*
 

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry

*

Comparison of extractive chemical signatures among branch, knot and bark wood fractions from forestry and agroforestry walnut trees (Juglans regia × J. nigra) by NIR spectroscopy and LC-MS analyses

Lucie Heim (1-2-3), Roxane Dodeler (1-2-3), Loïc Brancheriau (1-2), Remy Marchal (3), Nabila Boutahar (1-2), Sylvain Lotte (1-2), Stéphane Dumarçay (4), Philippe Gérardin (4), Kevin Candelier (1-2)   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 56-62 (2022)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor3973-014
Published: Feb 08, 2022 - Copyright © 2022 SISEF

Research Articles


Walnut agroforestry systems require regular tree pruning, generating a large volume of biomass residues which are mainly valorized as wood-energy, Ramial Chipped Wood (RCW) or animal litter. However, walnut is recognized as a rich source of different chemical compounds, which could be recovered as valuable chemicals. This study aims to improve the knowledge on the composition of the water and ethanol extractive contents of wood, knot and bark fractions from walnut branches, harvested in agroforestry (AF) and traditional forestry control (FC) systems. LC-MS analyses were carried out to identify the chemical composition of extracts. Additionally, all samples were analyzed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the aim of developing a fast tool to distinguish walnut branches, knots and bark wood fractions from trees grown under agroforestry and plantation management. Extractive contents and chemical composition of AF and FC wood samples were slightly different among branch, knot and bark. Despite these small chemical differences, PLS-DA models based on NIRS measurements can distinguishing among wood samples from walnut trees grown under different silvicultural regimes. In addition, in the both forestry systems, branch and knot extractive contents were significantly lower than those of bark specimens. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) based on NIR-spectrometry of raw samples revealed that the chemical composition of branch and knot woods are similar to each other and are very different compared to those of bark samples. This study provides new knowledge on branch woods from agroforestry systems, which are still very under-studied at present.

  Keywords


Agroforestry, Bark, Branches, Extractives, Knot, Walnut

Authors’ address

(3)
Lucie Heim
Roxane Dodeler
Remy Marchal 0000-0002-5712-9978
Arts et Metiers Institute of Technology, LABOMAP, HESAM University F-71250, Cluny (France)
(4)
Stéphane Dumarçay 0000-0002-3725-2610
Philippe Gérardin 0000-0002-0911-0105
Université de Lorraine, Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Laboratoire d’Etudes et de Recherche sur le Matériau Bois, Nancy (France)

Corresponding author

 
Kevin Candelier
kevin.candelier@cirad.fr

Citation

Heim L, Dodeler R, Brancheriau L, Marchal R, Boutahar N, Lotte S, Dumarçay S, Gérardin P, Candelier K (2022). Comparison of extractive chemical signatures among branch, knot and bark wood fractions from forestry and agroforestry walnut trees (Juglans regia × J. nigra) by NIR spectroscopy and LC-MS analyses. iForest 15: 56-62. - doi: 10.3832/ifor3973-014

Academic Editor

Luigi Todaro

Paper history

Received: Sep 13, 2021
Accepted: Dec 16, 2021

First online: Feb 08, 2022
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2022
Publication Time: 1.80 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 590
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 0
Abstract Page Views: 0
PDF Downloads: 520
Citation/Reference Downloads: 1
XML Downloads: 69

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 147
Overall contacts: 590
Avg. contacts per week: 28.10

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

(No citations were found up to date. Please come back later)


