon balance of Moso bamboo forests is available. In this study, litter removal and trenching methods were applied to partition RS into root respiration (RR), litter respiration (RL) and soil organic matter derived respiration (RM), and to study their seasonal dynamics and carbon balance in a pure Moso bamboo forest. Monthly RS, its source components and combined monthly environmental factors were measured. RS and its source components showed a significant seasonal variability with higher values from June to August and lower values from December to February driven by soil temperature and moisture (P < 0.001). Annual average RS, RR, RL and RM were 2.37, 0.69, 0.58 and 1.10 μmol m-2 s-1 with Q10 values of 1.25, 1.15, 1.19 and 1.26, respectively. Annual RS was 8.97 t C ha-1, and RR, RL and RM contributed 29%, 22% and 49%, respectively. Annual NEP was 4.72 t C ha-1 y-1, indicating that the Moso bamboo forest studied is a significant carbon sink.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Respiration, Source Components, Soil Temperature, Soil Moisture, Net Ecosystem Production</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 606-614 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1360-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1360-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1360-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-02-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1360-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Nitrogen removal and its determinants in hybrid Populus clones for bioenergy plantations after two biennial rotations in two temperate sites in northern Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1254-007 <p><b>Paris P, Mareschi L, Sabatti M, Tosi L, Scarascia-Mugnozza G</b></p><p><b>NITROGEN REMOVAL AND ITS DETERMINANTS IN HYBRID POPULUS CLONES FOR BIOENERGY PLANTATIONS AFTER TWO BIENNIAL ROTATIONS IN TWO TEMPERATE SITES IN NORTHERN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The sustainability of bioenergy coppice plantations is strongly affected by the Nitrogen (N) balance, whose removal is very high due to the frequent harvest of large quantities of biomass composed of small-sized shoots. Poplar bioenergy coppice plantations could have a Nitrogen removal comparable to herbaceous crops. In this study, five hybrid poplar genotypes (“AF2”, “AF6”, “Monviso”, “83.148.041”, “I214”) were compared for tree morphological traits related to yield, N removal in the harvested biomass and Nitrogen wood concentration (N%) after two biennial coppice rotations in two experimental plantations located in northern Italy. N removal was primarily influenced by biomass production, and linear positive relationships between biomass yield and N removal were established. N removal also varied greatly among genotypes due to clonal differences in yield and in N%, in relation to significant differences among clones for their branching and sprouting habits. In the first rotation, branchiness was positively correlated to N% with a significant coefficient of determination (R2=0.813), while at the end of the second rotation it was also significantly correlated to the shoots per stool ratio (R2=0.804). “Monviso” and “83.148.041” were the clones showing the highest yield, but also a high N% associated to an high level of branchiness and shoots per stool ratio. Our results highlight that poplar genotype selection for sustainable N management should be aimed at genotypes with low wood N concentration, coupling high yield with low branching and sprouting habits as in the case of the clone “AF2”.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Branching Habit, Coppice Plantations, Fertilization, Growth Traits, Sprouting Habit</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 668-676 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1254-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1254-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1254-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-02-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1254-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Properties and prediction accuracy of a sigmoid function of time-determinate growth http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1243-007 <p><b>Sedmák R, Scheer L</b></p><p><b>PROPERTIES AND PREDICTION ACCURACY OF A SIGMOID FUNCTION OF TIME-DETERMINATE GROWTH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The properties and short-term prediction accuracy of mathematical model of sigmoid time-determinate growth, denoted as “KM-function”, are presented. Comparative mathematical analysis of the function revealed that it is a model of asymmetrical sigmoid growth, which starts at zero size of an organism and terminates when it reaches its final size. The function assumes a finite length of the growth period and includes a parameter interpretable as the expected lifespan of the organism. Moreover, the possibility for growth curve inflexion at any age is possible, so the function can be used for modelling of S-shaped growth trajectories with various degree of asymmetry. These good theoretical predispositions for realistic growth predictions were empirically evaluated. The KM-function used in three and four-parameter forms was compared with three classical (Richards, Korf and Weibull) growth functions employing two parameterisation methods - nonlinear least squares (NLS) and Bayesian method. The evaluation was conducted on the basis of the tree diameter series obtained from stem analyses. The main empirical findings are: (i) if the minimisation of the prediction bias is required, the KM-function in three-parameter form in connection with Bayes parameterisation can be recommended; (ii) if the minimisation of root square error (RMSE) is required, the best short-term prediction results for a particular dataset were obtained with four-parameter Weibull function employing NLS parameterisation; (iii) moreover, three-parameter functions parameterised by Bayesian methods show a considerably smaller RMSE by 15-25% as well as smaller biases by 40-60% than four-parameter functions employing NLS. Overall, all analyses confirmed relative usefulness of the KM-function in comparison with classical growth functions, especially in connection with Bayesian parameterisation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Growth Function, Determinate Growth, Nonlinear Least Squares, Bayes, Prediction</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 631-637 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1243-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1243-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1243-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-01-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1243-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Changes in aboveground biomass following alternative harvesting in oak-hickory forests in the eastern USA http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1349-007 <p><b>Chen J, Xu J, Jensen R, Kabrick J</b></p><p><b>CHANGES IN ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS FOLLOWING ALTERNATIVE HARVESTING IN OAK-HICKORY FORESTS IN THE EASTERN USA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Managing forest lands for the sustainability of ecosystem functions and services by developing and implementing sound silvicultural methods through site-specific practices is a core concept in ecosystem management. In this study, we used long-term data collected at the extensive plots of the Missouri Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) in the southeastern Missouri Ozarks (USA) to study the changes in aboveground biomass (AGB) under three silvicultural treatments: even-aged management sites (EAM), uneven-aged management sites (UAM), and non-harvested management sites (NHM). Treatments changed the magnitude of AGB dynamics. The forests maintained an AGB of 147.9 Mg ha-1 in 1990 and it increased to 175.6 Mg ha-1 by 2009. The forests were manipulated with four treatments: clear-cut, non-harvest, uneven-aged single-tree, and uneven-aged group selection and yielded AGB values of 30.7, 139.5, 125.7, and 148.7 Mg ha-1 of AGB in 2009, respectively. Over the 18-year study period, these forests accumulated 1.78 ± 0.26 Mg ha-1 yr-1, ranging from 1.60 to 1.94 Mg ha-1 yr-1 at the NHM plots. Changes in the net AGB growth rate were contributed by different growth rates of live trees and mortality and exhibited clear intra-annual variation during the five sampling periods. We observed a decreasing contribution of Quercus velutina (black oak) AGB (~6%), an increasing trend for Q. alba (white oak), and a stable change for Q. coccinea (scarlet oak) during the study period.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Aboveground Biomass, MOFEP, Oak-hickory Forest, Forest Management, Alternative Harvest, Carbon</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 652-660 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1349-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1349-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1349-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-01-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1349-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Exploring the potential behavior of consumers towards transgenic forest products: the Greek experience http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1339-007 <p><b>Tsourgiannis L, Kazana V, Iakovoglou V</b></p><p><b>EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS TRANSGENIC FOREST PRODUCTS: THE GREEK EXPERIENCE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Recently, the interest in wood products and bioenergy applications of transgenic forest trees is increasing worldwide, though plantations have been established to this purposes only in China. Information on the anticipated attitudes of consumers towards products from genetically-modified forest trees would therefore be of a particular interest both for developers and policy makers. This study investigated the purchasing behavior of potential Greek consumers towards the products from transgenic forest trees. In 2011, a survey was conducted based on randomly selected interviews of 418 potential consumers from all over Greece. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed to identify the main factors affecting the potential purchasing behavior of consumers towards products from transgenic forest trees. Hierarchical and non- hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to PCA scores to identify homogeneous groups of consumers sharing a similar purchasing behavior. Discriminant analysis was used to cross-validate cluster membership of consumers based on PCA factors. Four groups of consumers showing similar potential purchasing behavior towards the products of transgenic forest trees were identified: (a) those interested in the quality of products; (b) those oriented towards lower prices; (c) those influenced by curiosity and labeling issues; and (d) consumers mainly interested in health safety issues and environmental impacts. Finally, a most frequent profile for each group of consumers was outlined according to their demographic characteristics and their opinions on the use of transgenic-tree derived products. Although it is unlikely that products from GM forest trees will be marketed in the next 10 to 15 years, information on the anticipated attitudes of consumers has to be taken into consideration by the developers and policy makers.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Consumer Purchasing Behavior, Transgenic Forest Products, Transgenic Forest Trees</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 707-713 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1339-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1339-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1339-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-01-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1339-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The combined effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 and the black truffle co-inoculation on Pinus nigra seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1334-007 <p><b>Dominguez-Nuñez JA, Medina M, Berrocal-Lobo M, Anriquez A, Albanesi A</b></p><p><b>THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS CECT 844 AND THE BLACK TRUFFLE CO-INOCULATION ON PINUS NIGRA SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The inoculation of forest seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria can improve the morphology and physiology of the seedlings and benefit the reforestation of Mediterranean areas and the reintroduction of mycorrhizal fungal inocula into these areas. Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii,a forest component of the Mediterranean natural ecosystems, is currently used in the reforestation of Mediterranean regions. Its roots are able to form an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with the Ascomycetes fungus Tuber melanosporum Vitt., the black truffle. The ecological, economic and social values of this ectomycorrhizal fungus is well known. Previously, we demonstrated that the inoculation of Pinus halepensis seedlings with Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 rhizobacteria and the black truffle T. melanosporum improved the plant growth and N absorption of the seedlings. Furthermore, the addition of P. fluorescens CECT 844 doubled the rate of mycorrhization of T. melanosporum. In the present work, P. nigra seedlings were produced in a nursery under well-watered conditions. We studied the morphophysiological response of these seedlings to a combined T. melanosporum and/or a rhizobacteria P. fluorescens CECT 844 inoculation. Five months after inoculation, the growth parameters (seedling height, basal diameter, and shoot and root dry weight), mycorrhizal colonization, water parameters (osmotic potential at both full and zero turgor and modulus of elasticity), and the total contents and concentrations of N, P, and K in the seedlings roots and shoots were measured. The root growth potentials were subsequently estimated. The addition of P. fluorescens CECT 844 did not significantly improve the mycorrhizal colonization by T. melanosporum on P. nigra seedlings. Additionally, the P. fluorescens inoculation caused few significant improvements in the growth and water parameters. Moreover, apparently opposing effects were observed between the two inoculations regarding the seedlings P absorption. We discuss whether P. fluorescens CECT 844 could act as a Mycorrhizal Helper Bacterium (MHB) through different mechanisms depending on the environmental conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Rhizobacteria, Black Truffle, Mycorrhiza, Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 624-630 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1334-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1334-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1334-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-01-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1334-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Effect of four levels of shade on survival, morphology and chlorophyll fluorescence of Nothofagus alessandrii container-grown seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1321-007 <p><b>Santelices R, Espinoza S, Cabrera AM</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF FOUR LEVELS OF SHADE ON SURVIVAL, MORPHOLOGY AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE OF NOTHOFAGUS ALESSANDRII CONTAINER-GROWN SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Nothofagus alessandrii (ruil) is a threatened, endemic tree of the Mediterranean zone of Chile. As a result of past anthropogenic activities, its current cover has been reduced to only 314 hectares across several fragmented and degraded areas. Although activities to conserve and recover such forests have been developed, little is known about their propagation and nursery cultivation, since the plant’s quality is one of the most important factors for restoration and reforestation plans, re-vegetation, or forest enrichment. The success of restoration programs in these areas will require improvements in plant production, being important to test the shade effects on seedling survival and growth. This paper reports the results of testing for survival, morphological and chlorophyll fluorescence differences in N. alessandrii seedlings grown for approximately 32 weeks in unshaded conditions and under three different levels of shading (18%, 50%, and 80% shade). Morphological traits (stem height, root collar diameter, specific leaf area, shoot and root biomass, and quality indexes) and survival were measured. Chlorophyll fluorescence was also measured to analyze the shade tolerance of the species. Analysis showed significant differences for most traits as a consequence of the shade level. Seedlings exposed to 18% shade showed the highest total dry biomass, while those exposed to 80% shade showed the highest survival rate (92%). Chlorophyll fluorescence was high in the unshaded conditions and medium in the 18-50% shade. Morphological and chlorophyll fluorescence responses differed greatly among shade levels and corresponded with the degree of shade tolerance of the species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Seedling, Ruil, Early Growth, Shadow</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 638-641 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1321-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1321-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1321-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2015-01-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1321-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Light acclimation of leaf gas exchange in two Tunisian cork oak populations from contrasting environmental conditions http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1306-007 <p><b>Rzigui T, Khiari H, Abbes Z, Baaziz KB, Jaouadi I, Nasr Z</b></p><p><b>LIGHT ACCLIMATION OF LEAF GAS EXCHANGE IN TWO TUNISIAN CORK OAK POPULATIONS FROM CONTRASTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Due to diverse environmental conditions, Mediterranean plant populations are exposed to a range of selective pressures that may lead to phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation. We examined the effect of light acclimation on photosynthetic capacity in two Quercus suber (L.) populations that are native to different ecological conditions. Low-light adapted seedlings from both populations were exposed to three light treatments: full sunlight (HL), medium light (ML, 43% sunlight) and low light (LL, 15% sunlight) for one month. Photosynthetic performance was monitored by measuring leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The light environment influences light-saturated carbon assimilation (Amax) in the leaves of the population inhabiting the hot and dry region (from Gaafour). In contrast, there was no significant difference in Amax between leaves grown in high light and low light from Feija (the population native to a cold and humid climate), which suggests an inability of the Feija population to adjust its photosynthesis to respond to higher irradiance. The inability of the Feija population to adjust its photosynthesis did not result from a light acclimation failure in terms of chlorophyll content and ratio compared with the Gaafour population. Instead, it seems to be the consequence of lower stomatal conductance in the Feija population at HL compared to Gaafour.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Quercus suber L., Photosynthesis, Stomatal Conductance, Light, Acclimation</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 700-706 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1306-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1306-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1306-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2015-01-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1306-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Notes: Comparative analysis of students’ attitudes toward implementation of genetically modified trees in Serbia http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1305-007 <p><b>Nonić M, Radojević U, Milovanović J, Perović M, Šijačić-Nikolić M</b></p><p><b>COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD IMPLEMENTATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED TREES IN SERBIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Genetically-modified (GM) trees represent a new frontier in biotechnology, though many environmental concerns associated to the commercial use of GM trees and their products have been recently raised. In general, GM trees involve no safety issues related to human health, therefore public attitudes toward their commercial use should depend on environmental concerns or personal philosophical viewpoints, but also on educational level and background. To assess the relevance of the educational level and background on attitudes toward acceptance of commercial GM tree cultivation, a survey was conducted in January 2014 among 400 students from the Faculty of Forestry of the University of Belgrade and from the Faculty of Applied Ecology “Futura” at the University Singidunum (Belgrade). The aim was to determine whether different educational profiles and educational level significantly affect students’ attitudes toward GM trees. Results showed no significant differences in the responses among students from both faculties. All students showed a good knowledge of GM trees and agreed that different genetic modifications of forest trees would be very important for their country. Also, more than a half of students from both faculties would agree with commercial planting of GM trees and would purchase their final products. However, 70 to 90% of students from both faculties considered the hazards associated with the commercial use of GM trees as “serious hazard” or “slight hazard”. The implication of the above results are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Genetic Modifications, Forest Trees, Biotechnology, Survey</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 714-718 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1305-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1305-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1305-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Notes 2015-01-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1305-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Use of LIDAR-based digital terrain model and single tree segmentation data for optimal forest skid trail network http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1355-007 <p><b>Sterenczak K, Moskalik T</b></p><p><b>USE OF LIDAR-BASED DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL AND SINGLE TREE SEGMENTATION DATA FOR OPTIMAL FOREST SKID TRAIL NETWORK</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The implementation of rational forest management that takes into consideration the requirements of sustainable forest development requires many decisions to be made, ranging from simple rules to extremely complex procedures. This is also true of logging operations, where the applied techniques and technologies should relate not only to economic aspects, but also be maximally adapted to the specific forest environment. One of the most important determinants of environmentally safe and effective logging work is forest accessibility through an appropriately planned road and skid trail network. This paper presents the possibilities of using the Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine the optimal or near-optimal locations of forest skid trails. Choosing skid trails depends on the adopted logging method, existing road network, forest stand development phase, and terrain conditions. The process of optimization takes into account existing stand gaps to reduce the number of trees that must be removed for the network. Segments representing single trees and the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) served as inputs for the GIS analysis. The research was carried out in Scots pine stands. The obtained results show that the total length of skid trails, with 40 m distance between them, after optimization for traditional harvesting method decreased by 2%. For fully mechanized harvesting method, the skid trail network was decidedly denser (20 m) and an original length was reduced only by 0.06%. The results obtained confirmed the practical usefulness of the adopted procedures.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Logging, Airborne Laser Scanner, Single Tree Detection, Digital Terrain Model, Optimal Forest Skid Trail Network</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 661-667 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1355-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1355-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1355-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-12-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1355-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Gas exchange characteristics of the hybrid Azadirachta indica × Melia azedarach http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1127-007 <p><b>Cheng X, He Z, Yu M, Yin Z</b></p><p><b>GAS EXCHANGE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HYBRID AZADIRACHTA INDICA × MELIA AZEDARACH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The hybrid Azadirachta indica × Melia azedarach is a new plant variety that was obtained through somatic hybridization. The plant could grow normally in regions with an average annual temperature of 15 °C, and it had a higher concentration of active insecticidal substance in its seeds. Therefore, the hybrid will likely become a valuable new tree species in subtropical and warm temperate regions. However, the photosynthetic physiological characteristics of A. indica × M. azedarach remain unknown. The photosynthetic gas exchange of the hybrid at three different ages (one year old (AM1), three years old (AM3), and five years old (AM5)) were measured. The specific leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf N, leaf P, and leaf N/P of each tree sample were measured, and the photosynthetic N and P use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE, respectively) were also calculated. The maximum leaf net photosynthetic rate Pa (based on area), Pm (based on mass), light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of A. indica × M. azedarach decreased with increasing tree age, whereas the instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE) increased with age. The photosynthetic capacity showed no significant differences between AM3 and AM5 but was significantly higher in AM3 and AM5 when compared with AM1.The Pa, Pm, apparent quantum yield (AQY), LSP, gs, and Tr of A. indica × M. azedarach were significantly lower than that of the parental M. azedarach, whereas the dark respiration rate (Rd) and WUE were significantly higher than that of M. azedarach. A reduction in the maximal photosynthetic rate of A. indica × M. azedarach that was observed with increased age was primarily related to the increased LMA and the decline in leaf nitrogen (N) and leaf phosphorus (P) concentrations. Additionally, the decline in stomatal conductance (gs) was also an important factor leading to age-dependent reductions in the photosynthetic rate. These findings suggest that the tree’s age has a significant impact on A. indica × M. azedarach gas exchange during juvenile stages, and the photosynthetic capacity of the hybrid was significantly lower than that of the parental M. azedarach.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Photosynthesis, Ontogeny, Stomatal Conductance, Leaf Nitrogen, Leaf Phosphorus, Leaf Mass Per Area</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 431-437 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1127-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1127-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1127-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-12-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1127-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Arthropod diversity in pure oak forests of coppice origin in northern Thrace (Turkey) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1318-007 <p><b>Keten A, Beskardes V, Kumbasli M, Makineci E, Zengin H, Özdemir E, Yilmaz E, Yilmaz HC, Caliskan S, Anderson JT</b></p><p><b>ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY IN PURE OAK FORESTS OF COPPICE ORIGIN IN NORTHERN THRACE (TURKEY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Oak (Quercus spp.) forests are among the most important forest types in Turkey. In the past, oak forests were managed through coppice clear-cutting, but in recent decades they have mostly been converted to high forest. This study was aimed at explaining how arthropod diversity is affected during conversion from coppice to high oak forest and during the early stages of coppice succession. We tested the hypothesis that arthropod richness, abundance and diversity in coppice oak sites varied according to stand age and a number of other forest characteristics. Arthropod communities were sampled in 50 plots using four different methods: pitfall traps, sweep nets, sticky cards and cloth shaking. A total of 13 084 individuals were collected and classified into 193 Recognizable Taxonomic Units (RTUs), with the most RTUs and the greatest number of specimens captured by sweep netting. We identified 17 taxa within RTU’s with more than 1% of the captured arthropods, which constituted 75% of the total specimens. The number of RTUs varied significantly according to trap type. Arthropod richness and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H′) increased with elevation and precipitation. In young (1-40 yrs-old) and middle-aged (41-80 yrs) stands, arthropod biodiversity was not significantly affected by stand type, but slightly increased with diameter at breast height and tree height. Forest characteristics, such as the litter layer, understory and crown diameter, weakly influenced arthropod richness and abundance. Cluster analysis revealed that stand types and trap types differed taxonomically. Principal component analysis showed that stand types were clearly separated by the stand parameters measured. Insect families (Formicidae, Thripidae, Lygaeidae, Dolichopodidae, Luaxanidae, Cicadellidae and Ichneumonidae) could potentially be used as indicators of coppice oak conditions. As the coppice oak changes to mature forest, further studies are needed to better assess the relation between arthropods, forest types and structural characteristics of stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Elevation, Quercus, Recognizable Taxonomic Units, Trap Types, Stand Types, Stand Characteristics</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 615-623 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1318-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1318-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1318-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-12-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1318-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of silver nanoparticles on hardness in medium-density fiberboard (MDF) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1188-007 <p><b>Taghiyari HR, Norton J</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON HARDNESS IN MEDIUM-DENSITY FIBERBOARD (MDF)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Effect of silver nanoparticles on hardness in medium-density fiberboard (MDF) was studied here. A 400 ppm aqueous nanosilver suspension was used at three consumption levels of 100, 150, and 200 mL kg-1, based on the dry weight of wood fibers; the results were then compared with the control panels. The size range of silver nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Composite mats were hot-pressed for 6, 8, and 10 min. Results showed that the uniform and even dispersion of nanoparticles throughout the MDF-matrix significantly contributed to an increase in the hardness at lower hot-press time of 6 min. In the longer hot-press times, however, over-heating of the mat resulted in significant a decrease of hardness values. Significant high correlation was observed between water absorption and thickness swelling.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Composite Board, Heat Transferring Property, Metal Nanoparticles, Nanosilver, Thermal Conductivity Coefficient, Wood Fiber</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 677-680 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1188-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1188-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1188-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-12-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1188-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Physical-mechanical properties and bonding quality of heat treated poplar (I-214 clone) and ceiba plywood http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1276-007 <p><b>Goli G, Cremonini C, Negro F, Zanuttini R, Fioravanti M</b></p><p><b>PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND BONDING QUALITY OF HEAT TREATED POPLAR (I-214 CLONE) AND CEIBA PLYWOOD</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The present paper investigates the physical and mechanical modifications of both poplar (I-214 clone) and ceiba veneers and plywood after heat treatments of different intensities (5 and 7 % of dry mass losses). Plywood panels were glued before and after heat treatment with urea-formaldehyde (UF) and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins. In order to assess the treatments’ effects on both the wood and the glues, the dry mass, the density, the bending strength, the Young’s modulus and the bonding quality were measured before and after heat treatment. The results of the different treatments were compared as well. Results showed that the loss in cell wall polymers due to the heat treatment caused a significant reduction of the equilibrium moisture content of the samples. From a mechanical point of view the treatment resulted in an important reduction of strength and in a small reduction of stiffness. Bonding quality as well as mechanical properties were widely affected by the heat treatment. The different intensities of the treatments (the treatment range was up to 5% and 7% of dry mass loss) did not show significant differences for most of the features assessed. The mechanical performance as well as the bonding quality of treated samples suggested that veneers should be glued after heat treatment. Apparent cohesive wood failure showed that different degradations affect wood and glues with a prominent effect on the glues for UF resins and a prominent effect on the wood for MUF resins.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Heat Treatment, Poplar, Ceiba, Plywood, Bonding Quality, Physical-mechanical Properties</p><p><i>iForest 8 (5): 687-692 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1276-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1276-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1276-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-12-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1276-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Genetic variation and heritability estimates of Ulmus minor and Ulmus pumila hybrids for budburst, growth and tolerance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1227-007 <p><b>Solla A, López-Almansa JC, Martín JA, Gil L</b></p><p><b>GENETIC VARIATION AND HERITABILITY ESTIMATES OF ULMUS MINOR AND ULMUS PUMILA HYBRIDS FOR BUDBURST, GROWTH AND TOLERANCE TO OPHIOSTOMA NOVO-ULMI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Seedlings obtained by crossing Ulmus minor and U. minor × U. pumila clones were assessed for flowering, bark beetle damage, vegetative budburst, height growth and resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Ramets and open pollinated seedlings obtained from the parent trees were assessed for the same traits. Most progenies had similar traits to their parents, but some presented heterosis in annual growth or resistance to O. novo-ulmi. Leaf wilting was significantly lower in progenies with U. minor × U. pumila rather than U. minor as female parent (21.5 and 30.6%, respectively; P<0.05). Resistance to O. novo-ulmi increased significantly as a function of increased amounts of U. pumila germplasm from the female parent, suggesting that resistance to Dutch elm disease is primarily transmitted from the mother. Budburst occurred earlier in seedlings with low rather than high growth rates (P=0.0007) and percentage of wilting was negatively related to early budburst (P<0.0001). Other phenotypic relations included percentage of flowering trees and annual height growth (rp=0.44; P=0.0042), percentage of flowering trees and vegetative budburst (rp=-0.53; P=0.0004) and percentage of beetle-affected trees and annual height growth (rp=0.60; P<0.0001). Heritability estimates obtained from the regression and variance components methods ranged from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.18, 0.10 ± 0.05 to 0.69 ± 0.17, and 0.13 ± 0.32 to 0.71 ± 0.22 for budburst, growth and tolerance to O. novo-ulmi, respectively. Broad- and narrow-sense heritability values were higher when estimated 60 days post inoculation (dpi) than 15, 30 or 120 dpi. Heritability estimates and genetic gains reported indicate a high degree of additive genetic control and show the effectiveness of selection for Dutch elm disease resistance and rapid tree growth.