iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Co-benefits of biomass and biodiversity in a protected mountain forest of West Java, Indonesia

Andes Hamuraby Rozak (1)   , Yayan Wahyu Candra Kusuma (2), Decky Indrawan Junaedi (2)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 62-69 (2023)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor4068-015
Published: Mar 05, 2023 - Copyright © 2023 SISEF

Research Articles

Tropical mountain forests are relatively less disturbed and store a large amount of carbon in tree biomass. A high level of species diversity compared to the boreal and temperate forests is also maintained and indicates a positive relationship with tree biomass on a small scale or at plot level. This study aimed to estimate above-ground biomass stocks (AGB) and disentangle the influence of forest structure and attributes on AGB in a small mountain forest. Forty 400 m² plots were randomly established in Takokak Nature Reserve (TNR), a 60-ha protected area at an elevation between 1150-1560 m a.s.l., located in West Java, Indonesia. All trees within the plot were identified, and their respective diameter at breast height (DBH) was measured. AGB was calculated using a global allometric model. Five independent variables, i.e., stem density, stem density of large trees (DBH >50 cm), community weighted mean wood density, rarefied species richness, and Fisher’s alpha index, were analysed using a linear model. Our results showed that AGB in TNR was comparable to other forest types in Indonesia and acted as carbon storage in the mountain regions. AGB in the TNR reached 486 Mg ha-1, of which 75% was contributed by large trees (DBH >50 cm). Three species, i.e., Liquidambar excelsa (Altingiaceae), Schima wallichii (Theaceae), and Lithocarpus sp. (Fagaceae), represent at least 70% of the total biomass in the study site. We also found that forest structures and traits, i.e., stem density, stem density of large trees, and community weighted mean wood density, drive AGB variations but not tree diversity indices. However, although diversity indices were not correlated to AGB, we found that TNR is home for endemic and threatened species on the IUCN Red List. Therefore, we suggest that the management strategies of the tropical forests should include both the conservation of the carbon stock and biodiversity.


Carbon Balance, Climate Change, Climate Mitigation, Endemic Tree, Nature Reserve REDD+, Threatened Species

Authors’ address

Andes Hamuraby Rozak 0000-0001-9641-5830
Research Centre for Plant Conservation, Botanic Gardens, and Forestry, National Research and Innovation Agency -BRIN, Kusnoto Building, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 18, Bogor, West Java 16122 (Indonesia)
Yayan Wahyu Candra Kusuma 0000-0003-4267-5981
Decky Indrawan Junaedi 0000-0001-5846-6135
Research Centre for Ecology and Ethnobiology, National Research and Innovation Agency - BRIN, Kawasan Sains dan Teknologi Dr. Ir. Soekarno, Jl. Jakarta - Bogor Km 46, Bogor, West Java 16911 (Indonesia)

Corresponding author

Andes Hamuraby Rozak


Rozak AH, Kusuma YWC, Junaedi DI (2023). Co-benefits of biomass and biodiversity in a protected mountain forest of West Java, Indonesia. iForest 16: 62-69. - doi: 10.3832/ifor4068-015

Academic Editor

Gianluca Piovesan

Paper history

Received: Jan 20, 2022
Accepted: Dec 05, 2022

First online: Mar 05, 2023
Publication Date: Apr 30, 2023
Publication Time: 3.00 months

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