iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Is Tuber brumale a threat to T. melanosporum and T. aestivum plantations?

Francesca Ori (1), Pamela Leonardi (2), Enrico Stagnini (1), Valentina Balestrini (2), Mirco Iotti (1)   , Alessandra Zambonelli (2)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 11, Issue 6, Pages 775-780 (2018)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2785-011
Published: Nov 28, 2018 - Copyright © 2018 SISEF

Research Articles

True truffles in the genus Tuber are the most valuable ectomycorrhizal fungi and their cultivation has become widespread around the world. Competition with other ectomycorrhizal fungi and especially with undesired Tuber species, like T. brumale, can threaten the success of a truffle plantation. In this work, the competitiveness of T. brumale towards T. melanosporum and T. aestivum was assessed in a 14 year-old plantation carried out planting seedlings inoculated with these three truffle species in adjacent plots. Analyses of both truffle ectomycorrhizas and extra-radical mycelium were carried out in the transects separating the T. brumale plot from T. melanosporum and T. aestivum plots. The results confirm the competitiveness of T. brumale against T. aestivum and T. melanosporum due to its major ability to colonize the soil around its ectomycorrhizas. However, its competitiveness is limited to the transect areas and it was never found inside T. melanosporum plot. These results remark that, in presence of optimal conditions for T. melanosporum and T. aestivum, the greatest risk of contamination with T. brumale is due to wrong greenhouse activity.


Competition, Black Truffles, Extra-Radical Mycelium, Ectomycorrhizas, Species-Specific Primers

Authors’ address

Francesca Ori
Enrico Stagnini
Mirco Iotti
Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, I-67100 L’Aquila (Italy)
Pamela Leonardi
Valentina Balestrini
Alessandra Zambonelli
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, v.le Fanin 46, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

Corresponding author

Mirco Iotti


Ori F, Leonardi P, Stagnini E, Balestrini V, Iotti M, Zambonelli A (2018). Is Tuber brumale a threat to T. melanosporum and T. aestivum plantations?. iForest 11: 775-780. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2785-011

Academic Editor

Alberto Santini

Paper history

Received: Mar 13, 2018
Accepted: Sep 05, 2018

First online: Nov 28, 2018
Publication Date: Dec 31, 2018
Publication Time: 2.80 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 14999
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 11337
Abstract Page Views: 843
PDF Downloads: 2076
Citation/Reference Downloads: 8
XML Downloads: 735

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2065
Overall contacts: 14999
Avg. contacts per week: 50.84