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Quantitative Genetics, Tree Breeding, Invasive Pathogen, Inheritance, Additive Genetic Variance, Non-additive Genetic Variance, Heterosis, Genetic Gain</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 422-430 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1227-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1227-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1227-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-12-15 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1227-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Links between phenology and ecophysiology in a European beech forest http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1307-007 <p><b>Urban J, Bednárová E, Plichta R, Gryc V, Vavrčík H, Hacura J, Fajstavr M, Kučera J</b></p><p><b>LINKS BETWEEN PHENOLOGY AND ECOPHYSIOLOGY IN A EUROPEAN BEECH FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Over the course of a year, tree physiological processes are not only directly affected by environmental conditions, but also by the tree’s own phenological stages. At the same time, phenological stages should, to a certain degree, reflect tree physiology. However, we have rather poor knowledge of the details of the interplay between phenology and ecophysiology. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the links between phenology and ecophysiology. We investigated the degree to which various physiological processes are synchronized both with each other and with phenology and what information related to phenology can be obtained from instrumental ecophysiological measurements. Phenological observations, along with measurements of transmittance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), stem volume changes, sap flow and xylogenesis were conducted in a 45-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica) stand in the Czech Republic. Results indicated that ecophysiology was tightly related with the phenological stage of the tree. Early spring phenological stages were closely linked with the beginning of cambial activity and the onset of sap flow, i.e., the first leaves were produced simultaneously with the beginning of stem radial growth. The highest xylem growth rates occurred in June, simultaneously with the highest sap flow rates. Cambial activity ceased with the onset of summer leaf coloring at the end of July, at the same time as the permanent decrease in sap flow rate. The end of cell wall maturation was linked to the onset of autumn leaf coloring. We conclude that instrumental measurements of tree and stand ecophysiology provided additional information better specifying the onset of particular phenostages. In our case, twelve permanently located sensors used to measure PAR transmittance captured leaf area development with acceptable accuracy, thus limiting the need for frequent visits to the forest site in the spring and autumn. Moreover, data from dendrometers showed linkages to bud break and the onset of leaf coloring. Therefore, ecophysiological measurements increased the effectiveness and accuracy of phenological observations and provided additional information about tree development in particular external conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Phenology, Ecophysiology, Sap Flow, Xylogenesis, Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Dendrometers</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 438-447 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1307-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1307-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1307-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-12-15 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1307-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Size and age: intrinsic confounding factors affecting the responses to a water deficit in black spruce seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1412-007 <p><b>Walsh D, Rossi S, Lord D</b></p><p><b>SIZE AND AGE: INTRINSIC CONFOUNDING FACTORS AFFECTING THE RESPONSES TO A WATER DEFICIT IN BLACK SPRUCE SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The resistance to stress of seedlings during the initial phases after planting is fundamental for assuring fast establishment and long-term survival of artificial regeneration. Although needing less storage space and handling during their production and planting, small seedlings are considered to be less efficient in terms of water uptake and more sensitive to a water deficit than bigger seedlings. The responses to a water deficit produced by a suspension of irrigation for 14 days were assessed in black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP) seedlings of different sizes, with height ranging between 13 and 71 cm. Seedlings growing in containers with cavity volumes of 25, 50, 110, 350 cm3 were tested. During the treatment, the seedlings attained Ψpd of between -1.71 and -2.28 MPa, indicating that a severe water stress was reached. Smaller seedlings exhibited similar or higher water potential and gas exchanges than bigger seedlings both during and after the treatment. Although root biomass was higher in bigger seedlings, the growth rates of roots were similar between seedling sizes and were not affected by the water stress. The initial hypothesis that small seedlings are more sensitive to water stress was rejected. The delayed stomatal closure and higher CO2 assimilation rate of smaller seedlings during the treatment could be attributed to a lower shoot:root ratio and greater ability of roots to sustain the evaporative needs of needles, which could attain higher performances in carbon assimilation. The potential effects of confounding factors such as age and pre-treatment preventing to identify the main factor affecting drought tolerance in black spruce seedlings were discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Artificial Regeneration, Boreal Forest, Containerized Plants, Planting, Water Stress</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 401-409 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1412-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1412-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1412-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-12-09 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1412-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Nursery practices increase seedling performance on nutrient-poor soils in Swietenia humilis http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1179-007 <p><b>Basave Villalobos E, Alcalá Cetina VM, López López MA, Aldrete A, Del Valle Paniagua DH</b></p><p><b>NURSERY PRACTICES INCREASE SEEDLING PERFORMANCE ON NUTRIENT-POOR SOILS IN SWIETENIA HUMILIS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Swietenia humilis is a valued tree species for its high-quality wood, among other commercial interests. Attempts to plant the species in southwest Mexico have often failed due to poor quality seedlings combined with low soil fertility and dry environments. Nursery top-pruning and fertilization are practices previously reported to improve seedling quality, and facilitate rapid establishment under poor site conditions. In the present study, the effects of three top-pruning intensities (0%, 25%, and 50%), and two fertilizer regimes (traditional and exponential) on several S. humilis seedling morphological and physiological indices were tested in the nursery, and a quality test trial on nutrient-poor soils was conducted. Significant interactions between the above two treatments were not detected. Top pruning at 25% and 50% intensity did not improve S. humilis seedling quality. However, exponential nutrient supply exhibited favorable effects on seedling growth. Results of the quality test trial revealed exponential fertilization promoted satisfactory seedling performance when low nutrient availability was a limiting factor.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Caobilla, Seedling Quality, Top Pruning, Exponential Fertilization</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 552-557 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1179-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1179-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1179-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Reports 2014-12-09 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1179-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: De novo adventitious root formations in mini-cuttings of Azadirachta indica in response to different rooting media and auxin treatments http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1189-007 <p><b>Gehlot A, Gupta RK, Arya ID, Arya S, Tripathi A</b></p><p><b>DE NOVO ADVENTITIOUS ROOT FORMATIONS IN MINI-CUTTINGS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA IN RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT ROOTING MEDIA AND AUXIN TREATMENTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a multipurpose Indian tree important to local economy. Conservation of the genetic resources of neem is essential for the adaptability of this tree species to projected climate change impacts. Here, the effect of type and concentration of auxins in different rooting media on adventitious root formation (ARF) in mini-cuttings of Azadirachta indica is depicted. Three different rooting media (i.e., sand, vermiculite and soil) were used, and the experiment was established using three types of auxin (IBA, IAA and NAA) and 6 concentration treatment combinations (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 mg l-1), in a complete randomized block design (CRBD). Significant effects of different auxin types, concentration treatments and rooting media on adventitious root formation of neem mini-cuttings were observed. Mini-cuttings were assessed for rooting percentage, number of roots, root length and number of leaves. IBA resulted in higher rooting percentage (90%), number of roots (149.56), root length (14.83 cm) and number of leaves per rooted mini-cuttings (12.78), when growing in sand. The determination of proper rooting protocols and the use of mini-cuttings were proved important for improving mass propagation of A. indica.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mini-cuttings, Adventitious Root Formation (ARF), Azadirachta Indica, Auxin</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 558-564 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1189-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1189-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1189-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Reports 2014-12-09 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1189-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Soil respiration along an altitudinal gradient in a subalpine secondary forest in China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0895-007 <p><b>Luo S, Liu G, Li Z, Hu C, Gong L, Wang M, Hu H</b></p><p><b>SOIL RESPIRATION ALONG AN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN A SUBALPINE SECONDARY FOREST IN CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The subalpine forest ecosystems in the Miyaluo Forest District in western Sichuan (China) could be very sensitive to global climate change, with important consequences for the regional carbon (C) balance. In a birch secondary forest in this area, we measured plots with (Control) and without (No Litter) leaf litter to explore variation in soil respiration and its relationship with environmental factors along an altitudinal gradient, and to quantify the litter contribution to soil respiration. Soil respiration rate decreased with elevation. The average of soil respiration rates along the elevation gradient during the measurement period was 2.83 ± 0.14 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in the Control treatment and 2.35 ± 0.16 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in the No Litter treatment, with an average proportion of litter layer contribution to soil respiration of 17%. A significant linear relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature along the altitudinal gradient was found, while soil respiration was not significantly correlated with soil water content in both treatments. Soil temperature accounted for 94.9% and 95.6% of the total variation in soil respiration in Control and No Litter treatments, respectively. At altitudes of 2910 m, 3135 m, 3300 m and 3492 m a.s.l., soil respiration had a significant exponential relationship with soil temperature (p<0.05), but it was not significantly correlated with soil water content in both treatments (p>0.05). Soil temperature accounted for more than 92% and 81% of the total variation in soil respiration in Control and No Litter treatments, respectively, at all altitudes except at 3135 m a.s.l. Our results suggest that the expected temperature increases by global warming might enhance soil respiration in the birch secondary forest.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Birch Secondary Forest, Soil Respiration, Soil Temperature, Soil Water Content, Litter</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 526-532 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0895-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0895-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0895-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-12-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0895-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Does higher owner participation increase conflicts over common land? An analysis of communal forests in Galicia (Spain) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1060-008 <p><b>Marey-Pérez MF, Díaz-Varela E, Calvo-González A</b></p><p><b>DOES HIGHER OWNER PARTICIPATION INCREASE CONFLICTS OVER COMMON LAND? AN ANALYSIS OF COMMUNAL FORESTS IN GALICIA (SPAIN)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Communal forests or Montes Vecinales en Mano Común (MVMC) are a type of private collective land in Galicia (NW of Spain) that amounts to approximately one third of its forest land. There has been a series of changes in MVMC ownership and management throughout the 20th century. Uncertainty about ownership, changes in population and the presence of the Forestry Authority bring about deficiencies in management and increases conflict. This paper analyses MVMC management in 1.731 parishes in Galicia. The digital records of local and regional newspapers were used to compile a database consisting of 2.734 news reports related to MVMC issues. The results of hypothesis testing and of spatial analysis show that population, agricultural activity and land use affect management and conflict rates. This paper discusses how active management and conflict are complementary models, and how the presence or absence of one or the other is a determining factor in the situation of each parish. It concludes that it is necessary to implement management models and strategies to minimise conflict and increase active management for sustainable forest development in the region.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Commonly-owned Private Property, Communal Forests, Media, Social Participation, Management Models</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 533-543 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1060-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1060-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1060-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-12-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1060-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Modeling of early stage litter decomposition in Mediterranean mixed forests: functional aspects affected by local climate http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1202-007 <p><b>Vitale M, Savi F, Baldantoni D, Attorre F</b></p><p><b>MODELING OF EARLY STAGE LITTER DECOMPOSITION IN MEDITERRANEAN MIXED FORESTS: FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS AFFECTED BY LOCAL CLIMATE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Litter decomposition is an important process occurring in forest ecosystems, where it affects the carbon balance as a whole. In Mediterranean area, seasonal changes and climate variations associated to latitude and structural characteristics of forest stands have a real effect on decomposition rates. Current leaf litter decomposition models are frequently too general to represent local climate variations in Mediterranean forests. We developed a new dynamic semi-empirical-based model, which simulated the early stage of decomposition of leaf litter based on local climate conditions and few operational parameters. Leaf litter was divided in two components, settled on different carbon compound concentrations. The effects of temperature and moisture were characterized by specific equations and the decomposition rates were time-depending functions. Equations were calibrated by the best fitting procedure performed on field data obtained by the litterbag method followed in mixed deciduous forests in central Apennines (Italy). Model validation showed an excellent correlation between observed and predicted values (R2 between 0.89 and 0.95), predicting thus differences in decomposition rates among different local climates. The simple structure of the model and the satisfactory reliability of outputs are important features for a practical alternative to other CO2 release evaluation methods applied to forest ecosystems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Decomposition Rate, Litterbags, Mediterranean Climate, Semi-empirical Models</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 517-525 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1202-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1202-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1202-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-11-18 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1202-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Differentiation of Populus species by chloroplast SNP markers for barcoding and breeding approaches http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1326-007 <p><b>Schroeder H, Fladung M</b></p><p><b>DIFFERENTIATION OF POPULUS SPECIES BY CHLOROPLAST SNP MARKERS FOR BARCODING AND BREEDING APPROACHES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: About 30 species within the genus Populus are classified in six sections. Several species belonging to different sections are cross-compatible, resulting in a high number of naturally occurring interspecies hybrids. Additionally, an even higher number of hybrids has been produced in huge breeding programs during the last 100 years. Hence, determination of poplar species used for production of “multi-species-hybrids” is often difficult and, therefore, a challenge in developing molecular markers for species identification. Fourteen out of the 30 poplar species known are used more or less regularly for production of artificial hybrids and clones. In this study, we focused on over 20 chloroplast regions, and we tested 23 primer combinations already established for “Barcoding” approaches and seventeen new primer combinations designed earlier for the applicability to differentiate fourteen poplar species. In contrast to the self-designed primer combinations with a much higher amplification success, only about half of the established barcoding primer combinations yielded amplification products. In total, for eleven of the fourteen used poplar species we found species-specific SNPs or Indels. Most of the variation was found in intergenic spacers. In order to design an inexpensive and fast method of species identification, we developed PCR-RFLPs applicable for seven of the species-specific SNPs. Altogether there is high variation in chloroplast intergenic spacers within the genus Populus, illustrated by the fact that four primer combinations are needed to differentiate eleven species. Thus, we support the suggestion of using multi-locus combinations in barcoding analyses.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chloroplast Genome, SNPs, Indel, Barcoding, Intergenic Spacer</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 544-546 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1326-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1326-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1326-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2014-11-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1326-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Growth patterns of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under the current regional pollution load in Lithuania http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1267-007 <p><b>Augustaitis A, Augustaitiene I, Mozgeris G, Juknys R, Vitas A, Jasinevičiene D</b></p><p><b>GROWTH PATTERNS OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) UNDER THE CURRENT REGIONAL POLLUTION LOAD IN LITHUANIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The belief that trees have begun growing more rapidly in recent years was examined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests, a dominant forest type in Lithuania. The largest, pre-dominant pine trees, with a diameter at breast height exceeding 50 cm, were selected for analysis in this study; these were growing in three experimental overly-mature stands located in different parts of Lithuania (north-eastern, western and seaside). We hypothesized that if the annual tree increment has increased in recent years, then the largest trees in the stand should regularly demonstrate this characteristic first of all. The data collected for this study confirmed that since the 1980 growing season the annual increment of the pine trees analysed here has increased. The causes of this rapid growth were higher air temperatures during the dormant period and, to a lesser extent, the higher temperatures from May through August. The effect of precipitation was negligible. A 30-year long data set on acidifying pollutants allowed us to detect significant effect of reduced SO2 concentration and sulphur deposition as well as gradually increased ammonia deposition on the increased annual basal area increment of pine trees over the last 30 year long period. Multiple regression analysis indicated that meteorological parameters can explain up to 50% of the observed increase in the growth rate of Scots pine in Lithuania; meanwhile the presence of acidifying species can account for an additional 30%. However, the pollution data set (20-30 years) was insufficiently long to be compared with the meteorological data. Therefore we were unable to distinguish whether the recent decrease in pollution or global warming resulted in the increases in tree growth rates more significant.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Scots Pine Growth, Pre-dominant Trees, Climate Change, Acidifying Species</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 509-516 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1267-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1267-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1267-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-11-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1267-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of substrate and ectomycorrhizal inoculation on the development of two-years-old container-grown Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1291-007 <p><b>Repáč I, Balanda M, Vencurik J, Kmet J, Krajmerová D, Paule L</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATE AND ECTOMYCORRHIZAL INOCULATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TWO-YEARS-OLD CONTAINER-GROWN NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES KARST.) SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The objective of this study was to test the effects of selected peat growth substrates (Agro CS, Gramoflor and Durpeta) and inoculation with commercial ectomycorrhizal inocula (Ectovit and Mycorrhizaroots) on growth, ectomycorrhiza formation, needle nutrients concentration and several physiological parameters of two-years-old containerized Norway spruce seedlings cultivated under standard nursery conditions. The selected substrates differed in origin, composition and nutrient content: Agro CS and Gramoflor were mixtures of various peat types and components with added nutrients, while Durpeta was non-enriched pure peat. Growth parameters of seedlings cultivated in enriched substrates were significantly higher than those grown on the non-enriched substrate. Significant interactions were found between substrate and inoculation treatments. Inoculation with Ectovit stimulated seedling growth in non-enriched substrate but had no effect on seedling parameters in the enriched substrates, and a negative effect on aboveground biomass in Gramoflor. Mycorrhizaroots inoculum significantly decreased shoot to root dry weight ratio, but had no other effect on seedling development. ECM colonization rate of seedlings ranged from 73 to 80%, with no significant effects of the ECM inoculum or growth substrate. DNA analysis revealed a low species diversity of ECM fungi on seedling roots, with a pronounced dominance of the soil-borne ECM species Thelephora terrestris Fr. Chemical analysis of needles and measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence showed similar trends as seedling growth. Values of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and needle N, P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in both enriched substrates. Ectovit increased (though not significantly) chlorophyll a fluorescence in needles as compared to Mycorrhizaroots- and non-inoculated seedlings, as well as nutrient-uptake (mainly K) in the non-enriched substrate. Our results suggest the importance of the origin and composition of peat-based substrates on the development of container-grown Norway spruce seedlings, while the observed positive effect of the commercial ECM inoculum Ectovit was more probably caused by its physical and chemical properties rather than by its efficiency in promoting ECM fungi symbiosis. The enriched substrates tested appear to be suitable for production of spruce seedlings of acceptable size for outplanting within two growing seasons.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Peat Substrate, Ectomycorrhizal Inoculation, Norway Spruce, Container-grown Seedlings, Nutrition, Chlorophyll a Fluorescence, DNA Analysis</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 487-496 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1291-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1291-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1291-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-11-10 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1291-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn. ssp. laricio (Poiret) Maire) distribution in the Sila mountain range http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1041-007 <p><b>Nicolaci A, Travaglini D, Menguzzato G, Nocentini S, Veltri A, Iovino F</b></p><p><b>ECOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC DRIVERS OF CALABRIAN PINE (PINUS NIGRA J.F. ARN. SSP. LARICIO (POIRET) MAIRE) DISTRIBUTION IN THE SILA MOUNTAIN RANGE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The most well-known and vast Calabrian pine forests are in the Sila mountain range, in southern Italy. In this paper, we analysed the present-day distribution of Calabrian pine in the Sila mountain range and compared it with forest maps from 1935 to evaluate changes in land use. We then identified the ecological variables, together with anthropogenic factors such as management and other disturbing factors like fires, which induced changes in Calabrian pine forests. In 2006, the area covered by Calabrian pine forests and mixed Calabrian pine-beech forests was 36.100 ha and 20.221 ha, respectively. Overall, pine forest area increased by 38% between 1935 and 2006. Calabrian pine distribution in the Sila mountain range is driven by the ecological variables bioclimate, soil, and elevation, and by anthropogenic factors; from these results, 4 potential dynamics are detailed. In the face of changes both in management and in environmental factors, such as expected climate change, we provide a knowledge base for sustainable management and conservation of this important mountain forest habitat.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ecological Factors, Forest Management, Land Use Changes, Forest Dynamics</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 497-508 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1041-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1041-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1041-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-11-10 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1041-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Advantages of the point-intercept method for assessing functional diversity in semi-arid areas http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1261-007 <p><b>Nunes A, Tápia S, Pinho P, Correia O, Branquinho C</b></p><p><b>ADVANTAGES OF THE POINT-INTERCEPT METHOD FOR ASSESSING FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY IN SEMI-ARID AREAS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Semi-arid areas are particularly susceptible to the loss of biodiversity as a consequence of global change. Species functional traits are key drivers of functioning and resilience of ecosystems, thus monitoring of functional trait diversity is urgently needed. The assessment of functional diversity requires the quantification of species and/or their traits in the field, though there is no consensus on the best plant-sampling method to be used. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the point-intercept (PT) method with two area-based approaches, the modified-Whittaker (MW) and Dengler (DE) methods, to assess functional diversity in semi-arid areas. The herbaceous community of a savanna-like Mediterranean woodland was surveyed at the two extremes of a regional precipitation gradient (dry to wet). Efficiency in the quantification of species/ traits, precision of cover estimates, and their effect on functional diversity metrics computed for eight functional traits were compared. Results showed that the examined methods differed in their efficiency in quantifying species/traits in both sites. With the DE method, fewer species were detected than with the MW and PT methods, which yielded similar values. The PT method had a higher precision in the quantification of both dominant and non-dominant species/traits. It also had a higher community evenness, mainly in the wet location, which allowed the analysis of a greater number of species/traits within the 80% “dominance” threshold (i.e., species representing 80% of the relative cover of community), a critical aspect of functional diversity assessments. In addition, the PT method yielded higher estimates for multi-trait functional evenness, as well as different estimates (either higher or lower than MW and DE) of single-trait community weighted means (for N-fixing ability and flowering onset), functional dispersion (for N-fixing ability and specific leaf area), and functional evenness (for height and flowering onset). In spite of the observed differences among methods in the assessment of functional diversity, the PT approach demonstrated important advantages in the non-destructive, fine-scale monitoring of semi-arid areas, where “less dominant” species may play a critical role.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dengler Method, Drylands, Field Plant Sampling, Functional Structure, Functional Diversity, Grassland, Modified-Whittaker, Point-intercept Method</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 471-479 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1261-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1261-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1261-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-10-31 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1261-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Role of forest cover, land use change and climate change on water resources in Marmara basin of Turkey http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1242-007 <p><b>Pamukcu P, Serengil Y, Yurtseven I</b></p><p><b>ROLE OF FOREST COVER, LAND USE CHANGE AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER RESOURCES IN MARMARA BASIN OF TURKEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We evaluated the influence of climate change and land use changes on water resources in the Marmara Region (Turkey) using the watershed runoff coefficients (RC) and trend analysis techniques on long-term (30 years) hydrometerological data. Land use changes in the selected sub-watersheds were obtained from CORINE land use maps for 1990, 2000, and 2006, and interpolated for annual changes. Forty-two land use types of Corine maps were grouped in four basic classes (forests, rangelands, farmlands, settlements). Principal component analysis was used to identify the most relevant land use types influencing RC since 1990. Results showed that changes in the proportion of forestlands, farmlands, and rangelands significantly affected RC. Settlements also affected RC, but to a lesser extent. RCs values for the different land use types were optimized on a subset of 28 out of the 48 sub-watersheds analyzed by minimizing the sum of least-square errors, while the remaining subset of 20 sub-watersheds was used to validate the models obtained. The R2 values for optimization and validation were 0.80 and 0.70, respectively. RCs of all watersheds were estimated for the period 1990-2012. Long-term trends in mean annual precipitation and temperature were examined by Mann-Kendall test based on time series from eight weather stations with records since 1930s. Contrasting significant trends of variation through time were found only for two stations as for precipitation, and for one station as for temperature. Overall, our results suggest that significant land use changes occurred in the region since 1990, but only slight variations in climate parameters. However, we conclude that neither land use changes nor the variation in climate parameters caused statistically significant effects on RCs and water resources.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Climate Change, Land Use Change, Water Resources, Runoff Coefficient</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 480-486 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1242-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1242-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1242-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-10-31 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1242-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The Habitat-Trees experiment: using exotic tree species as new microhabitats for the native fauna http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1281-007 <p><b>Zapponi L, Minari E, Longo L, Toni I, Mason F, Campanaro A</b></p><p><b>THE HABITAT-TREES EXPERIMENT: USING EXOTIC TREE SPECIES AS NEW MICROHABITATS FOR THE NATIVE FAUNA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The cavities that develop in veteran trees represent a key microhabitat for forest biodiversity and especially for secondary cavity nesters that rely on this resource for shelter. Since the availability of deadwood, veteran and hollow trees is threatened by forest management, we explored the possibility of increasing the presence of these scarce resources. To increase the abundance of dead wood-microhabitats, 113 trees of the hybrid planes (Platanus x acerifolia) were converted into new living structures, the Habitat Trees (HT). To investigate the potential of this resource on the native avian fauna, six types of cavities were designed according to the size requirements of the target bird species. The temporal evolution of the cavities and their use by birds were then studied for eight years. The artificial cavities generally did not compromise growth and stability of the trees, and the majority remained alive. These hollows offered better thermal insulation compared to traditional nest-boxes and natural cavities. Their use increased during the first three years, reaching the 80%. In the following years, the use declined (probably because of the increase of rot and displacement of the lids).This highlights the need of management to maintain their suitability through time. Our results suggest a possible cost-effective alternative use of alien tree species, which should be included in management actions to compensate the shortage of hollow trees in managed forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Birds, Deadwood, Exotic Species, Forest Management, LIFE Project, Saproxylic Organisms</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 464-470 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1281-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1281-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1281-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-10-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1281-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influence of tree density on climate-growth relationships in a Pinus pinaster Ait. forest in the northern mountains of Sardinia (Italy) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1190-007 <p><b>Mazza G, Cutini A, Manetti MC</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCE OF TREE DENSITY ON CLIMATE-GROWTH RELATIONSHIPS IN A PINUS PINASTER AIT. FOREST IN THE NORTHERN MOUNTAINS OF SARDINIA (ITALY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In view of the projected increases in the frequency and duration of drought events in the Mediterranean basin, a better understanding how differences in stand structure influence climate-growth relationships can improve and drive the conservation and management strategies for marginal forests in mountain areas. In this study, we examined the intra-annual variability of growth patterns and responses to climate of two maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands growing at contrasting tree densities at low elevation in northern Sardinia. A dendroclimatic analysis was used to assess the climate-growth relationships of these trees on monthly, seasonal and annual scales. The late spring and summer precipitations of the current year appeared to be the crucial climatic driver that encouraged the radial growth of the species in this mountain stand. However, summer drought was the primary climate constraint, exerting negative effects on P. pinaster growth. Summer Palmer drought severity index showed contrasting influence on latewood growth responses to drought conditions related to stand density, remaining significant also during the autumn months in the stand with the highest tree density. Our findings indicate that stands growing at high tree densities may experience more prolonged water shortages, especially during the late summer and early autumn months. Additionally, since the early 1980s, as precipitation has decreased, the influence of previous rainy years on radial growth has been highly significant in the stand with the lowest tree density. This result might suggests that these trees are able to utilize a greater amount of water reaching deeper soil horizons stored due to the previous rainy years, especially during periods of low precipitation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pinus pinaster, Tree Rings, Stand Density, Climate-growth Relationships, Drought</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 456-463 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1190-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1190-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1190-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-10-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1190-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Use of terrestrial laser scanning to evaluate the spatial distribution of soil disturbance by skidding operations http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1165-007 <p><b>Koren M, Slančík M, Suchomel J, Dubina J</b></p><p><b>USE OF TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING TO EVALUATE THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL DISTURBANCE BY SKIDDING OPERATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We investigated the disturbance to the surface of a skid trail caused by removing cut timber from inside the forest to the roadside by dragging using terrestrial laser scanning technology. We scanned the study site prior to taking any action, after skidding and after implementing post-harvesting reinstatement to the surface of the skid trail. From the point cloud obtained, we derived an irregular point field. We generated a triangulated irregular network which we then interpolated into a raster digital terrain model with a resolution of 1cm. By comparing the digital terrain models, we analysed the influence of skidding the timber and the influence of post-harvesting reinstatement upon the surface of the skid trail. The surface of the skid trail was most significantly affected in the area where the harvested logs were extracted and stacked for hauling. In the centre section of the trail, where the logs were dragged by a tractor, quite deep tracks were created and the intensity of soil disturbance was comparable to the handling section. The lowest intensity of soil disturbance was found in the area where the skid trail met the roadside. The post-harvesting reinstatement of the working area resulted in levelling the surface of the skid trail and the deepest tracks were filled in. The post-harvesting reinstatement caused a 12% increase of the volume of ruts, a 49% decrease of the volume of mounds of soil and a 6% increase of total soil volume change.