iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Development phases and structural characteristics of the Penteleu-Viforâta virgin forest in the Curvature Carpathians

Serban Chivulescu (1), Albert Ciceu (1-2)   , Stefan Leca (1), Bogdan Apostol (1), Octavian Popescu (3-4), Ovidiu Badea (1-2)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 13, Issue 5, Pages 389-395 (2020)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor3094-013
Published: Sep 01, 2020 - Copyright © 2020 SISEF

Research Articles

The stand structure of a virgin forest situated at an average altitude of 1130 m a.s.l. in the Milea Viforâta Nature Reserve (Southern Carpathians, Romania) was investigated to determine the specific development phases of the forest and understand how they influence the stand structure, with the aim of providing optimal solutions and structural models for sustainable forest management. All trees with breast height diameter (dbh) ≥ 8 cm were inventoried in the study plot (1 ha), and the main dendrometrical variables were measured. Radial increment cores were taken from all the trees and were subsequently processed. A total of 317 trees from three species - European beech (Fagus sylvatica), silver fir (Abies alba) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) - were sampled at different development phases (optimum, ageing, breakdown and dieback, rejuvenation). Testing stand structural diversity with the Gini index, a minimal stability was found in the rejuvenation development phase and a maximum stability in the ageing phase. No significant match was found between standard theoretical functions (Normal, Weibull, Gamma and Exponential) and the observed distribution of tree diameter. Also, it was confirmed that dominance of beech in all development phases is a consequence of its high competitive ability and its capacity to endure difficult environmental and biologically stressful conditions. The results revealed a series of structural models specific to these forest ecosystems, which can help managing forests under the selection system.


Primary Forest, Development Phases, Uneven Aged Forests, Carpathians Forest

Authors’ address

Serban Chivulescu
Albert Ciceu 0000-0002-4090-8705
Stefan Leca 0000-0002-6110-8379
Bogdan Apostol 0000-0002-5935-4407
Ovidiu Badea
National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry ”Marin Dracea” (Romania)
Albert Ciceu 0000-0002-4090-8705
Ovidiu Badea
Transilvania University of Brasov (Romania)
Octavian Popescu 0000-0002-2597-7155
Institute of Biology Bucharest, Romanian Academy (Romania)
Octavian Popescu 0000-0002-2597-7155
Molecular Biology Center, Institute of Interdisciplinary Research in Bio-Nano-Sciences, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

Corresponding author

Albert Ciceu


Chivulescu S, Ciceu A, Leca S, Apostol B, Popescu O, Badea O (2020). Development phases and structural characteristics of the Penteleu-Viforâta virgin forest in the Curvature Carpathians. iForest 13: 389-395. - doi: 10.3832/ifor3094-013

Academic Editor

Paola Mairota

Paper history

Received: Mar 11, 2019
Accepted: Jun 17, 2020

First online: Sep 01, 2020
Publication Date: Oct 31, 2020
Publication Time: 2.53 months

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