 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Bhatia K, Rahman S, Ali M, Raisuddin S (2006)
In vitro antioxidant activity of Juglans regia L. bark extract and its protective effect on cyclophosphamide-induced urotoxicity in mice. Redox Report 11 (6): 273-279.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(2)
Donald A, Burns EW (2007)
Handbook of near-infrared analysis (3rd edn). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 834.
Online | Gscholar
(3)
Dupraz C, Burgess P, Gavaland A, Graves A, Herzog F, Incoll L, Jackson N, Keesman K, Lawson G, Lecomte I, Liagre F, Mantzanas K, Mayus M, Moreno G, Palma J, Papanastasis V, Paris P, Pilbeam D, Reisner Y, Vincent G, Van Der Werf W (2005)
Synthesis of the silvoarable agroforestry for Europe project. INRA-UMR System Editions, Montpellier, France, pp. 254.
Online | Gscholar
(4)
Dupraz C, Liagre F (2019)
Agroforesterie: des arbres et des cultures [Agroforestry: trees and crops] (2nd edn). Edition France Agricole, Paris, France, pp. 432. [in French]
Gscholar
(5)
Fujimoto T, Kurata Y, Matsumoto K, Tsuchikawa S (2007a)
Application of near infrared spectroscopy for estimating wood mechanical properties of small clear and full length lumber specimens. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 16 (6): 529-537.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(6)
Fujimoto T, Yamamoto H, Tsuchikawa S (2007b)
Estimation of wood stiffness and strength properties of hybrid larch by near-infrared spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy 61 (8): 882-888.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(7)
Halmemies ES, Brännström HE, Nurmi J, Läspä O, Alén R (2021)
Effect of seasonal storage on single-stem bark extractives of Norway Spruce (Picea abies). Forests 12 (6): 736.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(8)
Hapla F, Oliver-Villanueva JV, González-Molina JM (2000)
Effect of silvicultural management on wood quality and timber utilisation of Cedrus atlantica in the European mediterranean area. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 58 (1-2): 1-8.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(9)
Harmaen AS, Paridah MT, Jalaluddin H, Mohammad J, Khalid RH (2014)
Influence of planting density on the fiber morphology and chemical composition of a new latex-timber clone tree of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muel. Arg.). BioResources 9 (2): 2593-2608.
Online | Gscholar
(10)
Haupt M, Leithoff H, Meier D, Puls J, Richter HG, Faix O (2003)
Heartwood extractives and natural durability of plantation grown teakwood (Tectona grandis L.) - a case study. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 61 (6): 473-474.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(11)
Jahanban-Esfahlan A, Ostadrahimi A, Tabibiazar M, Amarowicz R (2019)
A comparative review on the extraction, antioxidant content and antioxidant potential of different parts of walnut (Juglans regia L.) fruit and tree. Molecules 24 (11): 2133.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(12)
Kebbi-Benkeder Z, Colin F, Dumarçay S, Gérardin P (2015)
Quantification and characterization of knotwood extractives of 12 European softwood and hardwood species. Annals of Forest Science 72: 277-284.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(13)
Kebbi-Benkeder Z, Dumarçay S, Touahri N, Manso R, Gérardin P, Colin F (2016)
Les noeuds: un bois méconnu et une source importante de composés extractibles [Knots: an unknown wood and an important source of extractable compounds]. Revue Forestière Française 68 (1): 7-26. [in French]
Online | Gscholar
(14)
Kelley SS, Rials TG, Snell R, Groom LH, Sluiter A (2004)
Use of near infrared spectroscopy to measure the chemical and mechanical properties of solid wood. Wood Science and Technology 38: 257-276.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(15)
Košíková B (2009)
Morphological and chemical characteristics of stem and knot poplar wood. Wood Research 54 (3): 117-122.
Online | Gscholar
(16)
Leblon B, Adedipe O, Hans G, Haddadi A, Tsuchikawa S, Burger J, Stirling R, Pirouz Z, Groves K, Nader J, LaRocque A (2013)
A review of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring moisture content and density of solid wood. The Forestry Chronicle 89 (5): 595-606.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(17)
Malignier N, Balaguer F (2017)
Current extent and trends of agroforestry in France. AGFORWARD Research Project, Annex to Deliverable 1.2, Association Française d’Agroforesterie, Auch, France, pp. 10.
Online | Gscholar
(18)
Morikawa T, Ashitani T, Kofujita H, Takahashi K (2014)
Antitermitic activity of extracts from Chamaecyparis obtusa branch heartwood. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 72: 651-657.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(19)
Moulin JC, Arantes MDC, Vidaurre GB, Paes JB, Carneiro ACO (2015)
Efeito do espaçamento, da idade e da irrigação nos componentes químicos da madeira de eucalipto [Effect of spacing, age and irrigation in chemical components of eucalyptus wood]. Revista Árvore 39 (1): 199-208. [in Portuguese]