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Terrestrial Laser Scanning, Skidding Operation, Soil Disturbance, Precision Forestry</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 386-393 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1165-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1165-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1165-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-10-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1165-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Spatial heterogeneity of light and tree sapling responses in the understory of disturbed montane forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1195-007 <p><b>Méndez-Dewar G, González-Espinosa M, Equihua M</b></p><p><b>SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY OF LIGHT AND TREE SAPLING RESPONSES IN THE UNDERSTORY OF DISTURBED MONTANE FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Attributes and frequency of forest gaps are usually described in reference to a one-dimensional gradient of light, which may relate to their disturbance dynamics. Similarly, species are customarily classified by their light response. We propose that a bi-dimensional light framework facilitates the understanding and comparison of forest systems and the understanding of plant responses to the complex light environment. This light plane is based on two spatially related components: 1) light received directly on a particular point (Focal); and 2) a statistical summary of the immediate environment representing the light conditions surrounding that point (Context). The contrast between these two values is null when Focal = Context and positive when Focal > Context or otherwise negative. Light was assessed using hemispherical photographs using a spatial arrangement of pictures spaced ~3 metres (m) in-between. Eight forest plots were surveyed, each with a central gap of different size. Sapling performance of Alnus acuminata, Cornus excelsa, Liquidambar styraciflua, Persea americana and Quercus laurina was also assessed within these plots. Measurements of stem height, basal diameter, and slenderness allometry were taken over a period of more than two years. We found in the light plane that plots were distributed in a pattern congruent with their estimated degree of disturbance (gap size), which spanned wide areas in the plane. Liquidambar styraciflua. and Quercus laurina were found to be sensitive to Focal light, irrespective of Context light. All species responded to Focal light under negative Contrast. Cornus and Persea grew taller and more slender as Focal light increased, particularly under null contrast. There is evidence suggesting that plant growth is dependent on the contrast measured. Thus, it would be relevant to devise a functional classification of tree species that considers their response to both direct light and luminosity of the immediate environment as measured by a contrast value.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cartesian Plane, Canopy Filter, Light Context, Shade Tolerance, Sunflecks, Light Plane</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 448-455 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1195-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1195-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1195-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-10-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1195-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of forest management on bird assemblages in the Bialowieza Forest, Poland http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1212-007 <p><b>Czeszczewik D, Zub K, Stanski T, Sahel M, Kapusta A, Walankiewicz W</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF FOREST MANAGEMENT ON BIRD ASSEMBLAGES IN THE BIALOWIEZA FOREST, POLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We examined the effects of different intensities of forest management on bird communities in the Bialowieza Forest, eastern Poland. Stands that had been managed for more than 100 years (cutting, planting, removal of dead wood) and stands that were partially protected in nature reserves (sporadic sanitary cutting, removal of dead wood until 2008) were compared with unmanaged stands in the Bialowieza National Park by surveying the bird community during three breeding seasons (2010-2012). Surveys were conducted within three forest habitats: spruce-pine (Pino-Quercetum), lime-hornbeam (Tilio-Carpinetum) and ash-alder (Fraxino-Alnetum). Results showed that habitat structure significantly affected the avian community. The basal area of live trees had a positive effect on abundance of birds, while the density of live trees had negative significant effect on bird abundance and species diversity. We also found significantly lower abundance of insectivorous birds and cavity-nesters in managed compared to unmanaged stands. Birds’ assembly in the spruce-pine and ash-alder stands were most sensitive to management. These results show both that management can be used to sustain bird communities, including species of conservation concern, and that inappropriate management may harm them.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bialowieza Forest, Breeding Bird Communities, Forest Biodiversity, Primeval Stands, Forest Management</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 377-385 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1212-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1212-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1212-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-10-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1212-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessing the carbon sink of afforestation with the Carbon Budget Model at the country level: an example for Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1257-007 <p><b>Pilli R, Grassi G, Moris JV, Kurz WA</b></p><p><b>ASSESSING THE CARBON SINK OF AFFORESTATION WITH THE CARBON BUDGET MODEL AT THE COUNTRY LEVEL: AN EXAMPLE FOR ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the context of the Kyoto Protocol, the mandatory accounting of Afforestation and Reforestation (AR) activities requires estimating the forest carbon (C) stock changes for any direct human-induced expansion of forest since 1990. We used the Carbon Budget Model (CBM) to estimate C stock changes and emissions from fires on AR lands at country level. Italy was chosen because it has one of the highest annual rates of AR in Europe and the same model was recently applied to Italy’s forest management area. We considered the time period 1990-2020 with two case studies reflecting different average annual rates of AR: 78 kha yr-1, based on the 2013 Italian National Inventory Report (NIR, official estimates), and 28 kha yr-1, based on the Italian Land Use Inventory System (IUTI estimates). We compared these two different AR rates with eight regional forest inventories and three independent local studies. The average annual C stock change estimated by CBM, excluding harvest or natural disturbances, was equal to 1738 Gg C yr-1 (official estimates) and 630 Gg C yr-1 (IUTI estimates). Results for the official estimates are consistent with the estimates reported by Italy to the KP for the period 2008-2010; for 2011 our estimates are about 20% higher than the country’s data, probably due to different assumptions on the fire disturbances, the AR rate and the dead wood and litter pools. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that: (i) the impact on the AR sink of different assumptions of species composition is small; (ii) the amount of harvest provided by AR has been negligible for the past (< 3%) and is expected to be small in the near future (up to 8% in 2020); (iii) forest fires up to 2011 had a small impact on the AR sink (on average, < 100 Gg C yr-1). Finally the comparison of the historical AR rates reported by NIR and IUTI with other independent sources gives mixed results: the regional inventories support the AR rates reported by the NIR, while some local studies suggest AR rates somehow intermediate between NIR and IUTI. In conclusion, this study suggests that the CBM can be applied at country level to estimate the C stock changes resulting from AR, including the effect of harvest and fires, though only a comparison with results based on direct field measurements could verify the model’s capability to estimate the real C stock change.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Afforestation, Reforestation, Carbon Budget Model, Italy, INFC, IUTI</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 410-421 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1257-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1257-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1257-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-10-02 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1257-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Addressing post-transplant summer water stress in Pinus pinea and Quercus ilex seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1256-007 <p><b>Pardos M, Calama R, Mayoral C, Madrigal G, Sánchez-González M</b></p><p><b>ADDRESSING POST-TRANSPLANT SUMMER WATER STRESS IN PINUS PINEA AND QUERCUS ILEX SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In central Spain, post-transplant water stress produces high seedling mortality after the first summer following outplanting. Our study was designed to determine whether survival and performance of outplanted stone pine (Pinus pinea) and holm oak (Quercus ilex) seedlings in a burned area could be improved by summer irrigation and mulching and to identify whether there is a species-specific adaptive capacity to respond to treatment and environment. Seedlings were outplanted in March 2011 in 200 planting holes in an area of 1.1 ha. Mulch was added in June; irrigation started in July and was repeated every week until mid-September. The severity of the 2011 summer drought constrained growth rates and photosynthetic characteristics, mainly in the non-irrigated seedlings, whose survival at the end of the year after planting was approximately 2.5%. Stone pine and holm oak seedlings responded more to irrigation than to mulching in terms of shoot growth, biomass and survival. Furthermore, stone pine seedlings were found to be more responsive to the partial alleviation of summer drought than holm oak seedlings. Irrigation alone produced similar results to those obtained when both irrigation and mulching were employed. In conclusion, first year summer irrigation should be considered as a planned adaptation measure in the management of outplanted Mediterranean ecosystems, because once a gravimetrically measured soil moisture level as low as 2% is achieved seedling survival and physiological performance can be guaranteed. However, the repercussions for the potential persistence of both species in the area will not only be related to the recurrence and intensity of summer droughts but also to drought duration.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Stone Pine, Holm Oak, Irrigation, Drought, Seedling Survival, Physiological Traits</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 348-358 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1256-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1256-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1256-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-09-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1256-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Functional turnover from lowland to montane forests: evidence from the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1002-008 <p><b>Jafari SM, Zarre S, Alavipanah SK, Ghahremaninejad F</b></p><p><b>FUNCTIONAL TURNOVER FROM LOWLAND TO MONTANE FORESTS: EVIDENCE FROM THE HYRCANIAN FOREST IN NORTHERN IRAN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Plant functional traits and functional diversity play key roles in ecosystem functioning. Exploring patterns of functional diversity is of great importance in the management process of forest ecosystems. Altitudinal pattern of plant functional diversity is poorly investigated in Hyrcanian relict forest, N Iran. We explored differences in trait composition between lowland and montane forest types. Altitudinal variation of plant functional traits along 2400 m altitudinal gradient was examined. In order to collect species and vegetation data, 67 vegetation sampling plots were placed along the altitudinal gradient. Eight plant functional traits; related to plant physiognomy, competitive ability and dispersal, were selected for 174 recorded vascular plants and weighted by importance-value of taxa. We used generalized linear model, principal coordinate analysis along with functional diversity metrics to investigate functional changes along the gradient. The importance of different traits such as chamaephyte life form, tiny leaves, dry indehiscent fruits and small seeds increase with altitude. In contrast, other traits including large leaves, taller plants, fleshy fruits, anemophily as well as medium to large seeds decrease with increasing elevation. Functional difference between lowland and montane forest vegetation is strongly supported in our results. Trait associations, different environmental parameters, disturbance type and especially altitude were concluded to be important predictors of functional changes. Vegetation type is a key determinant of functional patterns in temperate forests. We strongly recommend exploring and considering functional diversity in forest management practices.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Functional Diversity, Gradient, Hyrcanian Forest, Multivariate Analysis, Vegetation</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 359-367 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1002-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1002-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1002-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-09-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1002-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Stomata morphological traits in two different genotypes of Populus nigra L. http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1104-007 <p><b>Russo G, De Angelis P, Mickle JE, Lumaga Barone MR</b></p><p><b>STOMATA MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN TWO DIFFERENT GENOTYPES OF POPULUS NIGRA L.</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Populus nigra L. (black poplar) possesses amphistomatic leaves, with large (giant) and normal sized stomata. The role of giant stomata in leaf development, and the consequences on stomatal density in adult leaves remains elusive. This paper describes the characteristics of ordinary and giant stomata in leaves of two black poplar genotypes (58-861 with large leaves from northern Italy, and Poli with small leaves from southern Italy). Stomatal traits in both genotypes were studied using light microscopy on mature leaf adaxial and abaxial epidermal impressions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy was applied to study giant and normal stomata in early, young, and mature leaves. Leaf abaxial surfaces in the two genotypes revealed variable sizes and patterns of stomata related to differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (Wi). These observations provided evidence of different stomatal types in mature black poplar leaves, and new information regarding the presence and potential role of giant stomata in black poplar leaves.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Giant Stomata, Poplar Clones, Genotypes, Populus, SEM</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 547-551 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1104-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1104-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1104-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2014-09-16 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1104-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Visible and near infrared spectroscopy for predicting texture in forest soil: an application in southern Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1221-007 <p><b>Conforti M, Froio R, Matteucci G, Buttafuoco G</b></p><p><b>VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR PREDICTING TEXTURE IN FOREST SOIL: AN APPLICATION IN SOUTHERN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Texture is a primary variable affecting the total amount of carbon stock in the soil. The standard methods for determining soil texture, however, are still conducted manually and are largely time-consuming. Reflectance spectroscopy in the visible, near infrared (Vis-NIR, 350-2500 nm) spectral region could be an alternative to standard laboratory methods. The aim of this paper was to develop calibration models based on laboratory Vis-NIR spectroscopy and PLSR analysis to estimate the texture (sand: 2-0.05 mm; silt: 0.05-0.002 mm; clay: <0.002 mm) in a forest area of southern Italy. An additional objective was to produce continuous maps of sand, silt and clay through a geostatistical approach. Soil samples were collected at 235 locations in the study area, and then dried, sieved at 2 mm and analyzed in laboratory for soil texture and Vis-NIR spectroscopic measurements. Spectra showed that soil samples could be spectrally separable on the basis of classes of texture. To establish the relationships between spectral reflectance and soil texture (sand, silt and clay) partial least squared regression (PLSR) analysis was applied to 175 soil samples, while the remaining 60 samples were used to validate the models. The optimum number of factors to be retained in the calibration models was determined by leave-one-out cross-validation. Results of cross validation of calibration models indicated that the models fitted quite well and the values of R2 ranged between a minimum value of 0.74% for silt and a maximum value of 0.84 for sand content. Results for validation were satisfactory for sand content (R2=0.81) and clay content (R2=0.80) and less satisfactory for silt content (R2=0.70). Geostatistics coupled with Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy allowed us to produce continuous maps of sand, silt and clay, which are of critical importance for understanding and managing forest soils.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Soils, Soil Texture, Vis-NIR Spectroscopy, Geostatistics, Southern Italy</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 339-347 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1221-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1221-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1221-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-09-09 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1221-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of planting density on the distribution of biomass in a douglas-fir plantation in southern Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1078-007 <p><b>Marziliano PA, Coletta V, Menguzzato G, Nicolaci A, Pellicone G, Veltri A</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF PLANTING DENSITY ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF BIOMASS IN A DOUGLAS-FIR PLANTATION IN SOUTHERN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The effects of initial planting densities on the distribution of above-ground biomass of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) were investigated in a plantation in southern Italy. Allometric equations designed for the plantation under study were used to estimate above-ground biomass and in particular partitioning to stem and crown compartments. A comparison between biomass estimated with allometric equations and biomass estimated with a constant biomass expansion factor (BEF) from the Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC 2005) was carried out. Moreover, a BEF calculated as the ratio of total above-ground or compartment biomass to stem volume was used to define the sensitivity of BEF to age and to tree density. Variation of above-ground standing biomass estimated with allometric equations was evaluated according to 6 differing planting densities (833, 1000, 1250, 1667, 2000 and 2500 trees per hectare). In the first 20 years after planting higher biomass stock was detected in high density plots, but after the age of 32 years differences between plots disappeared. When the plantation was 40 years old, a higher amount of total biomass was observed in plots of 2000 trees per hectare (about 405 Mg ha-1), a lower amount in plots of 2500 trees per hectare (about 381 Mg ha-1). The Douglas-fir plantation has a total above-ground carbon stock of 197 Mg C ha-1 at the age of 40 and a mean annual CO2 sequestration of 18 Mg ha-1 y-1. Constant BEF from INFC underestimated biomass on average by 11% for ages 15 and 25 and overestimated biomass on average by 16% for older ages. BEFs expressed as a ratio of biomass to stem volume significantly depended upon age and planting density, with decreasing trends for total, stem and crown compartments. Our results indicated that total above-ground biomass production is not influenced by different tree density if considered over a long period. If cutting cycles are short, planting density on average of 2000 trees per hectare may ensure high biomass production rates; if cutting cycles are longer, 1000-1200 trees per hectare could also be a valid choice.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Allometric Equations, Biomass, Biomass Expansion Factor, Carbon, Douglas-fir, Planting Density, Spacing Trial</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 368-376 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1078-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1078-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1078-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-09-09 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1078-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in a multi-oak-species (Quercus spp.) forest http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1150-007 <p><b>Curtu AL, Craciunesc I, Enescu CM, Vidalis A, Sofletea N</b></p><p><b>FINE-SCALE SPATIAL GENETIC STRUCTURE IN A MULTI-OAK-SPECIES (QUERCUS SPP.) FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Patterns of fine-scale spatial distribution of multilocus genotypes can provide valuable insights into the biology of forest tree species. Here we tested for the existence of spatial genetic structure (SGS) in a four-oak-species forest with contrasting species abundances and hybridization rates. A total of 483 adult trees were mapped over 8.6 ha and genotyped using 10 highly polymorphic genomic regions. A weak but significant SGS was observed in each of the four oak species, with Quercus frainetto, the species with the lowest density in the sampling plot, exhibiting the strongest SGS. The values of the Sp statistic were 0.0033, 0.0035, 0.0042, and 0.0098 for Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. pubescens, and Q. frainetto, respectively. The spatial correlogram of the total population was significantly different when hybrids were removed from the analysis, which suggests that hybridization influenced the SGS. Interspecific SGSs were significantly correlated with the rates of hybridization. Implications of the obtained results for the conservation and management of forest genetic resources are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Spatial Genetic Structure, Quercus, Oak Species, Population Density, Hybridization</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 324-332 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1150-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1150-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1150-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-09-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1150-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Modeling stand mortality using Poisson mixture models with mixed-effects http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1022-008 <p><b>Zhang X-Q, Lei Y-C, Liu X-Z</b></p><p><b>MODELING STAND MORTALITY USING POISSON MIXTURE MODELS WITH MIXED-EFFECTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Stand mortality models play an important role in simulating stand dynamic processes. Periodic stand mortality data from permanent plots tend to be dispersed, and frequently contain an excess of zero counts. Such data have commonly been analyzed using the Poisson distribution and Poisson mixture models, such as the zero-inflated Poisson model (ZIP), and the Hurdle Poisson model (HP). Based on mortality data obtained from sixty Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) permanent plots near Beijing, we added the random-effects to the Poisson mixture models. Results showed that the random-effects in the ZIP model was not convergent, and HP mixed-effects model performed better in modeling stand mortality than the Poisson fixed-effects model, the Poisson mixed-effects model, the ZIP fixed-effects model and the HP fixed-effects model. Moreover, the HP model accounts for two sources of dispersion, the first accounting for extra zeros and the second accounting to some extent for the dispersion due by individual heterogeneity in the positive set. We also found that stand mortality was negatively related to stand arithmetic mean diameter and positively related to dominant height.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Hurdle Model, Mixed Model, Poisson Model, Stand Mortality, Zero Inflated Model</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 333-338 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1022-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1022-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1022-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-09-05 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1022-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Open field-applicable instrumental methods for structural and functional assessment of whole trees and stands http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1116-008 <p><b>Cermák J, Nadezhdina N, Trcala M, Simon J</b></p><p><b>OPEN FIELD-APPLICABLE INSTRUMENTAL METHODS FOR STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF WHOLE TREES AND STANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This illustrated review is aimed to provide succinct account of different methods applicable for obtaining objective information about the functional ecology of forest sites and stands (and also, e.g., orchards, watersheds, parks or alleys) for the purposes of phytotechnology or precise forestry. Management strategies must consider preservation of many important functions of forests in the landscape. Management methodologies include classical forestry approaches based on classification of the natural environment according to climatic zones, soil characteristics and composition of herbaceous as well as woody vegetation. One possibility for obtaining objective information came with the development of ecologically applicable instrumentation, allowing studies on the whole tree and stand levels to be undertaken anywhere in the field. Information may be derived at sites that are not permanently observed and are not equipped with additional constructions, such as towers, masts, or greenhouses. These field applicable methods are focused especially on tree and stand macrostructure, water relations and functional parameters of trees. In addition, problems associated with interactions between trees and different organisms are also discussed. A series of methods based on different principles is useful to measure mostly quantitative, operative or effective tree parameters as tree crowns and leaf distribution, stems (or large tree trunks) and root systems including skeleton and absorptive fine roots. This is sometimes possible to do with rather simple methods, but instrumental methods prevail especially for root studies. In addition to several classical measurement principles including anatomical or mechanical sensing, the methods work with sound speed (acoustic tomography) using electromagnetic rays of different wavelength (from radar to optical), electric conductivity or impedance, supersonic air stream and thermodynamics for example. Methods for data evaluation and examples of application are also included. The whole complex system approach should serve for different scientific fields (including hydrology, landscape care, horticulture, forensic engineering, etc.) and especially to support precise forestry.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Instrumental and Simple Methods, Geometrical and Effective Parameters, Tree Crown, Stem (trunk) and Root System, Complex Studies, Water and Energy</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 226-278 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1116-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1116-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1116-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2014-09-03 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1116-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Effects of wildfires on peak discharges in watersheds http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1120-007 <p><b>Leopardi M, Scorzini AR</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF WILDFIRES ON PEAK DISCHARGES IN WATERSHEDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Wildfires can alter the hydrological processes in watersheds resulting in increases in peak discharge - one of the most important hydrological variables used in water resources applications. It thus follows that the standard methods used to calculate rainfall runoff should be modified in order to model the potential changes in watershed response under post-fire conditions. However, no reliable methodology for quantitatively assessing the effects of wildfires on hydrological parameters, such as curve numbers or runoff coefficients, has been identified to date. The approaches currently used are usually site-specific, mainly based on personal experience or very simple empirical strategies and then affected by a degree of uncertainty. This paper addresses issues regarding the estimation of the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN or CN) and considers the case study of San Giuliano, L’Aquila (Italy), a small urban basin recently affected by a wildfire that resulted in a significant reduction in forest cover. The effects of the fire on runoff are modelled by adjusting CNs according to existing approaches from the literature in order to perform a sensitivity analysis for post-fire conditions; this allows us to examine the effects of the variability in model input parameters (estimates of post-fire CNs) upon expected peak discharges related to different return period storms. The fire effect ratio, which can be seen as a global parameter for describing alterations in the watershed response due to fire, is calculated by dividing post-fire peak discharge by pre-fire peak discharge. For the present case study, this ratio ranged between 1.1 and 2.3, indicating the urgent need for quantitative research on the effects of wildfires on the hydrological variables affecting runoff calculations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wildfire, Curve Number, Peak Discharge, Runoff, GIS</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 302-307 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1120-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1120-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1120-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Reports 2014-09-03 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1120-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbiosis with Sorbus torminalis does not vary with soil nutrients and enzyme activities across different sites http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1236-008 <p><b>Moradi M, Shirvany A, Matinizadeh M, Etemad V, Naji HR, Abdul-Hamid H, Sayah S</b></p><p><b>ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL SYMBIOSIS WITH SORBUS TORMINALIS DOES NOT VARY WITH SOIL NUTRIENTS AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES ACROSS DIFFERENT SITES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Effects of soil chemical properties on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) symbiosis with wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis L. Crantz) were examined for study the rates of root colonization at three forest sites: Kheiroud, Lalis, and Takrin in northern Iran. Soil characteristics including pH, available phosphorus (P), potassium (K), organic matter, total nitrogen, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, CaCO3, spore density (SD) and AMF colonization of soil and root samples were analyzed. The study sites were investigated in spring and autumn to highlight the effects of soil chemical properties on AMF statues for better nurseries and reforestation management of this rare tree species in forests. Changes in soil pH, P, K, organic matter, total nitrogen, acid and alkaline phosphatase, CaCO3, SD, and AMF colonization of soil and root samples were analyzed at the study sites. K, pH, root colonization, SD and acid phosphatase activity showed no significant differences among sites in spring and autumn, while total nitrogen, P, organic matter and alkaline phosphatase activities showed significant differences among sites and seasons. AMF colonization rates were more than 51% and 32% of roots in spring and autumn, respectively. No correlation between root colonization and soil chemical parameters in spring and autumn were detected. There was no correlation between percentage of AM root colonization and SD nor other soil parameters in spring and autumn. SD and CaCO3 were significantly negatively correlated in spring and autumn. Despite differences in soil characteristics, the results showed that SD and root colonization were not significantly different among the sites. They also showed that wild service trees had strong symbiosis with AMF, while soil properties might not have a significant effect on this symbiosis. Therefore, colonized seedlings can be considered as an appropriated method for reforestation and conservation of this rare tree species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Arbuscular Mycorrhizae, Soil Nutrients, Colonization, Soil Enzyme, Sorbus torminalis</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 308-313 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1236-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1236-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1236-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-09-03 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1236-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: An index of structural complexity for Apennine beech forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1160-008 <p><b>Sabatini FM, Burrascano S, Lombardi F, Chirici G, Blasi C</b></p><p><b>AN INDEX OF STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY FOR APENNINE BEECH FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A broad interest exists in developing structure-based indicators to use as proxies for other attributes that are difficult to assess, such as biological diversity. Summary variables that account for stand-scale forest structural complexity could facilitate the comparison among stands and provide a means of ranking stands in terms of their potential contribution to biodiversity. We developed an index of structural heterogeneity (SHI) for beech forests in southern Italy: (i) we established a preliminary list of 23 structural variables obtained from data routinely collected in forest inventories; (ii) we quantified these variables in a set of 64 beech-dominated stands encompassing a wide range of variability in the Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni National Park; (iii) we identified a core set of attributes that take into account the main sources of structural heterogeneity identified in reference old-growth forests; and (iv) we combined these core attributes into a simple additive index (SHI). We identified eight core attributes that were rescaled to the range 0 to 10 using regression equations based on raw attribute data. The SHI was calculated as the sum of these attribute scores and then expressed as a percentage. The index performance was evaluated against ten reference old-growth beech stands in the Apennines. The index ranged between 38 and 79.1 (median=59.4) and was distributed normally for the calibration dataset. The SHI successfully discriminated between old-growth (range=71.9-99.9, median=85.1) and early-mature to mature forests. Furthermore, the SHI linearly increased with stand age and was higher in multi-layer high forests than in single- and double-layer forests. However, a large variation was detected within both management types and age classes. SHI could be helpful for foresters as a tool for quantifying and comparing structural heterogeneity before and after a silvicultural intervention aimed at restoring the structural complexity in second-growth stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: “Cilento - Vallo di Diano and Alburni” National Park, Fagus sylvatica, National Forest Inventories, Old-growth Forests, Structural Heterogeneity Index</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 314-323 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1160-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1160-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1160-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-09-03 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1160-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Categorization of field trials with GM plants in the Netherlands: applicable to field trials with GM forest trees? http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1311-008 <p><b>Glandorf DC</b></p><p><b>CATEGORIZATION OF FIELD TRIALS WITH GM PLANTS IN THE NETHERLANDS: APPLICABLE TO FIELD TRIALS WITH GM FOREST TREES?