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

Total number of cites (since 2018): 1
Average cites per year: 0.33


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Agerer R (1995)
Anatomical characteristics of identified ectomycorrhizas: an attempt towards a natural classification. In: “Mycorrhiza: Structure, Function, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology” (Varma AK, Hock B eds). Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 685-734.
Baciarelli-Falini L (2005)
Prime osservazioni sulla sostituzione delle micorrize di Tuber nelle tartufaie coltivate [First observations of replacement of Tuber mycorrhizas in cultivated truffle orchards]. In: Proceedings of the “Seminario sullo Stato Attuale della Tartuficoltura Italiana” (Bencivenga M, Donnini D, Gobbini A eds), Spoleto-Norcia (Italy), 21-22 Feb 2004. Associazione “il Tartufo nel 2000”, Gruppo Micologico “Valle Spoletana”, Norcia, Italy, pp. 75-80. [in Italian]
Baciarelli-Falini L, Bencivenga M, Donnini D, Di Massimo G (2010)
Research results in truffle beds of the Umbria region. In: Proceedings of the “3rd International Conference on Truffles” (Donnini D ed). Spoleto (Italy) 25-28 Nov 2008. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martano, Serano e Subasio, Italy, pp. 577-589. [in Italian]
Belfiori B, Riccioni C, Tempesta S, Pasqualetti M, Paolocci F, Rubini A (2012)
Comparison of ectomycorrhizal communities in natural and cultivated Tuber melanosporum truffle grounds. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 81: 547-561.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bencivenga M, Donnini D, Di Massimo G (1992)
Analysis of Tuber melanosporum mycorrhizae in an 11-year-old truffle-bed. Micologia e Vegetazione Mediterranea 7: 159-171.
Benucci GMN, Raggi L, Albertini E, Grebenc T, Bencivenga M, Falcinelli M, Di Massimo G (2011)
Ectomycorrhizal communities in a productive Tuber aestivum Vittad. orchard: composition, host influence and species replacement. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 76: 170-184.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bever J (2002)
Host-specificity of AM fungal population growth rates can generate feedback on plant growth. Plant and Soil 244: 281-290.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bratek Z, Bagi I, Paradi I, Vikor J (2001)
Differentiation among truffle species based on habitat preferences. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference “Science et Culture de la Truffe” (Courvoisier M, Olivier JM, Chevalier G eds). Aix-en-Provence (France) 4-6 Mar 1999. Federation Française des Trufficulteurs, Paris, France, pp. 193-195.
Callot G, Daignieres Y, Fernandez D, Raymond M, Salducci X (2001)
Effect of soil conditions on the fruiting of Perigord truffle (Tuber melanosporum). In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference “Science et Culture de la Truffe” (Courvoisier M, Olivier JM, Chevalier G eds). Aix-en-Provence (France) 4-6 Mar 1999. Federation Française des Trufficulteurs, Paris, France, pp. 257-259.
Chevalier G, Frochot H (1997)
La truffe de Bourgogne [The Burgundy truffle]. Pétrarque, Levallois-Perret, France, pp. 257. [in French]
Chevalier G, Sourzat P (2012)
Soils and techniques for cultivating Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum in Europe. In: “Edible Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms” (Zambonelli A, Bonito GM eds), Soil Biology series, vol. 34, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 163-189.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dahlberg A (2001)
Community ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi: an advancing interdisciplinary field. New Phytologist 150: 555-562.
CrossRef | Gscholar
De Miguel AM, Agueda B, Sánchez S, Parladé J (2014)
Ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity and community structure with natural and cultivated truffle hosts: applying lessons learned to future truffle culture. Mycorrhiza 24: 5-18.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Donnini D, Baciarelli-Falini L, Bencivenga M (2001)
Analysis of mycorrhization in over 12 year-old cultivated truffle beds of T. melanosporum Vittad. under various soil and climate conditions. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference “Science et Culture de la Truffe” (Courvoisier M, Olivier JM, Chevalier G eds). Aix-en-Provence (France) 4-6 Mar 1999. Federation Française des Trufficulteurs, Paris, France, pp. 437-440.
Granetti B, Angelini P (1992)
Competition between some ectomycorrhizal fungi and Tuber melanosporum in a cultivated truffle bed. Micologia e Vegetazione Mediterranea 7: 173-188.
Gryndler M, Trilčová J, Hršelová H, Streiblová E, Gryndlerová H, Jansa J (2013)
Tuber aestivum Vittad. mycelium quantified: advantages and limitations of a qPCR approach. Mycorrhiza 23: 341-348.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Guerin-Laguette A, Cummings N, Hesom-Williams N, Butler R, Wang Y (2013)
Mycorrhizas analyses in New Zealand truffières reveal frequent but variable persistence of Tuber melanosporum in co-existence with other truffle species. Mycorrhiza 23: 87-98.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hall I, Brown G, Zambonelli A (2007)
Taming the truffle. The history, lore, and science of the ultimate mushroom. Timber Press, Portland, OR, USA, pp. 304.
Online | Gscholar
Iotti M, Leonardi M, Oddis M, Salerni E, Baraldi E, Zambonelli A (2012)
Development and validation of a realtime PCR assay for detection and quantification of Tuber magnatum in soil. BMC Microbiology 12: 93-101.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Iotti M, Piattoni F, Hall IR, Zambonelli A (2016)
First evidence for truffle production from plants inoculated with mycelial pure cultures. Mycorrhiza 26: 793-798.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Iotti M, Zambonelli A (2006)