CrossRef | Gscholar
(20)
Naes T, Isaksson T, Fearn T, Davies T (2004)
A user-friendly guide to multivariate calibration and classification. NIR Publications, Chichester, UK, pp. 344.
Gscholar
(21)
Nirmla Devi T, Apraj V, Bhagwat A, Mallya R, Sawant L, Pandita N (2011)
Pharmacognostic and phytochemical Investigation of Juglans regia Linn. bark. Pharmacognosy Journal 3 (25): 39-43.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(22)
Pace JHC, De Figueiredo Latorraca JV, Hein PRG, De Carvalho AM, Castro JP, Da Silva CES (2019)
Wood species identification from Atlantic forest by near infrared spectroscopy. Forest Systems 28 (3): e015.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(23)
Pardon P, Mertens J, Reubens B, Reheul D, Coussement T, Elsen A, Nelissen V, Verheyen K (2020)
Juglans regia (walnut) in temperate arable agroforestry systems: effects on soil characteristics, arthropod diversity and crop yield. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 35 (5): 533-549.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(24)
Ramalho FMG, Andrade JM, Hein PRG (2018)
Rapid discrimination of wood species from native forest and plantations using near infrared spectroscopy. Forest Systems 27 (2): e008.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(25)
Rowe JW, Conner AH (1979)
Extractives in eastern hardwoods - A review. General Technical Report, Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 67.
Online | Gscholar
(26)
Rowell RM, Pettersens R, Han JS, Rowell JS, Tshabalala MA (2005)
Cell wall chemistry. In: “Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites” (Rowell RM ed). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 35-72.
Online | Gscholar
(27)
Salejda AM, Janiewicz U, Korzeniowska M, Kolniak-Ostek J, Krasnowska G (2016)
Effect of walnut green husk addition on some quality properties of cooked sausages. LWT Food Science and Technology 65: 751-757.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(28)
Savitzky A, Golay MJE (1964)
Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures. Analytical Chemistry 36: 1627-1639.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(29)
Schwanninger M, Rodrigues JC, Fackler K (2011)
A review of band assignments in near infrared spectra of wood and wood components. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 19 (5): 287-308.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(30)
Schell J (1997)
Interdependence of pH, malate concentration, and calcium and magnesium concentrations in the xylem sap of beech roots. Tree Physiology 17: 479-483.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(31)
Schimleck L, Evans R, Ilic J (2003)
Application of near infrared spectroscopy to the extracted wood of a diverse range of species. IAWA Journal 24 (4): 429-438.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(32)
Taylor A, Gartner BL, Morrell JJ, Tsunoda K (2006)
Effects of heartwood extractive fractions of Thuja plicata and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis on wood degradation by termites or fungi. Journal of Wood Science 52 (2): 147-153.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(33)
Terrasse F, Brancheriau L, Marchal R, Boutahar N, Lotte S, Guibal D, Pignolet L, Candelier K (2021)
Density, extractives and decay resistance variabilities within branch wood from four agroforestry hardwood species. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry 14 (3): 212-220.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(34)
Toshiaki U (2001)
Chemistry of extractives. In: “Wood and cellulosic chemistry” (De David NSH, Nobuo S eds). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA, pp. 213-241.
Gscholar
(35)
Tsuchikawa S, Siesler HW (2003)
Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of the diffusion process of deuterium-labeled molecules in wood. Part I: softwood. Applied Spectroscopy 57 (6): 667-674.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(36)
Vek V, Oven P, Ters T, Poljanšek I, Hinterstoisser B (2014)
Extractives of mechanically wounded wood and knots in beech. Holzforschung 68 (5): 529-539.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(37)
Workman JJ, Weyer L (2007)
Practical guide to interpretive near infrared spectroscopy. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 344.
Gscholar
(38)
Xu F, Zhong XC, Sun RC, Lu Q, Jones GL (2007)
Chemical composition, fiber morphology, and pulping of P. bolleana Lauche. Wood and Fiber Science 38: 512-519.
Gscholar
(39)
Yi J, Sun Y, Zhu Z, Liu N, Lu J (2017)
Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the prediction of chemical composition in walnut kernel. International Journal of Food Properties 20 (7): 1633-1642.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(40)
Zakavi F, Golpasand Hagh L, Daraeighadikolaei A, Farajzadeh Sheikh A, Daraeighadikolaei A, Leilavi Shooshtari Z (2013)
Antibacterial effect of Juglans regia bark against oral pathologic bacteria. International Journal of Dentistry 2013 (6): 1-5.
CrossRef | Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info