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the Netherlands, criteria have been set for field trials with genetically modified (GM) plants. These criteria are based on the step-by-step principle as described in European Directive 2001/18/EC. Three categories of field trials are defined. The first category concerns small-scale field trials with GM plants that are not well characterised on the molecular and phenotypic level. Confinement measures are applied in order to limit potential adverse effects to the field location. The second category consists of small-scale field experiments with GM plants that are better characterized. Confinement measures are no longer necessary since sufficient information is available to assess potential adverse effects on human health and the environment for these trials. The third category consists of large-scale field trials with fully characterised GM plants and without the need of confinement measures. For each category, a new permit is required. This system has been used for several crops, including apple and poplar trees and may also be applicable for trials with GM forest trees.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Field Trials, Genetically Modified, GM Crops, GM Trees, Environmental Risk Assessment</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 222-225 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1311-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1311-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1311-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Reports 2014-08-31 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1311-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Seed trait and rodent species determine seed dispersal and predation: evidences from semi-natural enclosures http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1185-008 <p><b>Yi X, Wang Z, Liu C, Liu G</b></p><p><b>SEED TRAIT AND RODENT SPECIES DETERMINE SEED DISPERSAL AND PREDATION: EVIDENCES FROM SEMI-NATURAL ENCLOSURES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Seed traits affect seed dispersal by animals. However, the combined role of seeds and dispersers in determining seed dispersal is not well explored. We attempted to test how seed traits and predators determine seed dispersal and predation interaction in a rodent-mediated seed dispersal system. Semi-natural enclosure experiments were conducted to investigate seed dispersal and predation of five sympatric tree species with different seed traits, Juglans mandshurica, Quercus mongolica, Pinus koraiensis, Corylus mandshurica and C. heterophylla by three rodent species, Apodemus peninsulae, Tamias sibiricus and Clethrionomys rufocanus showing different body sizes, hoarding behaviors and activity rhythms. Our results demonstrated that seed species with thick coat were removed more slowly than thin-coated seeds in regardless of rodent species, reflecting a consistent negative effect of seed coat on seed dispersal. Seeds with thick coat were less likely to be eaten both in situ and after removal by small rodents. Seeds with high caloric value were more likely to be larder-hoarded, whereas seed traits showed no influence on scatter-hoarding. Rodent species with large body size tended to eat more seeds in situ, while small-sized rodents preferred to eat seeds after removal. Large-sized rodent species scatter-hoarded more seeds, however, small-sized rodents larder-hoarded more seeds. Seeds with thick coat showed high mutualism but low predation with rodents, while rodents with large size showed low mutualism but high predation with seeds. Our results indicate that both seeds and predators play important roles in determining seed dispersal and predation in the seed-rodent dispersal system.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Body Size, Caloric Value, Seed Coat, Seed Dispersal</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 207-213 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1185-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1185-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1185-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-28 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1185-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Environmental niche and distribution of six deciduous tree species in the Spanish Atlantic region http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1183-008 <p><b>Roces-Díaz JV, Jiménez-Alfaro B, Álvarez-Álvarez P, Álvarez-García MA</b></p><p><b>ENVIRONMENTAL NICHE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SIX DECIDUOUS TREE SPECIES IN THE SPANISH ATLANTIC REGION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Understanding the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of tree species is essential for developing management actions at regional level. We computed species distribution models for six European tree species to determine their potential niche in the Spanish Atlantic region, where deciduous forests are relatively well preserved. We used data from the national Forest Inventory and topo-climatic and soil variables to construct distribution models by the Generalized Linear Model procedure. The main factors found to determine the presence of the selected species were minimum winter temperature and mineral fertility of soils. Suitable habitats for Quercus petraea and F. sylvatica were mainly high-altitude areas with low minimum temperatures. In contrast, Q. robur and C. sativa were restricted to low altitudes and warmer conditions. Betula pubescens was not influenced by the elevation, probably because it is adapted to Atlantic conditions, and distribution of this species was associated with low fertility soils. Although the submediterranean Q. pyrenaica was positively influenced by the slope, model performance was poor for this species, possibly because of the truncated environmental range of the species in the study area. The findings suggest that temperature rather than moisture is shaping the distribution of deciduous trees at the southern limit of the Atlantic biogeographic region. We also note that the strong elevational difference between the warm coast and the cold mountains may determine the geographical disjunction between Q. robur and Q. petraea in southern Europe.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Species Distribution Models, Topo-climatic Variables, Quercus species, Fagus sylvatica, Castanea sativa, Betula pubescens, Iberian Peninsula, Deciduous Forests</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 214-221 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1183-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1183-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1183-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-28 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1183-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Soil C:N stoichiometry controls carbon sink partitioning between above-ground tree biomass and soil organic matter in high fertility forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1196-008 <p><b>Alberti G, Vicca S, Inglima I, Belelli-Marchesini L, Genesio L, Miglietta F, Marjanovic H, Martinez C, Matteucci G, D’Andrea E, Peressotti A, Petrella F, Rodeghiero M, Cotrufo MF</b></p><p><b>SOIL C:N STOICHIOMETRY CONTROLS CARBON SINK PARTITIONING BETWEEN ABOVE-GROUND TREE BIOMASS AND SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN HIGH FERTILITY FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The release of organic compounds from roots is a key process influencing soil carbon (C) dynamics and nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems. Through this process, plants stimulate microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization thus releasing nitrogen (N) that sustains gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP, respectively). Root inputs also contribute to SOM formation. In this study, we quantified the annual net root-derived C input to soil (Net-Croot) across six high fertility forests using an in-growth core isotope technique. On the basis of Net-Croot, wood and coarse root biomass changes, and eddy covariance data, we quantified net belowground C sequestration. Belowground C accumulation and GPP were inversely related to soil C:N, but not to climate or stand age. Soil C content and C:N were also related to soil texture. At these high fertility sites, biomass growth did not change with soil C:N; however, biomass growth-to-GPP ratio significantly increased with increasing soil C:N. This was true for both our six forest sites and for another 23 high fertility sites selected at a global scale. We suggest that, at high fertility sites, plant N demand interacts with soil C:N stoichiometry and microbial activity, resulting in higher allocation of C to above ground tree biomass with increasing soil C:N ratio. When C:N is high, microbes have a low C use efficiency, respire more of the fresh C inputs by roots and prime SOM decomposition, thereby increasing N availability for tree uptake. Soil C sequestration would therefore decrease, whereas the extra N released during SOM decomposition can promote tree growth and ecosystem C sink allocation in aboveground biomass. Conversely, C is sequestered in soil when low soil C:N promotes microbial C use efficiency and new SOM formation and stabilization on clay particles.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Net Root-derived Carbon, Ingrowth Cores, Soil C:N, Carbon Sequestration, Carbon Partitioning, Isotopes</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 195-206 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1196-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1196-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1196-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-26 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1196-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimating the sensitivity to desertification of Italian forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1111-008 <p><b>Salvati R, Salvati L, Corona P, Barbati A, Ferrara A</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATING THE SENSITIVITY TO DESERTIFICATION OF ITALIAN FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The present study assesses the level of sensitivity to desertification of forest types in Italy between 2000 and 2010 on a fine resolution scale using the Environmental Sensitive Area (ESA) scheme. The proposed methodology identifies and ranks the level of sensitivity of fourteen forest types and quantifies the changes in their level of sensitivity over time as a contribution to understanding of complex landscape-forest interactions in Mediterranean ecosystems. Only few forest types showed a relatively high sensitivity level, suggesting that forests may positively contribute to the mitigation of land degradation processes in the Mediterranean region. Forest types showing the highest sensitivity are native types mostly adapted to dry Mediterranean landscapes, introduced vegetation types and highly-fragmented and heterogeneous forest types. Results suggest that: (i) high-quality and biodiversity-rich forest types (e.g., beech, mountain pine forests) may act as vegetation buffer mitigating the increase of land sensitivity to desertification at the landscape scale; and (ii) the remaining forest types (especially highly fragmented, low-quality or low-biodiversity classes in areas with severe soil and climate conditions) may undergo increases in land sensitivity to desertification and should be protected through specific management measures as also implemented in the framework of the National Action Plans to Combat Desertification.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Environmental Indicators, ESAI, Desertification, Forests, Mediterranean Basin, Climate, Soil</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 287-294 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1111-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1111-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1111-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-26 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1111-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Potential spread of forest soil-borne fungi through earthworm consumption and casting http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1217-008 <p><b>Montecchio L, Scattolin L, Squartini A, Butt KR</b></p><p><b>POTENTIAL SPREAD OF FOREST SOIL-BORNE FUNGI THROUGH EARTHWORM CONSUMPTION AND CASTING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: To test if forest soil-borne fungi concerned with plant health can be selectively dispersed by earthworms, 10 fungal species isolated from 5 forests were presented, at 2 concentrations, to 3 ecologically distinct earthworm species in laboratory trials. Between 5 and 13 days after introduction, casts were collected, where possible, from each earthworm species fed with a different fungus. These casts were analysed, using molecular methods, for the presence of the given fungus and its vitality verified through traditional plating techniques. The research confirmed that earthworms have an important role in dispersal of soil fungi in forests, and that such activity can depend on the taxonomical position of the fungus, ecological category of the earthworm species involved and the fungal concentration. In certain instances there is a suggestion that some fungi may be toxic to some earthworms at the given concentrations, which equated to those within and outside of the rhizosphere.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Earthworms, Soil-borne Fungi, Fungal Inoculum, Ecology, Dispersal</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 295-301 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1217-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1217-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1217-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-26 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1217-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Concordance between vascular plant and macrofungal community composition in broadleaf deciduous forests in central Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1199-008 <p><b>Landi M, Salerni E, Ambrosio E, D’Aguanno M, Nucci A, Saveri C, Perini C, Angiolini C</b></p><p><b>CONCORDANCE BETWEEN VASCULAR PLANT AND MACROFUNGAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN BROADLEAF DECIDUOUS FORESTS IN CENTRAL ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We examined the concordance between vascular plants and macrofungi (grouped into trophic groups) in Mediterranean forest habitats (central Italy). Our goal was to test how consistently plant and fungi groups classify plots in a broadleaf deciduous forest dominated by Quercus cerris. Our hypothesis was that groups of plants can be used as surrogates for the classification of macrofungal communities. The test of concordance comprised two steps: 1) the plant species data sets were subjected to cluster analysis, to obtain three classifications based on presence of all plants, presence and frequency of only woody species; 2) Multiple Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) was used to test the performance of each plant classification applied to the fungi data sets. The sample scores along the first PCA axis was used to investigate the relationships between compositional patterns. In the concordance analysis, the classification of only woody plants provided better results than the classification obtained with herbaceous and woody plants together. Cross-tests gave the best results when the “woody plants” classification was applied to ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) and, to a certain extent, to humicolous saprotrophs (Sh). The ordination analysis indicated that the frequency of woody plants follows a similar spatial distribution to EMF and Sh fungal groups and is therefore expected to discriminate the same environmental gradients. Many EMF exhibit preferences for few (one or two) hosts. Significant associations were found among a greater number of EMF and woody plant species. Woody plants such as Sorbus domestica and Prunus spinosa appear to be associated with many EMF. The combination of a high frequency of Fraxinus oxycarpa and Quercus petraea seems to promote distinct assemblages of EMF and Sh fungi. Then, characteristic assemblages of fungi were found in association with certain tree and shrub combinations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Deciduous Oaks, Ectomycorrhizal Fungi, Host Specificity, Saprotrophic Fungi, Surrogates, Trophic Groups</p><p><i>iForest 8 (3): 279-286 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1199-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1199-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1199-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-22 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1199-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Individual-based approach as a useful tool to disentangle the relative importance of tree age, size and inter-tree competition in dendroclimatic studies http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1249-007 <p><b>Rozas V</b></p><p><b>INDIVIDUAL-BASED APPROACH AS A USEFUL TOOL TO DISENTANGLE THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF TREE AGE, SIZE AND INTER-TREE COMPETITION IN DENDROCLIMATIC STUDIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this work, an individual-based approach was used to assess the relative importance of tree age, size, and competition in modulating the individual dendroclimatic response of Quercus robur L. This was performed in a multi-aged forest in northwestern Spain under a wet Atlantic climate. All trees in five replicated forest stands with homogeneous soil conditions were mapped and inter-tree competition was quantified with a distance-dependent competition index. Tree rings of cored trees were crossdated and total age was estimated on individuals where the pith was missed. The climatic response was evaluated by bootstrapped correlations of individual tree-ring chronologies with climatic records. Inter-annual growth variation, i.e., mean sensitivity, was independent of tree age and bole diameter, but modulated by competition. Water excess in previous summer-autumn and spring negatively affected growth, while warmer September conditions favored growth. Individual response to climate was independent of tree age, but related to the joint effect of tree bole diameter and competition. Larger oaks in less competitive environments responded more plastically to climatic stress, while smaller trees under high competition levels were less responsive to climate. Strong inter-tree competition reduced growth plasticity but amplified the vulnerability of smaller oaks to the particularly rainy conditions of the study area. These findings suggest that inter-tree competition is a relevant size-mediated extrinsic factor that can potentially modulate individual radial growth variation and its response to limiting climatic conditions in temperate deciduous forests. This study highlights the value of individual-based approach as a useful tool that informs about the relative contribution of factors modulating the climatic response of tree-ring growth.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Climate-Growth Response, Competitive Effect, Dendroecology, Individual Variation, Quercus robur, Size Effect, Tree Age</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 187-194 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1249-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1249-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1249-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-21 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1249-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Forest litter as the mulch improving growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity of bare-root Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1083-008 <p><b>Aučina A, Rudawska M, Leski T, Skridaila A, Pašakinskiene I, Riepšas E</b></p><p><b>FOREST LITTER AS THE MULCH IMPROVING GROWTH AND ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY OF BARE-ROOT SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this paper, we report the influence of pine, oak and spruce forest litter on the growth and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) formation of Scots pine seedlings after the first growing season in a bare-root forest nursery. The mixture of collected forest litters and humus were used to obtain a 20-cm mulching layer on the prepared seedbeds. The concentrations of all nutrients and the C/N ratio of growth media were significantly higher in forest litter treatments than in negative control represented by mineral soil without litter. Addition of each forest litter type significantly enhanced pine seedling height and root-collar diameter compared to negative control. A significant positive influence on dry mass of stem, needles, roots and total dry mass of the seedling has been found only for pine litter. Based on molecular identification, seven ECM fungal taxa (Wilcoxina mikolae, Suillus luteus, Cenococcum geophilum, Meliniomyces bicolor, Laccaria laccata, unidentified Atheliaceae, unidentified Ascomycetes) were distinguished in the observed mycorrhizal communities. Each forest litter type significantly increased the total number of mycorrhizal tips and ECM fungal diversity compared to the control soil. However, results showed a lack of significant differences in species composition and relative abundance of ECM fungi between different litter types. Such result suggests that forest litter has not been a key source of inoculum for tested fungal species, as root systems of all pine seedlings from different litter types were dominated by a few nursery- adapted ECM fungi, probably originating from natural air-borne inoculum. Our data rather indicate that forest litter considerably improves environmental conditions for development of ECM fungi previously present in the nursery soil. Therefore, any of the forest litter types used in our studies may be able to promote planting stock quality on a small scale in the nursery phase.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pinus sylvestris, Seedlings, Forest Nursery, Ectomycorrhiza</p><p><i>iForest 8 (4): 394-400 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1083-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1083-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1083-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-20 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1083-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Application of fungicides and urea for control of ash dieback http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1272-008 <p><b>Hauptman T, Celar FA, de Groot M, Jurc D</b></p><p><b>APPLICATION OF FUNGICIDES AND UREA FOR CONTROL OF ASH DIEBACK</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Ash dieback is caused by a highly pathogenic fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea). Possibilities for disease control are limited, and treatment of fallen leaf debris to prevent sporulation of the pathogen is one of the possible options to control the disease. In some cases chemical treatments could be used, but data on effective chemical agents for control of the ash dieback are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different chemical fungicides and urea on the pathogen. Out of eight tested fungicides, mycelial growth in Petri plates as well as development of H. pseudoalbidus apothecia on ash leaf petioles were most efficiently inhibited by carbendazim. Urea also proved to be effective in prevention of apothecial formation. In addition to inhibition of the pathogen, urea accelerates the degradation of treated leaf debris. Therefore, the use of urea for treatment of infected ash leaf debris could be more effective than the use of fungicides and also more environmentally acceptable.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, Chemical Control, Mycelial Growth, Leaf Petioles, Apothecia Formation</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 165-171 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1272-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1272-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1272-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1272-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Seven Ulmus minor clones tolerant to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi registered as forest reproductive material in Spain http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1224-008 <p><b>Martín JA, Solla A, Venturas M, Collada C, Domínguez J, Miranda E, Fuentes P, Burón M, Iglesias S, Gil L</b></p><p><b>SEVEN ULMUS MINOR CLONES TOLERANT TO OPHIOSTOMA NOVO-ULMI REGISTERED AS FOREST REPRODUCTIVE MATERIAL IN SPAIN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The Spanish elm programme began in 1986 in response to the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease on natural elm stands and urban trees. Its main objectives were to conserve remaining genetic resources and select and breed tolerant native elm genotypes. After 27 years of work conducting susceptibility trials on thousands of elm genotypes, the first seven tolerant Ulmus minor trees are now being registered by the Spanish Environmental Administration. This paper presents the results of the susceptibility tests on these clones and their distinctive genetic, morphological and phenological features. In all susceptibility trials the commercial “Sapporo Autumn Gold” clone, which is highly tolerant to O. novo-ulmi, was used as a control. The registered clones were named “Ademuz”, “Dehesa de la Villa”, “Majadahonda”, “Toledo”, “Dehesa de Amaniel”, “Retiro” and “Fuente Umbría”. The most tolerant clone was “Dehesa de Amaniel”, as its wilting values were below 5% during the two consecutive inoculation trials performed in Madrid. “Fuente Umbría”, tested over four consecutive years in Guadalajara and Palencia, was the Spanish clone with the most reliable tolerance level to O. novo-ulmi. The “Ademuz” and “Majadahonda” clones had the highest ornamental scores and are promising trees for use in urban environments and tree breeding for ornamental quality. These two genotypes showed a later bud burst phenology than the other U. minor clones, demonstrating suitability to areas with late frost events. The Spanish programme aims to substantially increase the range of tolerant native elms through new selections and crossings to gain a better understanding of the genetic basis of resistance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dutch Elm Disease, Breeding, Plant Release, Resistance, Invasive Species</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 172-180 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1224-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1224-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1224-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1224-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commentaries & Perspectives: The elm, tree of milk and wine http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1244-007 <p><b>Heybroek HM</b></p><p><b>THE ELM, TREE OF MILK AND WINE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Elm has played an important role in European culture for thousands of years, in many roles, with regional variation. In material culture, its wood has assisted in hunting and warfare for over seven thousand years; but more importantly, its leaves and bark were semi-indispensible for the production of milk and meat, and served as an emergency food for humans. In the Mediterranean, elm was the main tool for the production of a good quality wine by providing support for the grapevine, and it helped feeding the cattle. These functions sometimes found an echo in the non-material culture. The fact that in Germanic genesis stories the first woman was created out of an elm (the man out of an ash), as well as a severe local taboo on the use of elm wood for skis, threatening the offender with a place in hell, seem both connected to the superior feeding value of this tree. In England and in parts of continental Europe most sacred trees were elms, sometimes performing female functions such as the production of babies. In the Mediterranean, however, the elm was seen as the male partner in the “marriage of the vine to the elm”, which was the celebrated system of viticulture. That image has been used by poets and politicians over the ages to praise the effects of human marriage, cooperation and interdependence. It even forms the core of the apocryphal Bible book “The Shepherd”, where it is seen as a symbol and example for a kind of symbiosis between the rich and the poor. - In conclusion, the ultimate origin of the English elm or “Atinia”, as well as its discovery is discussed, which appears to be a question of milk and wine.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ulmus, Viticulture, Fodder, Emergency Food, Non-material Culture, Cultivar “Atinia”, Cultivar “Arbia”</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 181-186 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1244-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1244-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1244-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Commentaries & Perspectives 2014-08-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1244-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Dutch elm disease and elm bark beetles: a century of association http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1231-008 <p><b>Santini A, Faccoli M</b></p><p><b>DUTCH ELM DISEASE AND ELM BARK BEETLES: A CENTURY OF ASSOCIATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Bark beetles of the genus Scolytus Geoffroy are the main vectors of the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi s.l., which causes the Dutch elm disease. The large and small elm bark beetles - S. scolytus (F.) and S. multistriatus (Marsham), respectively - are the most common and important species spreading the pathogen worldwide. The success of the pathogen-insect interactions is mainly due to the characteristic reproductive behavior of the elm bark beetles, which, however, largely depends on the occurrence of infected trees. During feeding activity on elm twigs, callow adults carrying pathogen conidia on their bodies contaminate healthy trees and facilitate pathogen development and movement within the wood vessels. Infected trees become then suitable for insect breeding in the stem bark. This well-known mutualistic association has devastating consequences for elm survival. Although much is known about insect-pathogen interactions and transmission mechanisms, many topics still deserve additional attention, as, for example, beetle systematic based on new molecular tools and morphological characters; selection of European elm clones based on disease avoidance; consequences of global warming on life-history of the three organisms (fungus-insect-tree) involved in the pathosystem; new problems resulting from the rapid increase of international trade among continents, leading to the accidental introduction of new vector species or new pathogen species or races, or to the introduction of new highly susceptible elm species in gardens and public parks. A holistic approach to tackle the problem is highly recommended, taking into account how these organisms interact with each other and the environment, and how their interactions could be modified in order to face one of the most destructive diseases ever known in plant pathology.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dutch Elm Disease, Elm Beetles, Scolytus-Ophiostoma Interactions, DED Cycle, Avoidance Mechanisms, Disease Escape, Resistance</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 126-134 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1231-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1231-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1231-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2014-08-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1231-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Ulmus laevis in the Iberian Peninsula: a review of its ecology and conservation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1201-008 <p><b>Venturas M, Fuentes-Utrilla P, López R, Perea R, Fernández V, Gascó A, Guzmán P, Li M, Rodríguez-Calcerrada J, Miranda E, Domínguez J, González-Gordaliza G, Zafra E, Fajardo-Alcántara M, Martín JA, Ennos R, Nanos N, Lucena JJ, Iglesias S, Collada C, Gil L</b></p><p><b>ULMUS LAEVIS IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA: A REVIEW OF ITS ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas) populations are scarce, small and fragmented in the Iberian Peninsula. Due to these characteristics the indigenous status of the species in the region has been questioned, whilst the species’ role in Iberian riparian forest ecology has been neglected. Herein we review past studies regarding this species’ distribution and ecology in the Iberian Peninsula, with special emphasis on the establishment of conservation priorities. We first present a collection of palaeogeographic, historic and genetic data suggesting that the Iberian Peninsula was a glacial refuge for U. laevis. Secondly, we analyse U. laevis distribution in relation to soil physico- chemical properties and water availability in Spain. Following this, we focus on the reproductive biology of the species, and investigate the effect of masting and empty seed production on predation and regeneration establishment. Finally, based on this knowledge, we propose conservation policies for U. laevis in the Iberian Peninsula.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Elm Conservation, Drought-stress Vulnerability, Root Iron Uptake, Population Genetics, Seed Dispersal, Seed Predation, Ulmus laevis’ Distribution</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 135-142 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1201-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1201-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1201-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2014-08-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1201-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Implementing the dynamic conservation of elm genetic resources in Europe: case studies and perspectives http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1206-008 <p><b>Collin E, Bozzano M</b></p><p><b>IMPLEMENTING THE DYNAMIC CONSERVATION OF ELM GENETIC RESOURCES IN EUROPE: CASE STUDIES AND PERSPECTIVES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Many European countries have undertaken the static preservation of native elm genotypes in clone collections maintained ex situ. Less development has been devoted to the dynamic conservation of elm populations in situ. Case studies of elm conservation in France are given here as an illustration of methods employed at country level. We also briefly review the process used by the “European Forest Genetic Resources Programme” (EUFORGEN) to monitor elm dynamic conservation in a pan-European perspective. Dynamic conservation methods were promoted by EUFORGEN through leaflets, strategies, Technical Guidelines and the geo-referenced database EUFGIS on Dynamic Conservation Units (DCUs). Because the network of DCUs needs to be representative of the partitioning of adaptive diversity across the species distribution range, a GIS-aided approach has been developed to position DCUs in environmental zones and identify conservation gaps. The two DCUs of European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) selected in riparian forests of two different climatic zones of France show that management oriented toward habitat protection is compatible with dynamic conservation, and that the species can still be conserved in situ in spite of Dutch Elm Disease (DED). Collaboration with habitat conservationists enabled the monitoring of losses to DED and the assessment of within-population diversity for flowering phenology. Collaboration with forest geneticists revealed that the diversity of the Garonne population was low, but that it contained rare DNA variants and adaptive traits. Since 1987, experimental restoration of countryside hedges has been carried out, using field elm clones (U. minor Mill.) selected from the French national collection and tested for lower susceptibility to the agent of DED in artificial inoculation tests. Such plantations can be viewed as a very dynamic form of conservation if they permit the local gene pool to be reinforced with trees able to reach sexual maturity and exchange pollen with elms in the neighborhood, hence contributing new genotypes that will be submitted to natural selection and provide fuel for ongoing adaptation processes. Initiatives assembling a large consortium of stakeholders, including habitat conservationists and hedge re-constructors, are needed to trigger new conservation projects.