iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Seven spruce species on a mountain site - performance, foliar nutrients, and forest floor properties in stands 20 years old

Ondrej Špulák   , Dušan Kacálek, Vratislav Balcar

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 106-113 (2019)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2731-011
Published: Feb 11, 2019 - Copyright © 2019 SISEF

Research Articles

Norway spruce is often considered to have a negative impact on a site, yet it is native to many mountain regions of Europe. The relative influence of Norway spruce on site properties has frequently been compared with that of both broadleaved and other coniferous tree species. In our study, growth, as well as needle, forest floor, and topsoil chemistry were compared between Norway spruce and introduced spruce species (white, black, red, Serbian, Sitka, and blue spruce), all growing on the same, formerly polluted mountain site. There were few differences in needle nutrient status between the introduced spruce species and native Norway spruce. The chemistry of forest floor horizons beneath some of the non-native species showed less acidity and better conditions of the soil sorption complex. There were no significant differences in the nutrient pools, indicating that the influence of the various spruce species on the site was comparable. Given the small differences observed in the various nutritional characteristics, it appears that, under the conditions of the study site, the alternative spruces had substituted for the role of Norway spruce before its recovery in the 2000s. The six spruces grew quite consistently during 2001-2012, while the mean height of Norway spruce shifted from the lowest 176 cm (2001) to one of the tallest. At 710 cm (2012), its height had become comparable with that of Sitka. The poorest performing were black spruce (due to bark beetle attack) and blue spruce (due to bud blight infestation and decline).


Spruce, Performance, Foliar Nutrients, Forest Floor, Soil

Authors’ address

Ondrej Špulák
Dušan Kacálek
Vratislav Balcar
Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Opočno Research Station, Strnady 136, 252 02 Jílovište (Czech Republic)

Corresponding author

Ondrej Špulák


Špulák O, Kacálek D, Balcar V (2019). Seven spruce species on a mountain site - performance, foliar nutrients, and forest floor properties in stands 20 years old. iForest 12: 106-113. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2731-011

Academic Editor

Silvano Fares

Paper history

Received: Jan 18, 2018
Accepted: Nov 26, 2018

First online: Feb 11, 2019
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2019
Publication Time: 2.57 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 15486
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 11453
Abstract Page Views: 1151
PDF Downloads: 2253
Citation/Reference Downloads: 1
XML Downloads: 628

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1930
Overall contacts: 15486
Avg. contacts per week: 56.17

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

(No citations were found up to date. Please come back later)