A quick and precise technique for identifying ectomycorrhizas by PCR. Mycological Research 110: 60-65.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Jaillard B, Oliach D, Sourzat P, Colinas C (2016)
Soil characteristics of Tuber melanosporum habitat. In: “True Truffles (Tuber spp.) in the world” (Zambonelli A, Iotti M, Murat C eds). Soil Biology series, vol. 47, Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 169-190.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kennedy P (2010)
Ectomycorrhizal fungi and interspecific competition: species interactions, community structure, coexistence mechanisms, and future directions. New Phytologist 187: 895-910.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Koide R, Xu B, Sharda J, Lekberg Y, Ositguy N (2005)
Evidence of species interactions within an ectomycorrhizal fungal community. New Phytologist 165: 305-316.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lefevre CK, Hall IR (2001)
The status of truffle cultivation: a global perspective. Acta Horticulturae 556: 513-520.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Linde CC, Selmes H (2012)
Genetic diversity and mating type distribution of Tuber melanosporum and their significance to truffle cultivation in artificially planted truffières in Australia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78: 6534-6539.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Martin-Santafe M, Perez-Fortea V, Zuriaga P, Barriuso J (2014)
Phytosanitary problems detected in truffle cultivation in Spain. Forest System 23: 307-316.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mello A, Cantisani A, Vizzini A, Bonfante P (2002)
Genetic variability of Tuber uncinatum and its relatedness to other black truffles. Environmental Microbiology 4: 584-594.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Merényi Z, Varga T, Bratek Z (2016)
Tuber brumale: a controversial Tuber species. In: “True Truffles (Tuber spp.) in the world” (Zambonelli A, Iotti M, Murat C eds). Soil Biology series, vol. 47, Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 49-68.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nara K (2006)
Ectomycorrhizal networks and seedling establishment during early primary succession. New Phytologist 169: 169-178.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Olivier JPM, Savignac JC, Sourzat P (2012)
Truffe et trufficulture [Truffles and trufficulture]. FANLAC, Périgueux, France, pp. 400. [in French]
Parladé J, De la Varga H, De Miguel AM, Sáez R, Pera J (2013)
Quantification of extraradical mycelium of Tuber melanosporum in soils from truffle orchards in northern Spain. Mycorrhiza 23: 99-106.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Peay KG, Bruns TD, Kennedy PG, Bergemann SE, Garbelotto M (2007)
A strong species-area relationship for eukaryotic soil microbes: island size matters for ectomycorrhizal fungi. Ecology Letters 10: 470-480.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ricard JM (2003)
La truffe. Guide technique de trufficulture [The truffle: technical guide for truffle cultivation]. Centre Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Légumes, Paris, France, pp. 268. [in French]
Riousset LG, Chevalier G, Bardet MC (2001)
Truffles d’Europe et de Chine [Truffles of Europe and China]. INRA, Paris, France, pp. 155. [in French]
Rubini A, Paolocci F, Granetti B, Arcioni S (1998)
Single step molecular characterization of morphologically similar black truffle species. FEMS Microbiology Letters 164: 7-12.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Smith SE, Read DJ (2008)
Mycorrhizal symbiosis (3rd edn). Academic Press, New York, USA, pp. 800.
Sourzat P (2005)
Pressure of contamination mycorrhizal fungi against black truffle in spontaneous and cultivated truffières in France. In: Abstracts of the “4th International Workshop on Edible Mycorrhizal Mushroom” (Honrubia M, Morte A, Torrente P eds), Murcia (Spain) 28 Nov - 2 Dec 2005. Universidad de Murcia, Spain, pp. 116.
Sourzat P (2011)
Black truffle cultivation and competing fungi. In: Proceedings of the “7th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products (Savoie JM, Foulongne-Oriol M, Largeteau M, Barroso G eds), Arcachon (France) 4-7 Oct 2011. INRA, Bordeaux, France, pp. 516-528.
Online | Gscholar
Sourzat P, Dubiau JM (2001)
Contamination by Tuber brumale in truffle plantations: observations, experimentations and strategies of cultivation protection; the example of a truffle plantation at Miers in the Lot department, France. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference “Science et Culture de la Truffe” (Courvoisier M, Olivier JM, Chevalier G eds), Aix-en-Provence (France) 4-6 Mar 1999. Federation Française des Trufficulteurs, Paris, France, pp. 466-468.
Turgeman T, Sitrit Y, Danai O, Luzzati Y, Bustan A, Roth-Bejerano N, Kagan-Zur V, Masaphy S (2012)
Introduced Tuber aestivum replacing introduced Tuber melanosporum: a case study. Agroforestry System 84: 337-343.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Zambonelli A, Iotti M, Zinoni F, Dallavalle E, Hall R (2005)
Effect of mulching on Tuber uncinatum ectomycorrhizas in an experimental truffière. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 33: 65-73.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Zambonelli A, Leonardi P, Iotti M, Hall I (2017)
Ecological and genetic advances in the cultivation of Tuber spp. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 40: 371-377.
Zampieri E, Murat C, Cagnasso M, Bonfante P, Mello A (2010)
Soil analysis reveals the presence of an extended mycelial network in a Tuber magnatum truffle ground. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 71: 43-49.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info