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Elm, Ulmus minor, Dynamic Conservation, Population Genetics, Europe, France</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 143-148 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1206-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1206-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1206-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2014-08-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1206-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Genomics of the Dutch elm disease pathosystem: are we there yet? http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1211-008 <p><b>Bernier L, Aoun M, Bouvet GF, Comeau A, Dufour J, Naruzawa ES, Nigg M, Plourde KV</b></p><p><b>GENOMICS OF THE DUTCH ELM DISEASE PATHOSYSTEM: ARE WE THERE YET?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: During the last decades, the development of ever more powerful genetic, molecular and omic approaches has provided plant pathologists with a wide array of experimental tools for elucidating the intricacies of plant-pathogen interactions and proposing new control strategies. In the case of the Dutch elm disease (DED) pathosystem, these tools have been applied for advancing knowledge of the host (Ulmus spp.) and the causal agents (Ophiostoma ulmi, O. novo-ulmi and O. himal-ulmi). Genetic and molecular analyses have led to the identification, cloning and characterization of a few genes that contribute to parasitic fitness in the pathogens. Quantitative PCR and high-throughput methods, such as expressed sequence tag analysis, have been used for measuring gene expression and identifying subsets of elm genes that are differentially expressed in the presence of O. novo-ulmi. These analyses have also helped identify genes that were differentially expressed in DED fungi grown under defined experimental conditions. Until recently, however, functional analysis of the DED fungi was hampered by the lack of protocols for efficient gene knockout and by the unavailability of a full genome sequence. While the selective inactivation of Ophiostoma genes by insertional mutagenesis remains a challenge, an alternative approach based on RNA interference is now available for down-regulating the expression of targeted genes. In 2013, the genome sequences of O. ulmi and O. novo-ulmi were publicly released. The ongoing annotation of these genomes should spark a new wave of interest in the DED pathosystem, as it should lead to the formal identification of genes modulating parasitic fitness. A better understanding of DED, however, also requires that omic approaches are applied to the study of the other biotic components of this pathosystem.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dutch Elm Disease, Ophiostoma spp., Genetic and Molecular Analyses, Gene Expression, RNA Interference</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 149-157 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1211-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1211-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1211-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2014-08-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1211-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparison of commercial elm cultivars and promising unreleased Dutch clones for resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1209-008 <p><b>Buiteveld J, Van Der Werf B, Hiemstra JA</b></p><p><b>COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL ELM CULTIVARS AND PROMISING UNRELEASED DUTCH CLONES FOR RESISTANCE TO OPHIOSTOMA NOVO-ULMI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Elms, and especially Ulmus × hollandica have been dominant and very much appreciated trees in cities and rural landscape for centuries in the Netherlands. As a result of two Dutch Elm Disease (DED) epidemics in the 20th century these trees largely disappeared from the landscape. Despite the introduction of new cultivars with increased levels of DED-resistance, by the end of the 20th century the elm had disappeared from the top 20 list of trees produced by Dutch nurseries. New cultivars with increased resistance to DED are used to a limited extent only. Apparently the lasting problems with DED in old cultivars has led to a lack of confidence in the resistance of these latest released cultivars among urban foresters and landscape managers. This paper reports on a study that aims at restoring the position of the elm as a street tree in the Netherlands by providing information on resistance to O. novo-ulmi causing DED of the currently available cultivars. All elm cultivars currently on the Dutch market were compared in an inoculation test. In 2007 a field experiment of 18 cultivars, one species and 10 non-released clones from the Dutch elm breeding program was established. Two cultivars were used as reference clones: “Commelin” (relatively susceptible) and “Lobel” (relatively resistant). In 2008 and 2009 the elms were stem-inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and disease development was assessed throughout the summer and the following year. Clear differences in resistance to O. novo-ulmi were found between the cultivars, with “Columella”, “Sapporo Autumn Gold”’ and “Rebella” being highly resistant and significantly different from “Lobel” and “Regal”, “Urban”, “Belgica”, “Den Haag” and the U. laevis seedlings being the most susceptible and comparable to “Commelin”. The non-released clones performed comparable to “Lobel’”or even better. The ranking of the cultivars based on their level of resistance to O. novo-ulmi in this field test corresponds well with experience in urban green practice. Our conclusion is that there is a wide range of cultivars available with a good to excellent level of resistance. The available cultivars have a broad genetic base due to different parentage and use of exotic germplasm in the crossings. This broad genetic background may contribute to the stability of resistance in case new forms of the disease appear. The non-released clones performed well compared to the released cultivars and give good opportunities to further broaden the current range of cultivars on the Dutch and European market.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: DED-resistance, Elm Cultivars, Ulmus, Inoculation Test, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 158-164 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1209-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1209-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1209-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-08-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1209-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A model of shrub biomass accumulation as a tool to support management of Portuguese forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0931-008 <p><b>Botequim B, Zubizarreta-Gerendiain A, Garcia-Gonzalo J, Silva A, Marques S, Fernandes PM, Pereira JM, Tomé M</b></p><p><b>A MODEL OF SHRUB BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AS A TOOL TO SUPPORT MANAGEMENT OF PORTUGUESE FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The evaluation of forest fuel loading is required by most fire management activities. However, the consideration of shrub biomass for forest planning purposes has been limited by the inability to predict its growth and accumulation. The main objective of this study was to model shrub biomass over time under a tree canopy to be able to include shrub management in fire risk mitigation plans. Data for this purpose was obtained from the 4th and 5th Portuguese National Forest Inventories. Five biologically realistic models were built to describe shrub biomass accumulation in Portuguese forests. The selected model indicates that maximum biomass is affected by stand basal area and the percentage of resprouting shrub species in the stand. Biomass growth rate was clearly affected by the regeneration strategies of shrubs in combination with climatic conditions (mean annual temperature). The model can be used in the accumulation form for initialization purposes or in one of the two alternative difference forms to project observed shrub biomass. The acquired ability to estimate shrub biomass facilitates its inclusion in forest growth models and simulators and will contribute to more accurate estimates of fire behaviour characteristics and stored carbon. This is instrumental to improve decision-making in forest management plans that integrate fire risk, namely to schedule understory fuel treatments.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Shrub Growth, Understory Vegetation, Wildfire Risk, Fire Management, Forest Planning, Decision Making</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 114-125 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0931-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0931-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0931-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-07-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0931-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of the plantation age on the use of Eucalyptus stands by medium to large-sized wild mammals in south-eastern Brazil http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1237-008 <p><b>Timo TP, Lyra-Jorge MC, Gheler-Costa C, Verdade LM</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF THE PLANTATION AGE ON THE USE OF EUCALYPTUS STANDS BY MEDIUM TO LARGE-SIZED WILD MAMMALS IN SOUTH-EASTERN BRAZIL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In São Paulo State, in Southeastern Brazil, the Eucalyptus plantations have been replacing large areas which were formerly occupied by pastures used for livestock production. Such land use change may affect the habitat use by wildlife in these anthropic landscapes. In this region, the commercial Eucalyptus plantations of the paper and cellulose industry usually take from 6 to 7 years to be harvested. During its production cycle, the Eucalyptus stands vary from an open savanna-like environment just after plantation, when plants still resemble bushes, to a forest-like environment with densely distributed 18-meter high trees. Previous studies show that the Eucalyptus plantations in Southeastern Brazil are used by generalist species including medium and large sized mammals. However, the possible influence of such dramatic temporal environmental heterogeneity on the wildlife habitat use in Eucalyptus plantations is still unknown. In this study, which follows a classic stratified design, we evaluate the influence of the Eucalyptus stand age on the local patterns of distribution and abundance of middle to large-sized wild mammals. Our results show an increase not only in their species richness, but also in their frequency of occurrences along the commercial cycle of the Eucalyptus plantations with a steep decline in both before harvest. This pattern may be related to weed control practices which significantly reduce the understory vegetation, in especial at the end of the commercial cycle while preparing for harvest. Future studies should prioritize the possible variation on the trophic structure in the Eucalyptus plantations along commercial cycles as a response of wildlife friendly silvicultural/agricultural management practices.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forestry, Silvicultural Landscapes, Anthropic Environments, Wildlife, Temporal Heterogeneity</p><p><i>iForest 8 (2): 108-113 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1237-008<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1237-008" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1237-008</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-07-21 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1237-008 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Design-based methodological advances to support national forest inventories: a review of recent proposals http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1239-007 <p><b>Fattorini L</b></p><p><b>DESIGN-BASED METHODOLOGICAL ADVANCES TO SUPPORT NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORIES: A REVIEW OF RECENT PROPOSALS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this paper is to give an overview of some recent proposals to support national forest inventories. The reviewed literature is strictly of design- based nature, i.e., uncertainty only stems from the sampling scheme actually adopted in the survey, rather than being assumed or modeled as in model- based approaches. National forest inventories are viewed as two-phase sample surveys to estimate at the same occasion the extent of the continuous population of points constituting the forest cover and the total of a forest attribute (e.g., volume or biomass) in the discrete population of trees for several forest types and/or administrative districts. The first phase is performed from remote sensing imagery while the second phase is performed on the field, possibly adopting the information acquired in the first phase as auxiliary information. A novel methodology is adopted based on Monte Carlo integration methods, which leads to a very general estimation strategy. Some recent proposals are considered in which remote sensing information acquired in the first phase is used to assess some physical characteristics of non-forest resources, such as woodlots, tree-rows and isolated trees outside the forest without additional field work. Finally, a new proposal is discussed in which canopy height from laser scanning is adopted as auxiliary information to recover missing data occurring when some sampled points cannot be reached because of hazardous terrain.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Two-phase Strategies, Aerial Information, Non-forest Resources, Missing Data, LiDAR, Calibration Weighting</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 6-11 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1239-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1239-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1239-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2014-06-18 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1239-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimating changes in soil organic carbon storage due to land use changes using a modified calculation method http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1151-007 <p><b>Li Y, Xia Y, Lei Y, Deng Y, Chen H, Sha L, Cao M, Deng X</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATING CHANGES IN SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STORAGE DUE TO LAND USE CHANGES USING A MODIFIED CALCULATION METHOD</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Carbon sources and sinks have been widely scrutinized over the last ten years as a result of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we added a new concept (standardized reference depth, DSR) to the current calculation method in order to assess and compare the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage changes due to three major land use changes with a certain historical relationship (from primary rain forest to fallow land to natural secondary forest and finally to rubber plantations - Hevea brasiliensis) in a northern tropical ecosystem in southwest China. Over 30 years, the soil organic carbon storage did not decrease significantly with a land use change from primary rain forest to fallow land (approximately 10.3%). However, it did increase significantly (approximately 49.3%) due to conversions to natural secondary forest and rubber plantations (approximately 41.6%). In this region, the soil carbon sequestration at rubber plantations is similar to that of natural secondary forests. Compared with the modified method, the current method overestimated carbon storage on fallow land by 8.8% more than the actual storage (calculated reference depth of 13.9 cm, Dr - DSR = 13.9, without the reference depth standardization process), overestimated carbon storage at rubber plantations by 3.6% (calculated reference depth of 4.9 cm), and underestimated the natural secondary forest carbon storage by 6.4% (calculated reference depth of 9.7 cm). Thus, the modified process using the standardized reference depth for the current method is necessary for the evolution and comparison of soil carbon or other nutrient storage changes.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Organic Carbon Storage, Land Use Change, Modified Calculation Method, Rubber Plantation, Tropical Forest, Kyoto Protocol</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 45-52 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1151-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1151-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1151-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-06-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1151-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparing multisource harmonized forest types mapping: a case study from central Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1133-007 <p><b>Vizzarri M, Chiavetta U, Chirici G, Garfì V, Bastrup-Birk A, Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>COMPARING MULTISOURCE HARMONIZED FOREST TYPES MAPPING: A CASE STUDY FROM CENTRAL ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The availability of common standardized geospatial information on composition, structure and distribution of forests is essential to support environmental actions, sustainable forest management and planning policies. Forest types maps are suitable tools for supporting both silvicultural and forest planning choices from local to global scale levels. For this reason local authorities may develop forest types maps independently, in which case a standardized/harmonized framework for their comparison and aggregation is essential. At the same time local forest types maps may not be directly related to pan-European forest resources assessments and classification systems. This paper presents results of the harmonization of four forest types maps available for central Italy. The process is based on a bottom-up approach aimed at maintaining the most detailed common nomenclature system across the different Regions. The final results, in terms of forest types area, are compared with several independent sources of information: (i) two forest maps, one developed at national level on the basis of the Corine Land Cover 2006, and one for high resolution forest / non forest classification developed at pan-European level; and (ii) two sample based inventories: the Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC) and the Italian Land Use Inventory (IUTI). The results show that the proposed bottom- up harmonization approach is a suitable tool to guarantee the integrity and homogeneity of local forest types nomenclature systems, and to integrate such local data with European standards.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Categories, Forest Types, Central Italy, Forest Area Estimation, Forest Nomenclature Systems, Forest Resources Classification, Forest Resources Mapping</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 59-66 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1133-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1133-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1133-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-06-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1133-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessment of the protective function of forests against debris flows in a gorge of the Slovenian Alps http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0994-007 <p><b>Fidej G, Mikoš M, Rugani T, Jež J, Kumelj Š, Diaci J</b></p><p><b>ASSESSMENT OF THE PROTECTIVE FUNCTION OF FORESTS AGAINST DEBRIS FLOWS IN A GORGE OF THE SLOVENIAN ALPS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Protection forests play an important role in mitigating the influence of natural hazards. Despite the growing need for protective functions due to aging forests and increased risk of natural disturbances, active forest management has become increasingly uncommon across the Alps. Active management of protection forests can be facilitated by state subsidies. This requires an objective delineation of forests with a direct protection function and the development of silvicultural techniques that mitigate natural hazards. A study of protection efficiency of beech-dominated forests in the Soteska gorge in NW Slovenia, where a main state road and railway are at risk from debris flows and rockfall, was performed. We assessed the starting points of debris-flow hazard based on a small-scale geological survey of the terrain characteristics and a local debris flow susceptibility map. We applied the TopRunDF model for determination of the run-out zones. Forest structure data were obtained from 26 sample plots. A detailed description and delineation of forest stands was performed. The results showed that these forests play an important role in the protection of infrastructure. Forest protection efficiency can be improved by stand thinning for stability and careful planning of regeneration patches over time and space. In areas where silvicultural measures cannot provide sufficient protection, technical measures are needed. Since these forests have not been managed for several decades, natural disturbances (windthrow) are frequent. Research findings suggest that regular assessment and management of these beech-dominated protection forests are necessary, contrary to the current practice of non-management in protection forests in Slovenia.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Protection Forest, Protection Function, Debris Flow, TopRunDF, Beech Forest</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 73-81 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0994-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0994-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0994-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-06-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0994-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Nutrient accumulation and export in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations of Central America http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1089-007 <p><b>Fernández-Moya J, Murillo R, Portuguez E, Fallas JL, Ríos V, Kottman F, Verjans JM, Mata R, Alvarado A</b></p><p><b>NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION AND EXPORT IN TEAK (TECTONA GRANDIS L.F.) PLANTATIONS OF CENTRAL AMERICA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In order to assess the nutrient sustainability of teak plantations, a study was conducted to measure the amount of nutrients accumulated by the trees and exported during wood harvest. Three teak plantations (28 stands of different age) were studied in Costa Rica and Panama to assess those questions. Nutrient and biomass accumulation and allocation in different tree components (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured in the best performing trees between 1 and 19 years of age. A stand of 150 teak trees ha-1 at age 19 would accumulate (kg ha-1) 405 N, 661 Ca, 182 K, 111 Mg, 33 P, 53 S, 9 Fe, 0.47 Mn, 0.22 Cu, 0.92 Zn, 1 B; whereas the expected nutrient export by timber harvest (bole and bark) is (kg ha-1) 220 N, 281 Ca, 88 K, 63 Mg, 23 P, 39 S, 6 Fe, 0.13 Mn, 0.10 Cu, 0.21 Zn, 0.40 B. Hence, teak nutrition should pay special attention to N and K, together with Ca the nutrients most accumulated by teak. In addition, P and B could also be limiting planted teak forest productivity due to their general soil deficiencies. Proposed models estimate the amount of nutrients removed from the site during timber harvests, information that can be used by plantation managers to avoid soil nutrient depletion, approaching sustainability in forest plantation management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Nutrition, Planted Forests, Costa Rica, Panama, Sustainability, Forest Soils</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 33-44 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1089-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1089-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1089-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-06-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1089-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of size and surrounding forest vegetation on chemical properties of soil in forest gaps http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0940-007 <p><b>Özcan M, Gökbulak F</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF SIZE AND SURROUNDING FOREST VEGETATION ON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL IN FOREST GAPS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest gaps have different microclimatic conditions as compared to the surrounding areas, depending on gap size and surrounding forest types and affecting the biological, chemical, physical, and hydrological processes in the forest openings. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of forest gap size and surrounding forest cover type (beech or mixed stands) on the soil of forest opening by analyzing several soil chemical soil properties (pH, electrical conductivity - EC, organic matter - OM, and nutrient content). The study was conducted in the Yuvacik watershed in Izmit (Turkey) and a total of 31 forest gaps of different size (1.44-37.33 ha) and elevations (848-1169 m a.s.l.) were studied. Gaps were divided into three groups with size 0-5 ha, 5-15 ha, and >15 ha. Results showed that forest gap size significantly affected all the investigated chemical properties of the soil, except for soil pH. As gap size increased, sodium (Na+) concentration in the soil decreased from 22.72 to 19.57 mg L-1 while potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg+2) concentrations increased from 83.88 to 134.62 mg L-1 and from 59.46 to 123.96 mg L-1, respectively. Medium-sized gap soils had the lowest OM content, as well as the lowest calcium (Ca+2) and nitrogen (N+3) concentrations. Surrounding forest types significantly influenced soil chemical properties in the openings, except for EC, N+3, and phosphorus (P-PO4-3). Soils in the gaps surrounded by mixed forest had significantly lower pH but higher OM content, K+, Na+, Ca+2, and Mg+2 concentrations than soils in beech forest gaps.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Openings, Forest Ranges, Plant Nutrients, Soil Chemistry, Forest Soils</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 67-72 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0940-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0940-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0940-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-06-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0940-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Advances: Technical properties of beech wood from aged coppices in central Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1136-007 <p><b>Lo Monaco A, Calienno L, Pelosi C, Balletti F, Agresti G, Picchio R</b></p><p><b>TECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF BEECH WOOD FROM AGED COPPICES IN CENTRAL ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this study is to assess the features of timber from aged coppices in transition to high forests to provide a basis for their more efficient utilisation. The introduction of a territorial protection policy and improvements in the socio-economic conditions of people living in mountain areas have led to a transition towards less intensive use of forests, which has resulted in the conversion of beech coppices into transitional high forests. The suspension of cutting has produced so-called “aged coppices”, now at the stage of thinning. In this condition, high-quality timber is difficult to obtain and the wood supply is highly variable, making efficient processing during manufacture difficult. To investigate features of the timber, clear specimens from two sites, Prati di San Bartolomeo and Fontenova, were analysed. Physical and mechanical characteristics were as follows: dry density, 719 and 688 kg m-3; basic density, 585 and 560 kg m-3; radial shrinkage, 7.06 and 7.17%; tangential shrinkage, 12.43 and 11.72%; volumetric shrinkage, 19.05 and 18.51%; axial compression strength, 54.7 and 54.4 MPa; static bending strengths, 100.9 and 108.4 MPa; and Brinell hardness, 29.8 and 27.7 N mm-2. Wood colour was also measured, as it is an important parameter for the end users. It was assessed with the CIELAB system. The wood colour coordinates before ageing exhibited the following values: L*=82.06, a*=4.92, and b*=17.36. After 504 hours of light exposure, wood became darker (L* =68.99) and more yellow (a*=9.49; b*= 29.57). The results of this study highlight that beech wood from aged coppice in Central Italy shows interesting qualitative features, suggesting that it can be put to more profitable use than as firewood.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Coppice in Transition, Density, Shrinkage, Mechanical Properties, Brinell Hardness, Wood Colour, Fagus sylvatica L., Central Italy</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 82-88 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1136-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1136-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1136-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Advances 2014-06-04 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1136-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Evaluating short term simulations of a forest stand invaded by emerald ash borer http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1163-007 <p><b>Levin-Nielsen A, Rieske LK</b></p><p><b>EVALUATING SHORT TERM SIMULATIONS OF A FOREST STAND INVADED BY EMERALD ASH BORER</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis - EAB) is causing rapid and widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in eastern North America, has established populations near Moscow, Russia, and is threatening ash resources in Europe. Given the prevalence of susceptible hosts these post-invasion forests will clearly differ from their pre-invasion counterparts. Understanding these changes is key to mitigating the impacts of invasion and developing sound management strategies. We evaluated short term changes in a forest stand invaded by EAB, and examined if the southern variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) could accurately predict those changes. Through simulation, managers can gain a clearer understanding of how pest invasions impact and alter future forest dynamics. However, many simulators are designed to achieve long-term predictions and thus do not align with the short term changes associated with rapid EAB-induced ash mortality. Woody vegetation was surveyed in 2010 and used to project impacts of EAB invasion into 2012 by simulating a 50% ash mortality rate. The same plots were then re-surveyed in 2012, allowing us to evaluate: (1) changes in actual forest composition and structure; and (2) simulation accuracy. Within our forest stand, FVS accurately estimated short term changes in stem density and basal area parameters, thus demonstrating its value as a short-term simulator for EAB-induced changes within the southern region of the United States. EAB-induced ash mortality is quickly changing these forests and will ultimately alter how stakeholders manage their lands. We discuss the potential usefulness of FVS as a tool for aiding management decisions in response to EAB invasion.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ash, Forest Succession, Modeling, Forest Vegetation Simulator</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 19-24 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1163-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1163-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1163-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-26 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1163-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Day and night respiration of three tree species in a temperate forest of northeastern China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0982-007 <p><b>Sun J, Guan D, Wu J, Jing Y, Yuan F, Wang A, Jin C</b></p><p><b>DAY AND NIGHT RESPIRATION OF THREE TREE SPECIES IN A TEMPERATE FOREST OF NORTHEASTERN CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Leaf day respiration is one of the most fundamental plant physiological processes and plays a vital role in the plant carbon cycle. However, day respiration is inherently complex and difficult to measure. In this study, the Kok method and the Laisk method were used to measure leaf day respiration for the saplings of one evergreen conifer species (Pinus koraiensis) and two deciduous broadleaved species (Tilia amurensis and Fraxinus mandshurica) in a temperate forest. Results show that discrepancy between the corrected day respiration values estimated by the Kok and Laisk methods was only 4% for the three tree species. On average, day respiration was 55.9% and 52.6% lower compared to night respiration for the three tree species, as measured by the Kok and Laisk method, respectively. Day respiration of the evergreen conifer species estimated by the Kok method was 31.7% lower while that estimated by the Laisk method was 36.8% lower than that of the deciduous broadleaved species. Night respiration of the evergreen conifer trees was 40.7% lower than those of the deciduous broadleaved trees. Day respiration rate is positively correlated with night respiration rate. Notably, day respiration rate decreased with increased photosynthetic photon flux density, and even a small amount of light significantly inhibited leaf day respiration in all three species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dark Respiration, Deciduous Broadleaved Tree, Evergreen Conifer Tree, Gross Primary Production, Light Inhibition, Temperate Forest</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 25-32 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0982-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0982-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0982-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-26 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0982-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editorials: Spatial information and participation in socio-ecological systems: experiences, tools and lessons learned for land-use planning http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0093-007 <p><b>La Rosa D, Lorz C, König HJ, Fürst C</b></p><p><b>SPATIAL INFORMATION AND PARTICIPATION IN SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: EXPERIENCES, TOOLS AND LESSONS LEARNED FOR LAND-USE PLANNING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The special issue “Spatial Information and participation of socio-ecological systems: experiences, tools and lessons learned for land-use planning”, focuses on a framework for information used in planning and participation processes for socio-ecological systems at different scales and contexts. The papers presented in the SI focus on three major questions: (1) How should we make use of spatial information for planning at different scales and contexts? (2) How should we share information among stakeholders and decision makers in land-use planning? (3) How can we communicate scientific knowledge to achieve effective decisions? The papers of this SI contribute original perspectives on how spatial information can be structured, used and communicated by/among different actors of land planning processes, creating more actionable scientific knowledge and effective related decision making.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Participation, Land-use Planning, Stakeholders, Decision-making</p><p><i>iForest 7 (6): 349-352 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0093-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0093-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0093-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Editorials 2014-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0093-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Linking biomass production in short rotation coppice with soil protection and nature conservation http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1168-007 <p><b>Petzold R, Butler-Manning D, Feldwisch N, Glaser T, Schmidt PA, Denner M, Feger KH</b></p><p><b>LINKING BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN SHORT ROTATION COPPICE WITH SOIL PROTECTION AND NATURE CONSERVATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Biomass from short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations has attracted widespread attention as a component of new sustainable energy concepts. Nevertheless, as yet the surface area of SRC plantations in Europe is relatively low compared to other biomass producing land-use systems. This is somewhat incomprehensible because it has been shown that SRC systems also offer distinct ecological benefits. Therefore, greater consideration of the related ecosystem services should be incorporated into land-use planning processes. Presented in this study is a conceptual framework for the integration of soil protection and nature conservation into the spatial prioritization of areas suitable for SRC. This approach includes the development of a site-specific yield model and the identification and classification of criteria and indicators for both soil protection and nature conservation. The basic concept for planning procedures was established and tested for the State of Saxony (Germany). Existing constraints were identified, and could be attributed mainly to the availability of adequate information at different spatial scales. The regional-scale study emphasized the considerable biomass potential of SRC and the related synergy effects for soil protection and nature conservation. Future work should focus on the local (district, farm) and catchment scale and attempt to integrate additional aspects such as hydrological ecosystem services and carbon sequestration.