iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Use of brassinosteroids to overcome unfavourable climatic effects on seed germination in Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold

Pinidiya ACNB Suraweera, Ivan Kuneš   , Martin Baláš, Vilém Podrázský, Miroslav Šulitka, Jirí Remeš

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1-9 (2024)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor4340-016
Published: Feb 02, 2024 - Copyright © 2024 SISEF

Research Articles

Seeds of forest species can show germination and survival problems if they are exposed to adverse climatic conditions in the course of germination. Brassinosteroids could help seeds to overcome such environmental stress. We tested the effects of exogenous application of a chosen brassinosteroid compound 2α,3α,17β-trihydroxy-5α-androstan-6-one on the germination capacity and germination energy of European black pine (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold) seeds. Before germination, the seeds were soaked for 24 hours either in demineralised water (control treatment) or in brassinosteroid solutions of four concentrations (high, higher-medium, lower-medium and low-concentration treatments). In the course of germination, the control and all four concentration treatments were subjected to two alternative temperature regimes: the optimal (unstressed) regime (20/30°C) and the stress regime, during which the seeds were exposed to temporary temperature stress (peaking at 42°C). In the optimal temperature regime, the highest germination energy was recorded in the higher-medium-concentration treatment and a significantly increased germination energy when compared to the control was also observed in a high-concentration treatment. The brassinosteroid, when applied in high, higher-medium and lower-medium concentrations, significantly increased the germination capacity compared to the control. The highest germination capacity was recorded in the high-concentration treatment. The temperature stress substantially reduced the germination of P. nigra. In the stress regime, the seeds of the higher-medium-concentration treatment decidedly showed the highest germination energy and capacity and those of the control treatment the lowest. The seed germination energy in the control was significantly lower than that recorded in the high and higher-medium-concentration treatments. The seed germination capacity in the control was significantly lower than those found in all concentration treatments, except for the seeds in the low-concentration treatment. The brassinosteroid application promoted the germination of black pine and partly alleviated the impact of the temporary heat stress. However, this application did not compensate for the heat stress effects completely. The potential for the use of the brassinosteroid may exist chiefly for seedings of Pinus nigra in forest nurseries where the nursery staff try to maintain optimal climatic conditions, and deviations from these conditions are usually only temporary.


Brassinosteroids, Pinus nigra, Germination Capacity, Germination Energy, Germination Rate

Corresponding author

Ivan Kuneš


Suraweera PACNB, Kuneš I, Baláš M, Podrázský V, Šulitka M, Remeš J (2024). Use of brassinosteroids to overcome unfavourable climatic effects on seed germination in Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold. iForest 17: 1-9. - doi: 10.3832/ifor4340-016

Academic Editor

Michele Carbognani

Paper history

Received: Mar 01, 2023
Accepted: Nov 07, 2023

First online: Feb 02, 2024
Publication Date: Feb 29, 2024
Publication Time: 2.90 months

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