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iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry

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Decline in commercial pine nut and kernel yield in Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Spain

Rafael Calama (1-2)   , Javier Gordo (3), Sven Mutke (1-2), Mar Conde (1), Guillermo Madrigal (1-2), Enrique Garriga (4), María José Arias (5), Míriam Piqué (6), Rodrigo Gandía (7), Gregorio Montero (1-2), Marta Pardos (1-2)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 251-260 (2020)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor3180-013
Published: Jul 03, 2020 - Copyright © 2020 SISEF

Research Articles


Cones of the Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) constitute one of the most relevant non-wood forest products collected in the Mediterranean forests, providing high value edible kernels. In the last years it has been observed a severe decline in the kernel-per-cone yield (kg of kernels obtained from a kg of fresh cones) through the whole area of the species. This decline has been associated with both ongoing climate change and the recent expansion over the Mediterranean Basin of the Western Conifer Seed Bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis Heideman, an exotic pest which predates seeds of conifer species. In the present work we aimed to confirm and quantify the impact of this recent decline on pine nut and kernel production, identify the main factors provoking this reduction, and give evidence over causality by a potential biotic agent. We analysed recent and historical series of pine nut and kernel production obtained in the four main regions where Pinus pinea occurs in Spain. Our results showed a significant drop in the final kernel-per-cone yield on three of the four regions analysed, reaching reductions over 50% in the most affected areas. We observed that this reduction is mainly associated with a significant and generalised drop in the kernel-per-nut yield (kg of kernels per kg of pine nuts in shell), triggered by an increment in the rate of damaged pine nuts and, to a lesser extent, a reduction in the number of pine nuts per cone. The prevalence of this reduction on kernel-per-cone yield over different years and provenances with contrasting climate reinforces the hypothesis of the implication of a biotic factor which can be aggravated on extreme drought years.

  Keywords


Leptoglossus occidentalis, Kernel-per-cone Yield, Cones, Exotic Pest, Seed Predation

Authors’ address

(1)
Rafael Calama 0000-0002-2598-9594
Sven Mutke 0000-0002-6365-7128
Mar Conde
Guillermo Madrigal
Gregorio Montero
Marta Pardos 0000-0002-5567-5406
INIA - Forest Research Centre, Dept. of Forest Management and Dynamics, Ctra A Coruña km 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
(3)
Javier Gordo
INIA - Forest Research Centre, Dept. of Forest Products, Ctra A Coruña km 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
(4)
Enrique Garriga
Dept. of Forest Products, INIA-CIFOR, Ctra A Coruña km 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
(5)
María José Arias
Agencia de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Andalucía, c/ Johan G. Gutenberg, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)
(6)
Míriam Piqué 0000-0002-8935-2832
Joint Research Unit CTFC- AGROTECNIO, 25280 Solsona (Spain)
(7)
Rodrigo Gandía
Servicio Territorial de Medio Ambiente de Ávila, Pasaje del Císter 1, 05071 Ávila (Spain)

Corresponding author

 
Rafael Calama
rcalama@inia.es

Citation

Calama R, Gordo J, Mutke S, Conde M, Madrigal G, Garriga E, Arias MJ, Piqué M, Gandía R, Montero G, Pardos M (2020). Decline in commercial pine nut and kernel yield in Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Spain. iForest 13: 251-260. - doi: 10.3832/ifor3180-013

Academic Editor

Massimo Faccoli

Paper history

Received: Jun 28, 2019
Accepted: Apr 29, 2020

First online: Jul 03, 2020
Publication Date: Aug 31, 2020
Publication Time: 2.17 months

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