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Short Rotation Coppice, Yield Estimation, Soil Protection, Nature Conservation, Land Use Planning</p><p><i>iForest 7 (6): 353-362 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1168-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1168-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1168-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1168-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Web GIS-based simulation of water fluxes in the Miyun catchment area http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1169-007 <p><b>Gebel M, Meissner R, Halbfass S, Hagenau J, Duan S</b></p><p><b>WEB GIS-BASED SIMULATION OF WATER FLUXES IN THE MIYUN CATCHMENT AREA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Change of land use and agricultural management, combined with severe droughts during the last two decades, are the main reasons for a strong decrease of water quality and quantity in the Miyun reservoir (China). Due to semi-arid monsoon climate, episodic water fluxes have to be considered adequately in an integrated water resources management in the total catchment area. To get insight into runoff generation processes, sediment and nutrient source areas and transfer dynamics, a monitoring approach was established in the Miyun catchment area spanning from plot measurements with weighable gravitation lysimeters and in situ measurements to a subcatchment scale of approx. 10 km2. One of these subcatchments (Sheyuchuan) was selected to adapt the methodologies to the regional runoff pattern using the web GIS-based modeling tool STOFFBILANZ. Calibration of the daily runoff modeling is based on the lysimeter observations from Shixia station and runoff observations in Sheyuchuan subcatchment for the reference year 2011. Despite the fact that the climatic water balance in the region is negative, the precipitation event on 24 July 2011 with a rainfall of 107 mm caused a significant leachate at the lysimeter. The daily modeling for the lysimeter core by the FAO-ETc-adj approach showed a similar deep percolation and a similar distribution of evapotranspiration for the year considered. In the next step, the calibrated model was applied to the subcatchment Sheyuchuan to compare the results of direct runoff and groundwater runoff (deep percolation) with the runoff observations at the weir. Deep percolation was extremely small (1.7 mm yr-1), and direct runoff was 26.9 mm yr-1 in 2011. In comparison to the monitoring results at the weir, a disagreement in the quantity of runoff was found between the observation on the one hand and the simulation on the other hand, which can be explained by water storage in reservoirs for irrigation purposes. Additionally, the water fluxes in the total catchment area were simulated at meso-scale, obtaining a good correlation with observed values.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bottom-up, Direct Runoff, Lysimeter, Meso Scale, Miyun, Model, Percolation</p><p><i>iForest 7 (6): 363-371 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1169-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1169-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1169-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1169-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Future land use and food security scenarios for the Guyuan district of remote western China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1170-007 <p><b>Zhen L, Deng X, Wei Y, Jiang Q, Lin Y, Helming K, Wang C, König HJ, Hu J</b></p><p><b>FUTURE LAND USE AND FOOD SECURITY SCENARIOS FOR THE GUYUAN DISTRICT OF REMOTE WESTERN CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Government policy is a major human factor that causes changes in land use. Thus, simulating the dynamics of land-use systems provides important information to support decisions on land management and land-use planning, and to analyze and quantify the consequences of policies. In the present study, we predicted land-use changes and their potential impacts on food security in the environmentally fragile Guyuan District, in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of north-central China, under the influence of a program to convert sloping agricultural land to conservation uses. Baseline and conservation policy scenarios (2005 to 2020) were developed based on input from local stakeholders and expert knowledge. For the baseline and conservation policies, we formulated high-, moderate-, and low-growth scenarios, analyzed the driving mechanisms responsible for the land-use dynamics, and then applied a previously developed "dynamics of land systems" model to simulate changes in land uses based on the driving mechanisms. We found that spatially explicit policies can promote the conversion of land to more sustainable uses; however, decreasing the amount of agricultural and urban land and increasing grassland and forest cover will increase the risk of grain shortages, and the effect will be more severe under the conservation and high-growth scenarios than under the baseline and low-growth scenarios. The Guyuan case study suggests that, during the next decade, important trade-offs between environmental conservation and food security will inevitably occur. Future land-use decisions should carefully consider the balance between land resource conservation, agricultural production, and urban expansion.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Land-use Patterns, Scenario Analysis, Dynamics of Land Systems Modeling, Food Security, Guyuan District, North-central China</p><p><i>iForest 7 (6): 372-384 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1170-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1170-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1170-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1170-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1171-007 <p><b>Martinico F, La Rosa D, Privetera R</b></p><p><b>GREEN ORIENTED URBAN DEVELOPMENT FOR URBAN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PROVISION IN A MEDIUM SIZED CITY IN SOUTHERN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD) that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy). The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones), through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces), regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers) and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Urban Development, Ecosystem Services, Urban Planning</p><p><i>iForest 7 (6): 385-395 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1171-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1171-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1171-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1171-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Notes: The feasibility of implementing cross-border land-use management strategies: a report from three Upper Silesian Euroregions http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1248-007 <p><b>Spyra M</b></p><p><b>THE FEASIBILITY OF IMPLEMENTING CROSS-BORDER LAND-USE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A REPORT FROM THREE UPPER SILESIAN EUROREGIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper presents selected comments concerning land-use management strategies for three Czech-Polish Euroregions: Pradziad, Silesia and Cieszyn Silesia. These Euroregions comprise part of the Upper Silesia cross-border region. The main body of this study was conducted by formulating a set of questions concerning land-use strategies in the cross-border Czech-Polish Euroregions and interviewing management representatives of each Euroregion. The first section of this study concerned the need for such strategies, threats to their implementation and their content. The second section described possible methods for implementing Euroregion land-use strategies after their preparation. It is argued that Euroregion land-use management strategies should reflect such aspects as the further development of the Euroregion as a cross-border institution and should include selected issues regarding economic development and the natural environment. There are selected threats to implementing land-use strategies, such as a lack of enthusiasm among Euroregion members, the limitations of the 2014-2020 European Union budget and difficulties in achieving a single Czech-Polish development vision. Moreover, the importance of adequate Czech-Polish borderland planning tools and the role of citizens in Euroregion development are emphasised. The utility of a Euroregion scale for regional and national land-use management is discussed, using the example of the Upper Silesia cross-border region. The connection of the study results with regional land-use norms is explored, incorporating current strategic documents concerning the Czech-Polish borderland and existing legislation from both sides of the border. Some conclusions concerning appropriate cross-border landscapes land-use planning tools are outlined.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Czech-Polish Borderland, Upper Silesia, Euroregion, Cross-border Land-use Management Strategy</p><p><i>iForest 7 (6): 396-402 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1248-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1248-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1248-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Notes 2014-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1248-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Confronting international research topics with stakeholders on multifunctional land use: the case of Inner Mongolia, China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1172-007 <p><b>König HJ, Podhora A, Helming K, Zhen L, Wang C, Wübbeke J, Baumeister T, Du B, Yan H</b></p><p><b>CONFRONTING INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH TOPICS WITH STAKEHOLDERS ON MULTIFUNCTIONAL LAND USE: THE CASE OF INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The established pattern of land use in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is being challenged by China’s rapid overall economic transition. The provision of required land-related functions and services is subject to land management decision making. Scientific research can offer substantial support for this decision making by providing evidence of the interaction between land management and land function services. This paper’s objective was to identify the most important land use functions and services from a local perspective and to compare these functions and services with the land-related research topics addressed in the scientific literature. For this purpose, we conducted a workshop with local stakeholders (land use decision makers) in the West Ujimqin Banner (Inner Mongolia) as a specific case study and performed a comprehensive survey of the Inner Mongolian land use research published in international scientific journals. Our analysis indicated that the stakeholders assigned particular importance to social land use functions, such as jobs, as well as environmental land use functions and ecosystem processes. In contrast, the research topics were primarily concerned with natural science. We discussed possible shortcomings in the research agenda by emphasising and contrasting local stakeholder perspectives with the research topics and concluded that without bottom-up stakeholder participation, there would be a mismatch between the research interests of land use scientists and the needs of stakeholders. Future research that can contribute to local policy making with the aim of meeting the objectives of a multifunctional land use concept is required.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Land Use, Decision Making, Research Needs, Science-policy Interface</p><p><i>iForest 7 (6): 403-413 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1172-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1172-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1172-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1172-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Public participation in sustainable forestry: the case of forest planning in Slovakia http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1174-007 <p><b>Sarvašová Z, Dobšinská Z, Šálka J</b></p><p><b>PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY: THE CASE OF FOREST PLANNING IN SLOVAKIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Public participation is considered to be an important element of democracy. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate participatory approaches in the formulation processes of forest strategic documents and forest management plans in Slovakia. In order to present the context in which the public participation in forestry is applied, we are describing the rules according to national forest law. The nation-wide example is presented for the case of the National Forest Program formulation, where the scope of the forest management units is covered by the process of Forest Management Plans elaboration and adoption. The empirical findings from forest authorities’ data show that participation is still very formal. The most common actors are public authorities represented by their official representatives and the most active actors besides forest owners or managers are environmental interest groups. To strengthen the participatory process in sustainable forestry planning, not only changes in legislation are needed but also an increase in public awareness concerning the significance of forestry resources.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Participatory Approaches, Forest Management Planning, National Forest Program, Evaluation Of Participation Process</p><p><i>iForest 7 (6): 414-422 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1174-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1174-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1174-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1174-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: How do urban dwellers react to potential landscape changes in recreation areas? A case study with particular focus on the introduction of dendromass in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1173-007 <p><b>Boll T, von Haaren C, Albert C</b></p><p><b>HOW DO URBAN DWELLERS REACT TO POTENTIAL LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN RECREATION AREAS? A CASE STUDY WITH PARTICULAR FOCUS ON THE INTRODUCTION OF DENDROMASS IN THE HAMBURG METROPOLITAN REGION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Recently, many German regions have seen dramatic landscape changes in agricultural areas due to increasing cultivation of bioenergy crops. Especially in regions that are economically dependent on income from recreational use, this development faces opposition by tourist stakeholders, local inhabitants and recreationists. In the future tall bioenergy plants like maize could be replaced by even taller short rotation coppice plantations of willow and poplar. This development raises the question of how people perceive landscape changes and if perceptions are influenced by the landscape where they take place. We surveyed urban residents in the city of Hamburg (n= 400) to see how they perceive potential landscape changes in four recreation areas with different landscape structures in the vicinity of Hamburg (Lüneburg Heath, Harburg Hills, Elbe Marshes and Altes Land). The survey showed that people rated changes significantly different, depending on the specific landscape type of the recreation areas. The survey did not show a clear general preference for reducing or increasing forests. However, the landscape character of each recreation area had a strong influence on the acceptance of landscape changes by planting forests, hedges, and shrubs. People showed a significantly higher negative reaction towards more forests in open landscapes characterized by heath and meadows than in landscapes with a higher share of forests and fields. Interestingly, the introduction of hedges and shrubs was evaluated differently from the introduction of forests depending on the type of open landscape. People preferred the introduction of hedges and shrubs in the landscape rich in meadows and pastures while they rejected the introduction of hedges and shrubs in a historic cultural landscape rich in heathland. In view of these results we recommend that the landscape character and the cultivation system are considered in the assessment and determination of potential short rotation coppice production sites. This may considerably increase the acceptability of dendromass cultivation for energy purposes.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Landscape Changes, Recreation, Landscape Character, Visual Landscape, Dendromass, Short Rotation Coppice, Agriculture, Forestry</p><p><i>iForest 7 (6): 423-433 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1173-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1173-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1173-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1173-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Communicating spatial planning decisions at the landscape and farm level with landscape visualization http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1175-007 <p><b>Warren-Kretzschmar B, Von Haaren C</b></p><p><b>COMMUNICATING SPATIAL PLANNING DECISIONS AT THE LANDSCAPE AND FARM LEVEL WITH LANDSCAPE VISUALIZATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Landscape visualizations have the potential to support participatory environmental planning at different spatial scales and decision levels from international to farm level. However, it is yet unclear what specific demands are relevant for visualization on the different decision levels. In this context more knowledge is needed about visualization objectives and the respective tasks, intended effects and suitable techniques for the specific levels. Especially the farm level has been neglected in research, although farmers make many decisions that affects public interests in the visual landscape. Farmers need to communicate these decisions to the public in an understandable way. The question of how visualization can support participation in the planning process at the municipal level is examined in this paper by drawing on the findings of the Interactive Landscape Plan Koenigslutter, Germany (IALP) about the preferences and reactions of citizens to visualizations used in the landscape planning process at the local decision level. On this basis, we examined the applicability and differences of the findings for the farm level. Furthermore, in order to explore visualization opportunities at the farm scale, the farm management system MANUELA was used as an example of an information platform that could serve as a basis for farm scale visualizations. By transferring landscape planning results to the farm level, we developed recommentations about the application of visualization, intended effects and appropriate techniques at the farm scale. The general findings for the municipal level show that visualization can improve participation by providing participants with a common image of the planning proposals for discussion and collaborative decisions. Different visualization methods offer different capabilities for supporting participation in the different planning phases. At the farm scale, 2D visualizations and diagrams are often sufficient to communicate information to customers about farm performance for providing ecosystem services. They may consist of maps and supporting information that is easily generated from GIS data. However, for a higher (more interactive) level of communication and participation activities, such as discussions with affected neighbors about land use changes or the integration of citizens’ proposals, more sophisticated visualization techniques would be required. Visualization techniques are needed that farmers can use to easily simulate visual impacts of land use changes at the landscape scale.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Landscape Planning, Participatory Planning, Landscape Visualization, Farm Scale, Ecosystem Services, MANUELA</p><p><i>iForest 7 (6): 434-442 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1175-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1175-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1175-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-19 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1175-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Controlled-release fertilizers combined with Pseudomonas fluorescens rhizobacteria inoculum improve growth in Pinus halepensis seedlings http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1110-007 <p><b>Dominguez-Nuñez JA, Delgado-Alvez D, Berrocal-Lobo M, Anriquez A, Albanesi A</b></p><p><b>CONTROLLED-RELEASE FERTILIZERS COMBINED WITH PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS RHIZOBACTERIA INOCULUM IMPROVE GROWTH IN PINUS HALEPENSIS SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Pinus halepensis seedlings are currently used to regenerate arid Mediterranean regions. Optimized methods for seedling fertilization in nurseries improve plant growth and are essential for successful reforestation. Previously, we showed that inoculation of P. halepensis seedlings with Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 rhizobacteria improved plant growth and N uptake. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and morphological response of P. halepensis seedlings to a combined treatment including controlled-release fertilization and inoculation with the rhizobacterium P. fluorescens. P. halepensis seedlings were grown in a nursery under well-watered conditions and were fertilized (F), inoculated with P. fluorescens (Ps) or fertilized and inoculated (F x Ps). Growth and water parameters (osmotic potential at both full and zero turgor and modulus of elasticity) were measured in seedlings under each treatment. The total N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe contents and concentrations in seedling roots and shoots were also measured. Finally, root growth potential was estimated. F x Ps increased both seedling growth and nutrient uptake compared with the independent treatments. Interestingly, amendment with rhizobacteria had a slight negative effect on osmotic potential and P uptake, which was lessened by combining Ps with F. The present work shows that F x Ps is highly efficient for improving the quality of forest seedlings in nurseries. As such, F x Ps represents a potential alternative treatment that could reduce contaminant emissions and increase microbiota soil regeneration in degraded soils.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Controlled-release Fertilization, Rhizobacteria, Pinus halepensis, Water Parameters, Mineral Nutrition, Nursery, Root Growth Potential, Osmotic Potential</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 12-18 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1110-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1110-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1110-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1110-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Site quality assessment of degraded Quercus frainetto stands in central Greece http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1069-007 <p><b>Kitikidou K, Milios E, Tsirekis E, Pipinis E, Stampoulidis A</b></p><p><b>SITE QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF DEGRADED QUERCUS FRAINETTO STANDS IN CENTRAL GREECE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The potential yield of a site is measured by site index, which is defined as the dominant height of a stand at a base age. A site index model for site quality assessment of Quercus frainetto (Hungarian oak) stands in central Greece was developed using a base age of 50 years. Data were collected from 39 temporary sample plots of 10 x 10 m. Linear regression models widely used in site index studies were fitted to height-age data. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj), root mean square error (RMSE), bias, coefficient of determination for the prediction (R2pr) and residual plots were used for the choice of the best-fitting model. The best model was H = -0.231+0.251A-0.001A2, where H is the predicted height at age A. The guide curve method was adopted in constructing the sites curves, with the chosen model as the guide curve. Based on this curve, the study area was divided into three site quality classes (I to III), with class I representing the best and class III the poorest. Also, the presence of a Simpson’s paradox in these analyses is discussed. The results showed that a 50-year-old stand in the study area attained an average dominant height of about 11, 8 and 6 m on site quality classes I, II and III, respectively. The Hungarian oak stands of the present study can be considered very low productivity stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Guide Curve Method, Hungarian Oak, Simpson’s Paradox, Site Quality</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 53-58 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1069-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1069-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1069-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1069-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The impacts of a wildfire on hunting demand: a case study of a Mediterranean ecosystem http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0799-007 <p><b>Papaspyropoulos KG, Sokos CK, Birtsas PK</b></p><p><b>THE IMPACTS OF A WILDFIRE ON HUNTING DEMAND: A CASE STUDY OF A MEDITERRANEAN ECOSYSTEM</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The present study attempted to estimate the socioeconomic impacts on hunting demand caused by a 2006 wildfire on a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Greece (Kassandra peninsula). A questionnaire administered to a sample of local hunters was used to test the hypothesis that the wildfire and the consequent hunting ban, which was used by the Greek Forest Service as a measure for wildlife protection, posed a significant impact on the demand of hunters for hunting licenses and hunting trips. Using questionnaires as a source of information it was assessed what these impacts meant for the economy, either on local, or national scale, by estimating the income elasticity of demand for hunting licenses in the area of Kassandra and the expenses for hunting excursions before and after wildfire. It was observed that hunters attempted to preserve their activity despite the excessive hunting restrictions. Implications for hunting management and policy decision making were examined.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Elasticity of Demand, Hunters, Hunting Management, Wildfires, Greece</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 95-100 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0799-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0799-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0799-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-12 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0799-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Calibration assessment of forest flammability potential in Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1123-007 <p><b>Corona P, Ferrari B, Cartisano R, Barbati A</b></p><p><b>CALIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF FOREST FLAMMABILITY POTENTIAL IN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Fuel flammability is defined as the relative ease with which a fuel will ignite and burn with a flame; different forest types have different intrinsic “baseline” flammabilities, depending on the susceptibility to burn of the main tree species that build up the forest cover. In this perspective, we apply a forest-type based approach to classify and map the flammability level of the forests in Italy. Baseline forest type-based flammability values provided at European level have been assigned to a national forest types map, derived from Corine Land Cover 2006; flammability values have been then further calibrated against the Burned Area Selection Ratio, a measure of the actual incidence of wildfires among different forest types. Accordingly, a calibrated flammability index was derived by simple linear regression, so that predicted flammability more accurately reflects observed fire incidence among different forest types in Italy. Findings show that the flammability of forest types ranges from low to high: on average, the 17% of the forest cover has medium to high flammability, with wide regional variability; notably, in four Regions (Sardegna, Sicilia, Puglia, Calabria) over one third of total forest area has medium to high flammability. Large scale mapping of forest flammability is crucial to define long-term priorities among forest areas as to how to distribute fire management effort: areas falling into medium to high flammability classes should be given priority for implementing fuel management treatments in order to mitigate fire hazard from the stand to the landscape scale.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fuel Flammability, Fire Hazard, European Forest Types, Burned Area Selection Ratio, Fire Management</p><p><i>iForest 7 (5): 300-305 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1123-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1123-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1123-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-05-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1123-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Advances: Thermal canopy photography in forestry - an alternative to optical cover photography http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1129-007 <p><b>Nölke N, Beckschäfer P, Kleinn C</b></p><p><b>THERMAL CANOPY PHOTOGRAPHY IN FORESTRY - AN ALTERNATIVE TO OPTICAL COVER PHOTOGRAPHY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Hemispherical canopy photography is a widely used technique to observe crown-related forest variables. However, standardization of this technique remains challenging, as exposure and threshold settings continue to constitute the main sources of variation of such photographs. This paper, therefore, presents a new method to overcome standardization issues by using thermal canopy photography. With a thermal camera, images are produced which are not critically limited in their dynamic range so that photographic exposure becomes irrelevant. Moreover, the high temperature contrast between “sky” and “non-sky”, resulting from extreme low sky temperatures, facilitates the unambiguous selection of a threshold which separates “sky” from “non-sky” pixels. For our comparison, we have taken canopy images with a high-resolution thermal camera (VarioCam hr head [Infratec, Dresden, Germany]) and an optical camera (Nikon D70s). The correlation of canopy closure values derived from the image pairs was r = 0.98. Our findings thus show that thermal canopy photography is a promising and simple to use alternative to optical canopy photography, because it limits possible sources of variability, since exposure settings and threshold definition cease to be an issue.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Hemispherical Photographs, Exposure, Thresholding, Thermal Images, Canopy Structure</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 1-5 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1129-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1129-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1129-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Advances 2014-05-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1129-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Notes: Historical utilization of wood in southeastern Moravia (Czech Republic) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1091-007 <p><b>Filková V, Kolár T, Rybníček M, Gryc V, Vavrčík H, Jurčík J</b></p><p><b>HISTORICAL UTILIZATION OF WOOD IN SOUTHEASTERN MORAVIA (CZECH REPUBLIC)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the present study, anatomical features were used to identify tree species chosen to craft farming tools from the 19th and first half of the 20th century preserved in specimen inventories of the open-air museum in Strážnice, south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic). In total, 701 samples from 337 historical farming tools were obtained from museum specimens. The samples were identified at micro- or macroscopic levels, or both. Results indicated local people used floodplain forest wood to construct farming tools in the study region. Nineteen wood species were identified; from this total, those with higher densities and better mechanical properties were used to manufacture tools, and included predominantly beech, oak, and ash. Softwood species, with lower densities were mainly used for chiseled out implements. We hypothesized regional forest species composition played an essential role in woody species choice, however the species also possessed appropriate properties. Cultivated tree species, such as fruit trees, were employed to create common objects; however, currently, these species are typically applied for special purposes. We concluded an increased number of species were employed in the past for utilitarian purposes, including tree species grown outside local forest boundaries, including cultivated fruit tree species; and species were utilized with good, although perhaps tacit, knowledge of their properties.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Farming Tools, Forest Species Composition, Open-air Museum, South-eastern Moravia, Wood Identification</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 101-107 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1091-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1091-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1091-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Notes 2014-05-07 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1091-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Four decades of forest succession in the oak-dominated forest reserves in Slovakia http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0996-007 <p><b>Saniga M, Balanda M, Kucbel S, Pittner J</b></p><p><b>FOUR DECADES OF FOREST SUCCESSION IN THE OAK-DOMINATED FOREST RESERVES IN SLOVAKIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The study analyzes biodiversity, production and recovery processes in the natural oak-dominated forests in three protected areas in time span of four decades after the cessation of human impact. In each forest reserve, we established three permanent research plots of 0.5 ha, which were monitored regularly every 10 years. The obtained results confirmed an expected decrease of oak in all investigated areas, regardless of the level of past human intervention. Growth rates of oak stem density were negative in all reserves and ranged from -0.7% yr-1 (Kašivárová) to -2.1% yr-1 (Bujanov). A typical rotated-sigmoid diameter structure was confirmed during the whole observed period only in the reserve Boky. The moderate affected reserve (Kašivárová) showed a bimodal pattern and the most affected reserve (Bujanov) revealed the typical unimodal distribution. Considering spatial diversity, the recorded structure of investigated forests closely corresponds with the relative level of past intervention. In Boky, the most differentiated structure was reflected in the highest long-term mean stem density (890 ± 151 ha-1) and the lowest basal area and growing stock (36.5 ± 1.4 m2 ha-1 and 284 ± 22 m3 ha-1, respectively). The past-affected reserves reached higher values of basic stand parameters. In Kašivárová and Bujanov, the average basal area (36.5 and 44 m2 ha-1, respectively) and growing stock (284 and 518 m3 ha-1, respectively) correlated negatively with the level of structural heterogeneity, while the stem number revealed a positive correlation. We observed a continuous increase of deadwood volume and dead to live wood ratio. The recorded long-term volume of deadwood (43-128 m3 ha-1) and deadwood proportion (151-28%) tended to be higher in the past-affected reserves. The convergence towards the rotated-sigmoid distribution in both reserves with past human impact was recorded. Considering the vertical structure, the most dynamic changes were observed in the lower and middle layer. Moreover, the substitution of the light-demanding oak by shade-tolerant species (beech, hornbeam) was recorded. The intensity of substitution directly reflected the intensity of structure modification in the past. Our results suggest that the process of forest recovery and oak loss significantly depends on the level of past human intervention.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Oak Decline, Past Human Impact, Recovery, Forest Reserve, Quercus petraea L</p><p><i>iForest 7 (5): 324-332 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0996-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0996-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0996-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-04-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0996-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a tool to ameliorate the phytoremediation potential of poplar: biochemical and molecular aspects http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1045-007 <p><b>Cicatelli A, Torrigiani P, Todeschini V, Biondi S, Castiglione S, Lingua G</b></p><p><b>ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AS A TOOL TO AMELIORATE THE PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF POPLAR: BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR ASPECTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Poplar is a suitable species for phytoremediation, able to tolerate high concentrations of heavy metals (HMs). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbiotic associations with the roots of most land plants; they improve nutrient uptake and enhance phytoextraction of HMs while alleviating stress in the host plant. This review summarizes previous results from field and greenhouse studies conducted by us and dealing with this topic. In a field trial on a highly Zn- and Cu-contaminated site, differences in plant survival and growth were observed among 168 clones originating from natural populations of Populus alba L. and Populus nigra L. from northern Italy. After two and a half years from planting, the density, activity and metabolic versatility of the culturable fraction of the soil bacteria in the HM-polluted field was higher in the soil close to where larger poplar plants were growing, in spite of comparable HM concentrations recorded in these soils. One well-performing clone of P. alba (AL35), which accumulated a higher concentration of both metals and had high foliar polyamine (PA) levels, was used for further investigation. In a greenhouse study, AL35 cuttings pre-inoculated with AMF (Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices) and then transferred to pots containing soil, collected from the HM-polluted site, displayed growth comparable to that of controls grown on unpolluted soil, in spite of higher Cu and Zn accumulation. Such plants also showed an overall up-regulation of metallothionein (MT) and PA biosynthetic genes, together with increased PA levels. A genome-wide transcriptomic (cDNA-AFLP) analysis allowed the identification of a number of genes, mostly belonging to stress-related functional categories of defense and secondary metabolism, that were differentially regulated in mycorrhizal vs. non mycorrhizal plants. A proteomic analysis revealed that, depending on sampling time, changes in protein profiles were differentially affected by AMF and/or HMs. It is concluded that soil-borne microorganisms affect plant performance on HM-polluted soil. In particular, mycorrhizal plants exhibited increased capacity for phytostabilization of HMs, together with improved growth. Their greater stress tolerance may derive from the protective role of PAs, and from the strong modulation in the expression profiles of stress-related genes and proteins.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Arbuscular Mycorrhizae, Copper, Phytoremediation, Poplar, Proteome, Soil Bacteria, Transcriptome, Zinc</p><p><i>iForest 7 (5): 333-341 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1045-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1045-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1045-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2014-04-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1045-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influence of slope on physical soil disturbance due to farm tractor forwarding in a Hyrcanian forest of northern Iran http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1141-007 <p><b>Jourgholami M, Soltanpour S, Etehadi Abari M, Zenner EK</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCE OF SLOPE ON PHYSICAL SOIL DISTURBANCE DUE TO FARM TRACTOR FORWARDING IN A HYRCANIAN FOREST OF NORTHERN IRAN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tractor-based systems are the most common type of small-scale timber harvesting equipment in the Hyrcanian forest, where farm tractors equipped with a 2-wheel trailer typically perform forwarding operations for pulpwood and fuelwood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different frequencies of machine passes on soil bulk density (BD), penetration resistance (PR) and total porosity (TP) in different slope gradient and forwarding direction (i.e., uphill vs. downhill). The study, performed on a brown soil with a silt loam to loamy texture, was designed as a factorial experiment with three slope gradient/forwarding direction classes (0-10% downhill forwarding slope, 10-20% downhill forwarding slope and 0-10% uphill forwarding slope) and four traffic intensity classes (0 [undisturbed control area], 1-4, 5-10 and >10 machine passes). Responses were assessed at four soil profile depth classes (5, 10, 15 and 20 cm). BD and PR significantly increased and TP significantly decreased with increasing machine traffic, with magnitudes of change that were not consistently greater in the upper 5 cm compared to the 20 cm soil profile depth class. Whereas the majority of changes in BD and TP occurred after fewer than 5 passes, large increases in PR occurred even after 10 passes. Changes of BD, PR and TP in response to machine traffic differed significantly among slope gradient/forwarding direction classes. Increases in BD and PR and decreases in TP were largest on the 0-10% uphill forwarding slope, followed by the 10-20% downhill and 0-10% downhill forwarding slope. We conclude that the application of farm tractors in forwarding operations should be limited to gentle slopes and uphill forwarding with these machines should be avoided.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Farm Tractor, Forwarding Operation, Soil Compaction, Penetration Resistance, Total Porosity</p><p><i>iForest 7 (5): 342-348 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1141-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1141-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1141-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-04-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1141-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Dead wood and stand structure - relationships for forest plots across Europe http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1057-007 <p><b>Seidling W, Travaglini D, Meyer P, Waldner P, Fischer R, Granke O, Chirici G, Corona P</b></p><p><b>DEAD WOOD AND STAND STRUCTURE - RELATIONSHIPS FOR FOREST PLOTS ACROSS EUROPE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Dead wood and stand structural parameters were sampled in eleven countries using standardized methods at about 90 intensive forest monitoring sites across large parts of Europe. Besides descriptions and correlation analyses of dead wood and stand structure parameters, a joint evaluation of both fields was performed by principal component analysis (PCA). The extracted principal components were subsequently regressed against important numerical and categorical site-related parameters like soil pH, altitude, or forest type. Dead wood volumes varied largely across plots, however, 77 percent of them had volumes below 25 cubic meter per hectare. While all fractions of dead wood - except cut stumps - reveal high intercorrelation, different aspects of stand structure varied more independently. Clark-Evans index, number of tree species and standard deviation of tree trunk diameters revealed as most self-contained. The 1st PCA axis covered 46 percent of the total variance and was mostly loaded by total dead wood volume denoting it as the feature differentiating forests most. The 2nd axis was primarily loaded by tree species diversity together with stem density and the Clark-Evans index. On the 3rd axis diameter differentiation of trees together with the volume of cut stumps prevailed, while the 4th was mainly related to the decay class of woody debris. Bivariate ex post analyses revealed country as a significant predictor of all PCA axes, underlining national forest legislations and management rules as crucial for all investigated structural features of forests. Forest type was related only to the 3rd and 2nd axis. Only the 3rd axis revealed significant relationships with some ecological site factors (age, number of tree layers, latitude, altitude). The outcome underlines the significance of nationally enacted forest legislations for both important structural and biodiversity-relevant features of forest ecosystems and encourages similar approaches with data from national forest inventories or monitoring systems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Structural Diversity, Principle Component Analysis, Forest Monitoring, ICP Forests, ForestBIOTA</p><p><i>iForest 7 (5): 269-281 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1057-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1057-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1057-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-04-14 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1057-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influence of mother plant and scarification agents on seed germination rate and vigor in Retama sphaerocarpa L. (Boissier) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1155-007 <p><b>Fabião A, Faria C, Almeida MH, Fabião A</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCE OF MOTHER PLANT AND SCARIFICATION AGENTS ON SEED GERMINATION RATE AND VIGOR IN RETAMA SPHAEROCARPA L. (BOISSIER)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this study was to optimize nursery production of Retama sphaerocarpa, an important shrub species in some plant communities of arid and semi-arid zones, which is used in the restoration of degraded areas. This Fabaceae family species has seed coat dormancy, which may hinder germination. In order to assess the influence of scarification agents and mother plant effect on germination rate and seedling vigour, a germination test with fresh seed was performed in a germination chamber, following a factorial design with two fixed factors (mother plant effect and scarification agent). The test took place in the forest nursery of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Lisbon, Portugal. The fresh seeds were subjected to scarification by two agents, sulphuric acid (96% concentration) and hot water (80°C), the former for 60 minutes and the latter for 30 seconds, plus an untreated control. The scarification of seeds using sulphuric acid was found to be the best method to enhance germination of this species (p<0.05), as it allowed to reach the highest germination rate (>79%) and the best vigour index. Differences between mother plants were also statistically significant and could influence germination success. We suggest that effectiveness of hot water scarification may be improved by additional time of seed immersion. The technical viability for seed production of this species was confirmed and key factors for its success identified. Owing to its potential for use on land rehabilitation, increment on plant commercial demand should be expected in the near future.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fresh Seed, Germination, Mother Plant, Retama sphaerocarpa, Scarification, Vigor</p><p><i>iForest 7 (5): 306-312 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1155-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1155-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1155-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-04-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1155-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Stand dynamics and natural regeneration in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) plantations after traditional rotation age http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0985-007 <p><b>Bottalico F, Travaglini D, Fiorentini S, Lisa C, Nocentini S</b></p><p><b>STAND DYNAMICS AND NATURAL REGENERATION IN SILVER FIR (ABIES ALBA MILL.) PLANTATIONS AFTER TRADITIONAL ROTATION AGE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the Apennine mountains most pure silver fir stands originated from planting and were managed according to the traditional model, with clear cutting and a 100 year rotation. In the last decades in most of these stands there has been a change towards nature conservation and active management has stopped. The aim of this work was (1) to analyse stand dynamics and spontaneous regeneration processes that are taking place with increasing age in even aged fir plantations, and (2) to discuss if these processes can be useful for defining management approaches answering biodiversity conservation aims. The study was carried out in the Vallombrosa Forest (Central Italy). The relationship between fir stand age and structural parameters was analyzed using inventory data. Gap dynamics were monitored between 1983 and 2007 on the basis of remote sensing data. Based on a field survey of a sample of gaps, species composition and density of seedlings and saplings were analysed in relation to gap size and within-gap position. From 1983 to 2007 the number of gaps and their total area increased, following increasing stand age. Significant relationships (p < 0.01) were found between fir stand age and number of trees per hectare (r = -0.30), quadratic mean diameter (r = 0.65) and volume per hectare (r = 0.50). In the fir stands with lower stand density, a layer of trees with DBH < 15 cm had filled in the structure: fifteen different broadleaf species were recorded in this layer, usually mixed with fir. Gap size had an influence on presence of young firs (seedlings and fir < 0.5 m), which were significantly more numerous in gaps < 200 m2, but it had relatively limited influence on species diversity. Within-gap position did not influence regeneration density. Results indicate that a possible management option for gradually transforming even aged fir plantations in the Apennines into mixed, naturally regenerating systems, could be based on the creation of small gaps (< 200 m2) in the canopy cover, simulating the natural dynamics that are taking place in ageing fir plantations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Abies alba Mill., Plantations, Gap Dynamics, Natural Regeneration, Forest Biodiversity</p><p><i>iForest 7 (5): 313-323 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0985-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0985-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0985-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-04-08 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0985-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Relationship between frost hardiness of adults and seedlings of different tree species http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1076-007 <p><b>Hofmann M, Jager M, Bruelheide H</b></p><p><b>RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FROST HARDINESS OF ADULTS AND SEEDLINGS OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frost hardiness and the macroclimatic niche of adult individuals and seedlings of eight temperate tree species. Frost damage was investigated on winter buds and needles of adult individuals and on freshly germinated seedlings. We hypothesized that frost hardiness of adult individuals and seedlings is in accordance with their macroclimatic niche and that frost hardiness of seedlings increases with increasing plant age. Frost hardiness was tested in a climate chamber by exposing the plant material to different freezing temperatures and was assessed by LT50-values. In contrast to our expectations, we did not find any relationship between LT50-values and the macroclimatic niche variables, neither for adults nor for seedlings. There was a positive trend between seedlings development and frost hardiness, although average frost hardiness of all species differed only between -7.5 and -9 °C for one-week old and two- or four weeks old seedlings, respectively. We have to conclude that frost hardiness of adult individuals as well as seedlings at our study site does not reflect the species’ geographic distribution range, and therefore, it seems not be possible to predict the geographical distribution ranges of tree species from their frost tolerance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Developmental Stage, Electrolyte Leakage, LT50, Spring Frost</p><p><i>iForest 7 (5): 282-288 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1076-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1076-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1076-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-04-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1076-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Is tree shelter protection an effective complement to weed competition management in improving the morpho-physiological response of holm oak planted seedlings? http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1126-007 <p><b>Ceacero CJ, Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Díaz-Hernández JL, Del Campo AD</b></p><p><b>IS TREE SHELTER PROTECTION AN EFFECTIVE COMPLEMENT TO WEED COMPETITION MANAGEMENT IN IMPROVING THE MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF HOLM OAK PLANTED SEEDLINGS?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Weed control is a key aspect that influences seedling response in newly-established plantations. Tree shelter protection may be an effective complement to weed control with a positive effect on the overall response of seedlings. Our study focused on assessing the morpho-physiological response of Holm oak (Quercus ilex L. ballota [Desf.] Samp.) plantations to weed control and individual protection as a combined cultural technique on a cropland site in southern Spain. The weed control treatments (cultivation, herbicide and mulch) were also applied in combination with tree shelters. Morpho-physiological variables including survival, aerial and root morphology, water potential, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were monitored over a 2-year period. Results showed that weed competition management treatments improved the seedling survival rate compared to the control treatment. Moreover, shelter was associated with a greater height growth. At early stages of establishment, and particularly under combined treatments, all plants invested more resources in their aerial parts than in their root system. Seedlings did not regulate water loss as a result of water stress, contrary to what would be expected in Mediterranean areas. Under all treatments, especially those combined with tree shelters, seedlings took up to 2 years to achieve morpho-physiological adaptation (i.e. height and diameter growths, water stress behavior) to site conditions. In addition, tree shelters promoted an increase in net photosynthesis compared to non-shelter treatments during the winter period. The tree shelters also limited the emergence of photo-inhibition phenomena in seedlings so that plants under combined treatments showed greater photo-chemical efficiency. Thus, this study supports the effectiveness of tree shelter protection as a complement to weed control treatments. More specifically, it suggests that combining individual protection (shelter) and weed control around seedlings is an interesting technique for reforestation of forest ecosystems in Mediterranean areas.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tree Shelter, Tillage, Mulch, Oxyfluorfen, Photosynthesis, Photoinhibition</p><p><i>iForest 7 (5): 289-299 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1126-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1126-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1126-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-04-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1126-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Notes: Improving impregnation properties of fir wood to acid copper chromate (ACC) with microwave pre-treatment http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1119-007 <p><b>Ramezanpour M, Tarmian A, Taghiyari HR</b></p><p><b>IMPROVING IMPREGNATION PROPERTIES OF FIR WOOD TO ACID COPPER CHROMATE (ACC) WITH MICROWAVE PRE-TREATMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Effects of microwave pre-treatment on impregnation properties in fir wood (Abies alba L.) with acid copper chromate (ACC) were studied here. Flat-sawn specimen boards were prepared with moisture content (MC) of 40 ± 5% and were exposed to microwave radiation with 2450 MHz frequency for 10, 12, 14, and 16 minutes at four different radiation treatments. Microwave-treated specimens, along with the control specimens, were conditioned to the final MC of 12% and then impregnated with 5%-ACC solution, using an empty-cell process. The impregnation properties were then measured, including retention, maximum and minimum depths of penetration, impregnated area in the cross-section, and ACC-leaching. Image J software was used to determine depths of penetration. Results showed that microwave pre-treatment significantly improved all the impregnation properties, with the exception of leaching. Clear direct relation was found between the duration of microwave radiation with the properties. It can be concluded that microwave pre-treatment can be used to significantly improve impregnation properties in fir wood.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Abies Alba, Fir Wood, Impregnation, Microwave Radiation, Pre-treatment</p><p><i>iForest 8 (1): 89-94 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1119-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1119-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1119-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Notes 2014-04-01 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1119-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The estimation of canopy attributes from digital cover photography by two different image analysis methods http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0939-007 <p><b>Chianucci F, Chiavetta U, Cutini A</b></p><p><b>THE ESTIMATION OF CANOPY ATTRIBUTES FROM DIGITAL COVER PHOTOGRAPHY BY TWO DIFFERENT IMAGE ANALYSIS METHODS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Proximal sensing methods using digital photography have gained wide acceptance for describing and quantifying canopy properties. Digital hemispherical photography (DHP) is the most widely used photographic technique for canopy description. However, the main drawbacks of DHP have been the tedious and time-consuming image processing required and the sensitivity of the results to the image analysis methods. Recently, an alternative approach using vertical photography has been proposed, namely, digital cover photography (DCP). The method captures detailed vertical canopy gaps and performs canopy analysis by dividing gap fractions into large between-crown gaps and small within- crown gaps. Although DCP is a rapid, simple and readily available method, the processing steps involved in gap fraction analysis have a large subjective component by default. In this contribution, we propose an alternative simple, more objective and easily implemented procedure to perform gap fraction analysis of DCP images. We compared the performance of the two image analysis methods in dense deciduous forests. Leaf area index (LAI) estimates from the two image analysis methods were compared with reference LAI measurements obtained through the use of litter traps to measure leaf fall. Both methods provided accurate estimates of the total gap fraction and, thus, accurate estimates of the LAI. The new proposed procedure is recommended for dense canopies because the subjective classification of large gaps is most error-prone in stands with dense canopy cover.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Digital Cover Photography, Canopy Cover, Gap Fraction, Leaf Area Index, Dense Canopy</p><p><i>iForest 7 (4): 255-259 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0939-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0939-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0939-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-03-26 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0939-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Notes: Goat grazing as a wildfire prevention tool: a basic review http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1112-007 <p><b>Lovreglio R, Meddour-Sahar O, Leone V</b></p><p><b>GOAT GRAZING AS A WILDFIRE PREVENTION TOOL: A BASIC REVIEW</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Fuel treatments aimed at reducing both horizontal and vertical continuity in fuels are of paramount importance as a prevention measure against fire propagation. Possible techniques include pruning, thinning (mainly low thinning), mastication, prescribed burning, and prescribed (or targeted) grazing. Their main target is crown fire avoidance by treating surface fuels and promoting low density and vertically discontinuous stands, thus eliminating fuel ladders. Grazing is an effective, nearly carbon-neutral weed control technique which is cost-effective, nontoxic, and nonpolluting. Goat grazing is a very interesting solution: if confined by a metallic or electrified fence within a restricted pen, with a rather high density, goats browse the available foliage and twigs from all woody plants as well as all herbaceous vegetation. They can feed on a variety of shrubs, some of which are useless for other domestic species, and are therefore the best adapted for the consumption of all the Mediterranean shrubs which represent the fuel ladder. The appropriate choice of season of grazing, type of plant species and type and amount of biomass to be eliminated, livestock density, social structure of the herd, grazing time per day, type of fencing, and size of pens define the prescribed grazing system.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fire Prevention, Fuel Treatment, Goat, Grazing, Prevention, Prescribed Grazing, Targeted Grazing</p><p><i>iForest 7 (4): 260-268 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1112-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1112-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1112-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Notes 2014-03-26 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1112-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Disassociating tree species associations in the eastern United States http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1159-007 <p><b>Hanberry BB</b></p><p><b>DISASSOCIATING TREE SPECIES ASSOCIATIONS IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Ecologists have a long history of describing species associations including oak-hickory, one of the predominant associations in the eastern United States. But historically, oak composition did not appear particularly related to hickory composition. I assessed the relevance of the oak-hickory association and other associations using older and recent (c. 1981 and 2007) USDA Forest Service surveys. For common hickory and oak species, I determined percent composition (i.e., percent of total stems ≥12.7 cm in diameter, relative density or abundance) in ecological subsections, changes in composition throughout ranges, and compared composition of oaks and hickories and other potential associations using correlation and ordination. Oaks were among the most abundant species while hickories were minor species. Hickory composition was stable while the trajectory of oak continued to decrease during the survey intervals from presettlement dominance. Rank-order correlation between oaks and hickories throughout their ranges was about the maximum as for other species (0.55 and 0.42 during the two survey periods) and in the Oak-Hickory forest region, correlation between oaks and hickories was 0.04 (older surveys) and 0.16 (recent surveys). Oaks were not associated with hickory in the “oak-hickory” forests of Missouri during the mid-1800s, nor were oaks associated with hickory more recently beyond correlations that occur between other eastern forest species. Oak-hickory association in particular is not an informative term for either historical open oak ecosystems or current eastern broadleaf forests. Mixed mesophytic associations, perhaps not best termed as an association, are eastern broadleaf forests where many tree species dominate forested ecosystems in the absence of filtering disturbance. Associations, even if species share similar traits, generally are not strong, stable in time, or extensive in space; differences between species result in different and changing distributions in response to the environment, land use, disease, and other influential factors.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Eastern Broadleaf Forests, Mixed Mesophytic, Oak-Hickory, Southern Mixed Forests, Sugar Maple-Beech</p><p><i>iForest 7 (4): 248-254 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1159-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1159-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1159-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-03-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1159-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Efficient measurements of basal area in short rotation forests based on terrestrial laser scanning under special consideration of shadowing http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1084-007 <p><b>Seidel D, Ammer C</b></p><p><b>EFFICIENT MEASUREMENTS OF BASAL AREA IN SHORT ROTATION FORESTS BASED ON TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING UNDER SPECIAL CONSIDERATION OF SHADOWING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Terrestrial laser scanning has been used in forest research for about ten years and use-orientated applications are of increasing importance. The effect of shadowing in single location laser scanning, e.g., as used for biomass estimations, has not been quantified so far even though it affects the quality of information derived from the laser scans. In our study we quantified the effect of shadowing on automated basal area measurements in a densely stocked poplar short rotation forest and developed a method to correct unsampled areas. We found that on average about 5.0 ± 2.5% of the plot area (12.56 m²) was not sampled by the laser scanner due to shadowing. Efficient basal area measurements based on terrestrial laser scanning were possible and if a correction factor was derived from the scan data, the effects of shadowing could be accounted for. The relative mean absolute error could then be lowered from 9.8% to 8.4%. This new method allows fast, fully objective, and precise plot-level measurements of basal area considering the effects of shadowing. It could be applied in the future to support monitoring growth developments in densely stocked stands such as short rotation forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ground Based LiDAR, Non-detection Bias, Angle Count Method, Poplar Short Rotation Forest</p><p><i>iForest 7 (4): 227-232 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1084-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1084-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1084-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-03-10 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1084-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Biomass production of Populus nigra L. clones grown in short rotation coppice systems in three different environments over four rotations http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1162-007 <p><b>Benetka V, Novotná K, Štochlová P</b></p><p><b>BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF POPULUS NIGRA L. CLONES GROWN IN SHORT ROTATION COPPICE SYSTEMS IN THREE DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS OVER FOUR ROTATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Three clones of black poplar and a hybrid poplar clone, “NE-42”, were trialled in a short rotation coppice system. The trial was replicated in three sites located in Czech Republic with distinctly different soils and climates which were judged to be respectively favorable, unfavorable and marginal for growing black poplar. In the marginal and unfavorable sites the planting density was 2222 trees ha-1 and in optimal conditions 7407 trees ha-1. The aim of the trial was: (1) to test the performance of black poplar clones as a possible replacement for commercial hybrid poplars in areas where the genetic integrity of wild black poplar populations is under threat; (2) to test the range of conditions in which it is possible to grow black poplar and its suitability for utilizing marginal agricultural land; and (3) to measure the potential yield of black poplar clones grown in these conditions. During four harvests at three-year intervals, the following parameters were measured: plant mortality, number of shoots, thickness of shoots, the total cross-sectional area (TCA) of all shoots, the dry matter weight of individual plants (DMIP) and the dry matter yields per hectare. The differences observed between “NE-42” and the best black poplar clone decreased as conditions became more favorable. During the fourth harvest at the unfavorable site for growing poplars, the yield of dry biomass was 11.7 t ha-1 yr-1 for “NE-42” compared to 3.7 t ha-1 yr-1 for the best black poplar clone. In marginal conditions the yields were 11.8 and 9.9 t ha-1 yr-1 respectively, and in the favorable conditions there was no statistically significant difference, being 15.9 and 13.2 t ha-1 yr-1, respectively. The higher yield of “NE-42” was due to the higher proportion of thicker shoots or, alternatively, lower plant mortality. The observed TCA was highly correlated with DMIP (rs = 0.87) and dry biomass yield (rs = 0.48). It was demonstrated that black poplar can be successfully grown in marginal conditions on land which otherwise would not be especially suitable for agricultural production, and also in areas where the genetic purity of native populations of black poplar is threatened by the spread of commercially grown hybrid poplars.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Growing Conditions, Fast-growing Trees, NE-42, Number of Shoots, Stool Mortality, Yield</p><p><i>iForest 7 (4): 233-239 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1162-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1162-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1162-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-03-10 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1162-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Forests and forestry organizations from the forest villagers’ perspective: a case study from Turkey http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0999-007 <p><b>Alkan H, Kilic M</b></p><p><b>FORESTS AND FORESTRY ORGANIZATIONS FROM THE FOREST VILLAGERS’ PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY FROM TURKEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The forest villages of Turkey comprise approximately 11% of the population, where people live in poverty, and have low welfare levels due to insufficient income. The livelihood of many villagers is integrally tied to the forest, and the communities have varied expectations and demands from forest resources. In recent years, local expectations have placed substantial pressures on forests resources. Therefore, the opinions, expectations, and perceptions of forest villagers in regards to forest resources are vital in forest management. Furthermore, the views from the forestry organization that manages natural resources, and forestry strategies, policies, and practices are integral to ensure local villager satisfaction, and participation in natural resource conservation objectives. The aims of this study were to evaluate villagers’ opinions regarding the surrounding forests and forestry organizations, quantify the residents’ satisfaction level with life in the forest village, and determine the influential factors responsible for the residents’ responses. Forest villagers (1059 people) living in the Sivas Directorate of Forest District participated in the study, and a questionnaire was administered in 11 villages within a field work framework to serve as a case study. Results indicated the region has very limited alternative livelihood sources, and forestry is the leading regional source of income for villagers. Therefore, residents from all 11 villages are dependent on forest resources. The questionnaire showed employment facilities were the most important forest benefits. Overall, the villagers were satisfied with available forestry jobs and other associated opportunities, however wages were considered insufficient, and workers expressed expectations for significant changes in labor safety conditions. In addition, certain prohibitions and restrictions placed on regional natural resources prevent residents from previous land-use practices, which adversely affected local opinions towards forests and forestry organizations. For example, strict forest protection measures will make obsolete the nomadic livestock breeding practices of some local villagers. This is the most common complaint directed at forestry activities, and will have an impact on the local income levels.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Villagers, Forest Resources, Perspective, Satisfaction, Sivas Directorate of Forest District, Turkey</p><p><i>iForest 7 (4): 240-247 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0999-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0999-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0999-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-03-10 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0999-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of Nepalese alder (Alnus nepalensis) growing in a lead-zinc spoil heap, Yunnan, south-western China http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1082-007 <p><b>Jing Y, Cui H, Li T, Zhao Z</b></p><p><b>HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF NEPALESE ALDER (ALNUS NEPALENSIS) GROWING IN A LEAD-ZINC SPOIL HEAP, YUNNAN, SOUTH-WESTERN CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A fast-growing alder species native to the eastern Himalayas, Nepalese alder (Alnus nepalensis), has recently received considerable attention in the restoration of contaminated lands due to its significant economic benefits and ecological functions. The bioaccumulation characteristics and phytoremediation potential of naturally regenerated Nepalese alder were evaluated in a lead-zinc spoil heap located in Lancang county, Yunnan province, south-western China. Results showed that bioaccumulation factors (BFs) of A. nepalensis for Zn and Pb were always >1 in slightly contaminated soils (extractable Zn, Pb of 4.2-17.9 and 3.4-13.1 mg kg-1, respectively) and >1 for Cd in contaminated soils (extractable Cd 0.3- 6.8 mg kg-1). By contrast, translocation factors (TFs) for Zn were <1 in all sampling plots, but >1 for Pb in soil slightly contaminated by 13.1 mg kg-1 extractable Pb and >1 for Cd in contaminated soils (extractable Cd 2.6- 6.8 mg kg-1). Significant positive correlations were found between heavy metals (HMs) in roots and extractable HMs in soils (p<0.01) and between HMs in shoots and extractable HMs in soils (p<0.05) except for Cd. Based on the accumulation capacity revealed in this study, we suggest that A.nepalensis is a promising tree species for phytostabilization of zinc and lead in soils slightly contaminated with Zn and Pb and for phytoextraction of cadmium in Cd-polluted soil.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Phytoremediation, Nepalese Alder, Alnus nepalensis, Metal Contamination, Bioaccumulation Factor, Translocation Factor</p><p><i>iForest 7 (4): 204-208 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1082-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1082-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1082-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-02-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1082-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Regeneration of Abies pinsapo within gaps created by Heterobasidion annosum-induced tree mortality in southern Spain http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0961-007 <p><b>Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Camarero JJ, Manzanedo RD, Sánchez-Cuesta R, Lopez Quintanilla J, Sánchez Salguero R</b></p><p><b>REGENERATION OF ABIES PINSAPO WITHIN GAPS CREATED BY HETEROBASIDION ANNOSUM-INDUCED TREE MORTALITY IN SOUTHERN SPAIN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We explored the effects of tree-fall gaps caused by Heterobasidion annosum-induced tree death on the regeneration of the relict Abies pinsapo in southern Spain. We analyzed the structure and regeneration of A. pinsapo in 44 circular closed-canopy plots and 11 gaps (mean size 75 m2) located in H. annosum infection foci. We measured adult density, basal area, and height of all tree species with a diameter at breast height greater than 7.5 cm and quantified regeneration abundance. Diameter structures were analyzed using Weibull functions. A. pinsapo comprised 49-81% of total adult tree density (358-1418 trees ha-1) and total basal area (15.70-39.22 m2 ha-1). Density of A. pinsapo juveniles ranged from 129 to 416 individuals ha-1, while that of juveniles of other tree species such as Quercus ilex was much lower. A. pinsapo saplings and seedlings were more abundant within gaps than in closed-canopy sites. A. pinsapo regeneration was related to the tree species composition of the stands adjacent to gaps. The main potential species replacing A. pinsapo in H. annosum-induced gaps were, in decreasing order of importance, Quercus ilex, Q. faginea, and Juniperus oxycedrus. The current stand structure and gap-infilling processes suggest that A. pinsapo regenerates adequately within H. annosum-induced gaps. However, the relative proportion of other coexisting tree species within H. annosum-related gaps will increase substantially over time as compared with closed-canopy areas.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Abies pinsapo, Mediterranean Forests, Forest Management, Gaps, Regeneration</p><p><i>iForest 7 (4): 209-215 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0961-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0961-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0961-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-02-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0961-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Public participation: a need of forest planning http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0979-007 <p><b>Bruña-García X, Marey-Pérez MF</b></p><p><b>PUBLIC PARTICIPATION: A NEED OF FOREST PLANNING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Stakeholder participation in decisions related to forest planning is essential to get long-lasting and viable solutions. Nowadays, public participation is necessary to reach consensus in natural resource management and in citizen governance of land. It is a key element in a forest planning on a strategic level. However, only the first steps are being taken to include public participation in forest planning within the forestry sector. This paper proposes a review of public participation processes in forest planning as a reference for the development of new methodologies in areas with no previous experience in participative processes. The assessment of the existing scientific literature and its use in different models and countries show a high diversity of responses to the challenge of including social aspects and integrating them with methodological proposals.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Collaborative Decision Making, Forest Planning, Models of Public Participation, Participative Planning, Public Participation</p><p><i>iForest 7 (4): 216-226 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0979-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0979-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0979-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Review Papers 2014-02-27 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0979-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Advances: Improved estimates of per-plot basal area from angle count inventories http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1158-007 <p><b>Eastaugh CS, Hasenauer H</b></p><p><b>IMPROVED ESTIMATES OF PER-PLOT BASAL AREA FROM ANGLE COUNT INVENTORIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest inventories were originally designed for the assessment of timber stocks over large areas. The large datasets gathered by these programs are becoming of increasing interest in other applications, particularly in ecosystem modeling. With inventory designs based on sampling proportional to size (angle-count plots) users should be cautious of using data pertaining to individual plots, as the plot-wise data is a statistical estimate rather than a true measurement. Estimates of per-plot basal area are mathematically unbiased, but the individual precision is extremely poor. Resampling of inventory datasets using multiple basal area factors can improve the precision of the estimates on single plots, thus providing better data for potential end users. Following two simulation studies to demonstrate our method we apply it to the sampling points of the Austrian National Forest Inventory, and show how the improved estimates of basal area give rise to more realistic estimates of basal area increment on individual points, reducing variance through the smoothing of extreme estimates. Our method will be useful in studies where angle count inventory data pertaining to individual plots is used to assess the precision of models or remote sensing methods.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Inventory, Basal Area, Sampling Proportional to Size, Resampling, Bitterlich</p><p><i>iForest 7 (3): 178-185 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1158-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1158-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1158-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Advances 2014-02-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1158-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Advances: A simplified methodology for the correction of Leaf Area Index (LAI) measurements obtained by ceptometer with reference to Pinus Portuguese forests http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0096-007 <p><b>Lopes D, Nunes L, Walford N, Aranha J, Sette C, Viana H, Hernandez C</b></p><p><b>A SIMPLIFIED METHODOLOGY FOR THE CORRECTION OF LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED BY CEPTOMETER WITH REFERENCE TO PINUS PORTUGUESE FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter controlling many biological and physiological processes associated with vegetation. A wide array of methods for its estimation has been proposed, including those based on the sunfleck ceptometer, a ground-based easy-to-use device taking non-destructive LAI measures. However, use of ceptometer in pine stands leads to the underestimation of LAI due to foliage clumping of this species. Previous studies have proposed a correction of biased LAI estimates based on the multiplication by a constant factor. In this study, a new method for obtaining a correction factor is proposed by considering the bias (the difference between the ceptometer measure and the reference LAI) as a function of the stand structural variables, namely the basal area. LAI data were collected from 102 sampling plots (age range: 14-74) established in Pinus pinaster forests all across northern Portugal. Data from 82 sampling plots were used for the adjustment of the LAI ceptometer correction model, while the remaining 20 plots were used for the model validation. The observed LAI ranged from 0.34 to 6.4 as expected from the large heterogeneity of the sampled pine stands. Significant differences were detected between LAI values estimated by ceptometers and LAI reference values. Different correction methods have been compared for their accuracy in predicting LAI reference values. Based on the results of the statistical analysis carried out, the new proposed LAI correction outperformed all the other methods proposed so far. The new approach for bias reduction proposed here has the advantage of being easily applied since the basal area is almost always available from forest inventory or can be inferred from remote sensing surveys. However, the bias correction model obtained is site-specific, being dependent on stand species composition, soil fertility, site aspect, etc. and should therefore be applied only in the study area. Nonetheless, the development of a correction methodology based on an allometric approach has proved to greatly improve LAI ceptometer estimations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Leaf Area Index, Ceptometer, Correction, Pinus pinaster</p><p><i>iForest 7 (3): 186-192 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0096-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0096-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0096-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Advances 2014-02-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0096-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Is cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodland loss driven by eucalyptus plantation? A case-study in southwestern Portugal http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1031-007 <p><b>Costa A, Madeira M, Santos Lima J</b></p><p><b>IS CORK OAK (QUERCUS SUBER L.) WOODLAND LOSS DRIVEN BY EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION? A CASE-STUDY IN SOUTHWESTERN PORTUGAL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Mediterranean landscapes with open cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands have recently experienced drastic changes in southwestern Portugal. Changes in agricultural activities, the traditional driver of the economy in this region, led to new land uses such as long-term set aside (shrublands) and eucalyptus plantations. A study was conducted on the oak woodland landscape dynamics over a 50-year period (from 1958 to 2007) in order to assess the effect of different biophysical conditions on landscape spatial changes, and to identify the resilience of lanscape composition to different disturbances (e.g., socio-economic changes and wildfires). Land use changes over two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007) were inferred by spatial analysis of land cover data (aerial photographs) and related to landscape physical attributes (slope and soil type). A transition matrix of four vegetation land-cover classes was obtained, allowing the assessment of the landscape composition changes bewteen the two above periods. Results showed that lansdcape in 1958 was largely occupied by open farmland, with large patches of open oak woodlands on steep slopes surrounding watercourses. Open farmland and shrubland drastically declined from 1958 to 1995, while eucalyptus plantation exhibited a dramatic expansion. Although large areas of cork oak forest turned into eucalyptus plantation, the net loss of oak forest was low and counterbalanced by its increment on former open farmland. The occurrence of a wildfire in 2003 promoted a dramatic decrease in cork oak woodlands, which mostly turned into shrubland. However, shrubland may be considered “safe sites” for ecological succession, ensuring natural cork oak regeneration and the colonization of neighboring areas.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mediterranean Climate Region, Evergreen Oak Woodlands, Quercus suber L., Agroforestry Systems, Land Cover, Eucalyptus Plantations</p><p><i>iForest 7 (3): 193-203 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1031-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1031-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1031-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-02-17 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1031-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Large wildland fires and extreme temperatures in Sardinia (Italy) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1090-007 <p><b>Cardil A, Salis M, Spano D, Delogu G, Molina Terrén D</b></p><p><b>LARGE WILDLAND FIRES AND EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN SARDINIA (ITALY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Heat-wave events are commonly recognized as adverse impacts on agriculture, forests, and economic activities. Several studies showed that future climate changes in the western Mediterranean Basin will lead to an increase in extreme weather events, mainly in the summer season. For this reason, it is crucial to improve our knowledge and investigate the effects of extreme temperature events on wildland fire activity. This work analyses the relation between high temperature days (air temperature higher than 25°C at 850hPa) and large wildland fires in Sardinia (Italy) during 1991-2009 period and the influence of high temperature days on large wildland fires was remarkable. The results showed that neither the number of fires nor the area burned decreased under high temperature days, although a decrease of both indicators was observed on the other days. Additionally, the average size of fires, the probability of large fire occurrence, the daily area burned and daily number of fires resulted higher in high temperature days.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wildfires, Temperature, Extreme, Weather</p><p><i>iForest 7 (3): 162-169 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1090-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1090-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1090-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-02-14 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1090-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessing the habitat conservation status by soil parameters and plant ecoindicators http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0963-007 <p><b>Sicuriello F, De Nicola C, Dowgiallo G, Testi A</b></p><p><b>ASSESSING THE HABITAT CONSERVATION STATUS BY SOIL PARAMETERS AND PLANT ECOINDICATORS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this study is to evaluate the conservation status of a Natural Reserve through an integrated approach analysing simultaneously soils, lithotypes, land forms, edaphic parameters and plant species. In focusing the relationships between soil and vegetation, plant ecoindicators, expressed by i) the Ellenberg bioindication model and by ii) the Hemeroby Index, and soil measured parameters were utilized.Vegetation and soil data have been collected simultaneously through thirty vegetation relevés and soil profiles. Cluster analysis, performed on matrix 12 variables/ 30 relevés allowed a division into two main clusters, each one divided into sub-clusters, distinguished by floristic composition and soil characteristics. The clusters were markedly discriminated by soil Available Water Capacity (AWC). Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), performed on variables and species matrices, allowed to discriminate two main habitats: i) a core habitat represented by patches of temperate forest correlated to soil cycles of water and nutrients; ii) an ecotonal habitat shaped by mixed evergreen and thermophilous deciduous oak forest depending on light, temperature and human disturbance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mediterranean Forest Vegetation, Soil, AWC, Ellenberg’s Indicators, Hemeroby Index, CCA</p><p><i>iForest 7 (3): 170-177 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0963-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0963-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0963-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-02-14 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0963-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Energy production of poplar clones and their energy use efficiency http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0978-007 <p><b>Jamnická G, Petrášová V, Petráš R, Mecko J, Oszlányi J</b></p><p><b>ENERGY PRODUCTION OF POPLAR CLONES AND THEIR ENERGY USE EFFICIENCY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The poplar clones of Robusta and I-214 (Populus × euramericana) are characterized by fast growth and high quality biomass production. The calorific values for these poplar clones were determined, and modelling of calorific production of the entire poplar clone stands was performed. This research, dependent on age and site indexes, was conducted in four localities in Eastern Slovakia and seven in the western region of this country. Samples of bark, wood and small-wood with bark were excised from three tree stem areas and from two parts of the crown. No significant difference was observed between the two clones, with regard to either the biomass fraction or the location of the excised sample on the tree. The average calorific capacity of all biomass fractions was approximately 6.86-8.73 GJ m-3, with the lowest bark values emanating from the stem base. The mean annual calorific energy production for site indexes 40-20 after 17-26 years growth was 320-80 GJ ha-1 a-1, and this was calculable 2-3 years earlier in the I-214 clone than in Robusta. The energy use efficiency of these poplar clones was estimated at a maximum of 0.4-1.6% solar radiation utilization.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass, Calorific Value, Energy Use Efficiency, Poplar Clones, Populus × euramericana</p><p><i>iForest 7 (3): 150-155 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0978-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0978-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0978-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-01-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0978-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Frost damage to eucalypts in a short-rotation forestry trial in Cumbria (England) http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1161-007 <p><b>Leslie AD, Mencuccini M, Perks M</b></p><p><b>FROST DAMAGE TO EUCALYPTS IN A SHORT-ROTATION FORESTRY TRIAL IN CUMBRIA (ENGLAND)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Cold is the main climatic constraint to planting eucalypts in Britain and the winter of 2009-2010, the coldest in thirty years, proved particularly challenging for their survival. Damage to transplants planted in May 2009 of two species of eucalypts, Eucalyptus gunnii and Eucalyptus nitens, were assessed over the winter of 2009/2010 at a trial in Cumbria, northern England. Larger trees were found to have exhibited less cold damage by the end of January 2010, but by May there were no significant differences in survival due to tree size. By late January, there were statistically significant differences in damage between E. gunnii and E. nitens with the former being more cold tolerant. However, damage at the end of January, after minimum temperatures of -14 oC, did not appear serious, yet by May the survival of E. gunnii was 37% and for E. nitens was less than 1%. As larger trees exhibited relatively less frost damage it is recommended that intensive silviculture be practiced to ensure trees are between 1 and 1.5 m tall prior to their first winter to reduce the extent of damage through frost.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Frost, Cold, Eucalyptus, England</p><p><i>iForest 7 (3): 156-161 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1161-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1161-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1161-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-01-23 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1161-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Upscaling the estimation of surface-fire rate of spread in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) forest http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0992-007 <p><b>Fernandes PM</b></p><p><b>UPSCALING THE ESTIMATION OF SURFACE-FIRE RATE OF SPREAD IN MARITIME PINE (PINUS PINASTER AIT.) FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The prediction of the forward rate of forest fire spread is crucial to fire modeling and fire management. An empirical equation is available to estimate the rate of spread of surface fires in maritime pine stands from local fuel, terrain and weather conditions. However, the equation was primarily developed from experimental small fires under mild weather conditions. The ability to predict the spread rate of wildfires is examined. Underestimation was generalized, with a mean observed-to-predicted spread rate ratio of 2.64, which is proposed to adjust the rate of spread equation for fire-modelling research applications.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fire Behaviour, Fire Modelling, Surface Fire, Pinus Pinaster</p><p><i>iForest 7 (2): 123-125 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0992-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0992-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0992-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Short Communications 2014-01-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0992-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Monitoring of damage from cedar shoot moth Dichelia cedricola Diakonoff (Lep.: Tortricidae) by multi-temporal Landsat imagery http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1014-007 <p><b>Çoban HO, Özçelik R, Avci M</b></p><p><b>MONITORING OF DAMAGE FROM CEDAR SHOOT MOTH DICHELIA CEDRICOLA DIAKONOFF (LEP.: TORTRICIDAE) BY MULTI-TEMPORAL LANDSAT IMAGERY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this study defoliation damage in Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich) stands in Turkey (Isparta region) caused by cedar shoot moth (Dichelia cedricola Diakonoff - Lep.: Tortricidae) was examined using multi-temporal Landsat data. Undamaged, low-damaged and heavily-damaged areas were located by assessing the variation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index derived from satellite imagery. Threshold boundaries for different damage levels were defined using mean NDVI values obtained from sub-areas spanning over the whole range of NDVI values. The reliability of the classification based on damages was statistically tested by comparing mean annual ring widths measured on increment cores extracted from sample trees exposed to different damage levels. Significant differences were found in mean annual ring widths among different areas previously classified based on NDVI data. Mean annual ring width in 2001 (an outbreak year) was 1.64 mm for undamaged area, 1.04 mm for low-damaged area, and 0.54 mm for heavily-damaged area. These findings indicate that damage mapping and monitoring mass damage caused by insect defoliation in Taurus cedar stands can be performed remotely by using NDVI values and Landsat TM data.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Insect Defoliation, Remote Sensing, Dichelia cedricola, Landsat</p><p><i>iForest 7 (2): 126-131 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1014-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1014-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1014-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-01-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1014-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The use of tree crown variables in over-bark diameter and volume prediction models http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0878-007 <p><b>Özçelik R, Diamantopoulou MJ, Brooks JR</b></p><p><b>THE USE OF TREE CROWN VARIABLES IN OVER-BARK DIAMETER AND VOLUME PREDICTION MODELS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Linear and nonlinear crown variable functions for 173 Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) trees were incorporated into a well-known compatible volume and taper equation to evaluate their effect in model prediction accuracy. In addition, the same crown variables were also incorporated into three neural network (NN) types (Back-Propagation, Levenberg-Marquardt and Generalized Regression Neural Networks) to investigate their applicability in over-bark diameter and stem volume predictions. The inclusion of crown ratio and crown ratio with crown length variables resulted in a significant reduction of model sum of squared error, for all models. The incorporation of the crown variables to these models significantly improved model performance. According to results, non-linear regression models were less accurate than the three types of neural network models tested for both over-bark diameter and stem volume predictions in terms of standard error of the estimate and fit index. Specifically, the generated Levenberg-Marquardt Neural Network models outperformed the other models in terms of prediction accuracy. Therefore, this type of neural network model is worth consideration in over-bark diameter and volume prediction modeling, which are some of the most challenging tasks in forest resources management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Crown Variables, Taper, Back-Propagation ANNs, Levenberg-Marquardt ANNs, Generalized Regression Neural Networks</p><p><i>iForest 7 (3): 132-139 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0878-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0878-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0878-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-01-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0878-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Clonal structure and dynamics of peripheral Populus tremula L. populations http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0971-007 <p><b>Cristóbal D, Martínez-Zurimendi P, Villamediana I, Ciriza J, Villar J, Nanos N, Sierra-de-Grado R</b></p><p><b>CLONAL STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF PERIPHERAL POPULUS TREMULA L. POPULATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Native Populus tremula L. populations at the south-western limit of the species’ range are threatened by the anthropic reduction of their habitats and by climate change. In these areas, P. tremula forms small and multiclonal populations. Knowledge of the structures and dynamics of these populations is essential to design effective conservation programs. The clonal spatial and ramet age distributions of three natural populations in north-western Spain were studied. Trees with diameter > 3 cm at breast height were mapped and their age identified. Multilocus genotypes based on 11 isoenzymatic loci were obtained for a sample of 90-106 evenly distributed trees per population. Clonal assignment of the remaining trees in each stand was interpolated using geostatistical methods. All three stands were multiclonal, with higher clonal diversity than that reported in northern populations, and no genotype was detected in more than one stand. Most clones exhibited aggregated distributions, but some scattered clones were also found. The clonal structures of the stands are consistent with the hypothesis that recruitment is absent inside the stand. A combined analysis of ages and genotypes revealed cycles of regrowth in which each clone experienced varying degrees of success in generating new ramets. These degrees of success could be the consequence of varying abilities for vegetative propagation among genotypes. Geostatistical interpolation can be a useful tool for the elaboration of clonal maps, thus reducing the costs of sampling and genotyping, but further research is needed to define the optimum scale of sampling for accurate clonal assignment. For P. tremula conservation programs based on clonal material, small plantations with relatively few clones (approximately 10) provide an appropriate strategy if the metapopulation is maintained at a sufficient level of diversity. The set of clones used for plantations and ex-situ collections should consider both the most abundant and the least frequent clones to avoid a biased selection.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Populus tremula, Clonal Structure, Genetic Diversity, Population Dynamics, Conservation Plans</p><p><i>iForest 7 (3): 140-149 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0971-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0971-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0971-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2014-01-13 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0971-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessing most relevant factors to simulate current annual increments of beech forests in Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0943-007 <p><b>Chiesi M, Maselli F, Chirici G, Corona P, Lombardi F, Tognetti R, Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>ASSESSING MOST RELEVANT FACTORS TO SIMULATE CURRENT ANNUAL INCREMENTS OF BEECH FORESTS IN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Recent work of our research group demonstrated the applicability of a calibrated bio-geochemical model, BIOME-BGC, for estimating current annual increments (CAIs) of Mediterranean forests. In the current case, the model is applied to assess the gross primary production (GPP) of nine beech forest sites in Italy using a previously produced data set of meteorological data descriptive of a ten-year period (1999-2008). The obtained GPP estimates are integrated with relevant autotrophic respirations and allocations to derive forest net primary production (NPP) averages for the same forests. The simulations are performed assuming different levels of ecosystem disequilibrium, i.e. progressively taking into account the effects of specific site history in terms of woody biomass removal and stand aging.The NPP estimates, converted into CAIs by means of specific coefficients, are validated through comparison with data derived from tree growth measurements. Results indicate that the modelling of quasi-equilibrium conditions tends to produce overestimated CAI values, particularly for not fully stocked, old stands. The inclusion of information on existing biomass introduces a partial improvement, while optimal results are obtained when information on ecosystem development phase is considered. The implications of using different NPP estimation methods are finally discussed in the perspective of assessing the forest carbon budget on a national basis.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: CAI, NPP, Dendrochronological Data, Volume, Stand Age, BIOME-BGC</p><p><i>iForest 7 (2): 115-122 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0943-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0943-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0943-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2013-12-31 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0943-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Landsat TM imagery and NDVI differencing to detect vegetation change: assessing natural forest expansion in Basilicata, southern Italy http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0909-007 <p><b>Mancino G, Nolè A, Ripullone F, Ferrara A</b></p><p><b>LANDSAT TM IMAGERY AND NDVI DIFFERENCING TO DETECT VEGETATION CHANGE: ASSESSING NATURAL FOREST EXPANSION IN BASILICATA, SOUTHERN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) differencing method using Landsat Thematic Mapping images was implemented to assess natural expansion of forests in the Basilicata region (southern Italy) for the period 1984 through 2010. Two Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) images (1984-2010) were georeferenced and geographically corrected using the first order polynomial transformation, and the nearest neighbour method for resampling. The images were radiometrically corrected using the dark object subtraction model. The pre-processed Landsat TM images were used to calculate NDVI, and subsequently for NDVI differencing. Finally, a threshold for vegetation change detection was identified by visual analysis of Landsat TM RGB band composition, and ratios and visual comparison of digital aerial orthophotos. The methodology was validated using ground-truth observations over the study area. The applied method showed 91.8% accuracy in detection of natural forest expansion. During the examined period, total regional forest cover increased by 19.7% (70154 ha), consistent with National Forest Inventory data (1984-2005). The observed forest expansion was also examined in relationship with landscape physical characteristics and distribution of vegetation types in the Basilicata region. Surprisingly, considerable forest expansion also occurred on degraded soils in drought-prone Mediterranean areas.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: NDVI Differencing, Landsat TM, Detection Change, Natural Forest Expansion</p><p><i>iForest 7 (2): 75-84 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0909-007<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0909-007" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0909-007</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Research Articles 2013-12-18 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor0909-007 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Advances: Detecting mistletoe infestation on Silver fir using hyperspectral images http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1035-006 <p><b>Ančić M, Pernar R, Bajić M, Seletković A, Kolić J</b></p><p><b>DETECTING MISTLETOE INFESTATION ON SILVER FIR USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Silver fir is one of the most important commercial and ecological species in Croatia, and is currently the most damaged tree species in Croatian forests. It is increasingly being infested by white mistletoe, whose irrational consumption of water and nutrients contributes to physiological weakening of the tree. Mistletoe may indicate the presence of stress factors in the site and may even cause premature death. The increment of mistletoe-infested trees is lower compared to that of non-infested trees. Hence, these trees should have a cutting priority, while their timber still retains its commercial value. Areas of mistletoe-infested fir forests are expanding; therefore, there is a high correlation between silver fir forest damage and mistletoe distribution, with an almost exponential increase in mistletoe populations. The purpose of this research was to develop an efficient and reliable method of mistletoe detection. Surveying was performed in the mountain area of beech-fir forests, using a hyperspectral scanner. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classification for 5° proved to be the best classification method. The results were also confirmed by terrestrial validation, i.e. aerial surveying with a non-pilot aircraft from a height of ~30 m above the crowns. The results of this research do not differ significantly from the results obtained with standard ground methods. Limitations of standard ground methods further highlight the importance and efficiency of hyperspectral imagery in mistletoe detection. Furthermore, the first “spectral signatures” - endmembers for fir and mistletoe, were determined, and entered into a spectral library database. The results of this research are applicable primarily in the field of forest management, protection and harvesting, but they can also supply experts in other fields with a basis for explaining various observed phenomena. It outlines some of the possibilities of the application both in scientific and operative fields.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Remote Sensing, Hyperspectral Images, Spectral Signatures, Mistletoe Detection, Health Status, Silver Fir</p><p><i>iForest 7 (2): 85-91 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1035-006<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1035-006" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1035-006</a></p><hr size="1"/> () Technical Advances 2013-12-18 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1035-006 Copyright (c) 2007-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Growth dynamics and productivity of pure and mixed Castanea sativa Mill. and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco plantations in northern Portugal http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1087-007 <p><b>Nunes L, Gower ST, Monteiro ML, Lopes D, Rego FC</b></p><p><b>GROWTH DYNAMICS AND PRODUCTIVITY OF PURE AND MIXED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. AND PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (MIRB.) FRANCO PLANTATIONS IN NORTHERN PORTUGAL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Since the late 1980’s the productivity of monocultures versus mixed-species forests has been the obj