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Aitkenhead-Peterson JA, Alexander JE, Albrechtova J, Krám P, Rock B, Cudlín P, Hruška J, Lhotaková Z, Huntley R, Oulehle F, Polák T, McDowell WH (2006)
Linking foliar chemistry to forest floor solid and solution phase organic C and N in Picea abies [L.] Karst. stands in northern Bohemia. Plant and Soil 283: 187-201.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Alexander EB (2014)
Foliar analyses of conifers on serpentine and gabbro soils in the Klammath mountains. Madroño 61 (1): 77-81.
Online | Gscholar
Augusto L, Ranger J, Binkley D, Rothe A (2002)
Impact of several common tree species of European temperate forests on soil fertility. Annals of Forest Science 59: 233-253.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Balcar V (1996)
Acute air pollution injury of ten coniferous species in the Trutnov region. Lesnictví-Forestry 42 (10): 460-472.
Balcar V, Podrázsky V (1994)
Založení výsadbového pokusu v hrebenové partii Jizerských hor [Establishment of a tree planting experiment in the ridge part of the Jizerské hory Mts]. Reports of Forestry Research - Zprávy lesnického výzkumu 39 (2): 1-7. [in Czech]
Binkley D, Valentine D (1991)
Fifty-year biogeochemical effects of green ash, white pine, and Norway spruce in a replicated experiment. Forest Ecology and Management 40: 13-25.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Blonska E, Malek S, Januszek K, Barszcz J, Wanic T (2015)
Changes in forest soil properties and spruce stands characteristics after dolomite, magnesite and serpentinite fertilization. European Journal of Forest Research 134: 981-990.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Carnol M, Bazgir M (2013)
Nutrient return to the forest floor through litter and throughfall under 7 forest species after conversion from Norway spruce. Forest Ecology and Management 309: 66-75.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Castle SC, Neff JC (2009)
Plant response to nutrient availability across variable bedrock geologies. Ecosystems 12: 101-113.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cerný K, Pešková V, Soukup F, Havrdová L, Strnadová V, Zahradník D, Hrabetová M (2016)
Gemmamyces bud blight of Picea pungens: a sudden disease outbreak in Central Europe. Plant Pathology 65 (8): 1267-1278.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Grodzki W (2009)
Entomofauna of dying young spruces Picea abies (L.) Karst. in the area after forest decline in the Izerskie Mountains. Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A 51 (2): 161-170.
Hagen-Thorn A, Callesen I, Armolaitis K, Nihlgård B (2004)
The impact of six European tree species on the chemistry of mineral topsoil in forest plantations on former agricultural land. Forest Ecology and Management 195: 373-384.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Holm S (1979)
A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 6: 65-70.
Online | Gscholar
Kacálek D, Špulák O, Dušek D, Kuneš I, Balcar V (2013)
Species-specific properties of forest floor under mountain conditions. Austrian Journal of Forest Science 130 (1): 45-59.
Online | Gscholar
Kantor P (1989)
Meliorační účinky porostu náhradních drevin [Ameliorative effects of substitute forest trees]. Lesnictví 35: 1047-1066. [in Czech]
Kellomäki S, Strandman H, Heinonen T, Asikainen A, Venäläinen A, Peltola H (2018)
Temporal and spatial change in diameter growth of boreal Scots pine, Norway spruce, and birch under recent-generation (CMIP5) global climate model projections for the 21st century. Forests 9 (3): 118.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kranabetter JM, Banner A (2000)
Selected biological and chemical properties of forest floors across bedrock types on the north coast of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30 (6): 971-981.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kranabetter JM, Coates KD (2004)
Ten-year postharvest effects of silviculture systems on soil-resource availability and conifer nutrition in a northern temperate forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34 (4): 800-809.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kuneš I, Balcar V, Vykypelová E, Zadina J, Šedlbauerová J, Zahradník D (2007)
Vliv jamkové a pomístné povrchové aplikace dolomitického vápence na množství a chemické složení biomasy smrku ztepilého v Jizerských horách [Effects of planting hole application or spot surface application of finely ground dolomitic limestone on amount and chemical composition of biomass of Norway spruce in the Jizerské hory Mts.]. Reports of Forestry Research - Zprávy lesnického výzkumu 52 (4): 316-327. [in Czech]
Lazarus BE, Schaberg PG, Hawley GJ, DeHayes DH (2006)
Landscape-scale spatial patterns of winter injury to red spruce foliage in a year of heavy region-wide injury. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36 (1): 142-152.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lê S, Josse J, Husson F (2008)
FactoMineR: an R package for multivariate analysis. Journal of Statistical Software 25 (1): 1-18.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lomský B, Srámek V, Novotny R (2012)
Changes in the air pollution load in the Jizera Mts.: effects on the health status and mineral nutrition of the young Norway spruce stands. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 757-771.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mallik AU, Hossain MK, Lamb EG (2008)
Species and spacing effects of northern conifers on forest productivity and soil chemistry in a 50-year-old common garden experiment. Journal of Forestry 106 (2): 83-90.
Online | Gscholar
Mason WL (2014)
Long-term development of nursing mixtures of Sitka spruce and larch species in an experiment in northern Scotland. Forest Systems 23 (3): 590-597.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Materna J (1989)
Air pollution and forestry in Czechoslovakia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 12 (3): 227-235.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Matsushima M, Choi WJ, Chang SX (2012)
White spruce foliar δ13C and δ15N indicate changed soil N availability by understory removal and N fertilization in a 13-year-old boreal plantation. Plant and Soil 361: 375-384.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mehlich A (1984)
Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: a modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 15: 1409-1416.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mellert KH, Göttlein A (2012)
Comparison of new foliar nutrient thresholds derived from van den Burg’s literature compilation with established central European references. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 1461-1472.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mellert KH, Prietzel J, Straussberger R, Rehfuess KE (2004)
Long-term nutritional trends of conifer stands in Europe: results from the RECOGNITION project. European Journal of Forest Research 123: 305-319.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nárovec V, Šach F (1994)
Meliorace lesních pud pomocí bazických silikátových hornin [Amelioration of forest soils by means of silicate rock meals]. Reports of Forestry Research - Zprávy lesnického výzkumu 39 (3): 17-20. [in Czech]
Nemeček J, Macku J, Vokoun J, Vavríček D, Novák P (2001)
Taxonomický klasifikační systém pud Ceské republiky [Taxonomic soil classification system of the Czech Republic]. CZU and VÚMOP, Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 78. [in Czech]
Nitschke CR, Waeber PO, Klaassen JW, Dordel J, Innes JL, Aponte C (2017)
Nutrient uptake and use efficiency in co-occurring plants along a disturbance and nutrient availability gradient in the boreal forests of the southwest Yukon, Canada. Journal of Vegetation Science 28: 69-81.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Novotny R, Lomský B, Srámek V (2013)
The health and nutritional status of Norway spruce stands in the Krušné hory Mts. 15 years subsequent to the extreme winter of 1995/96. Journal of Forest Science 59 (9): 359-369.
Online | Gscholar
Novotny R, Buriánek V, Hunová I, Skorepová I, Zapletal M, Lomský B (2017)
Nitrogen deposition and its impact on forest ecosystems in the Czech Republic - change in soil chemistry and ground vegetation. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry 10 (1): 48-54.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Oulehle F, Evans CD, Hofmeister J, Krejci R, Tahovska K, Persson T, Cudlin P, Hruska J (2011)
Major changes in forest carbon and nitrogen cycling caused by declining sulphur deposition. Global Change Biology 17: 3115-3129.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Perry DA, Oren R, Hart SC (1995)
Forest ecosystems. John Hopkins University Press, London, UK, pp. 632.
Power H, Schneider R, Berninger F (2014)
Understanding changes in black (Picea mariana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) foliage biomass and leaf area characteristics. Trees 28: 345-357.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Prescott CE, Vesterdal L, Pratt J, Venner KH, De Montigny LM, Trofymov JA (2000)
Nutrient concentrations and nitrogen mineralization in forest floors of single species conifer plantations in coastal British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30 (9): 1341-1352.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Preston CM, Bhatti JS, Norris CE (2014)
Chemical quality of aboveground litter inputs for jack pine and black spruce stands along the Canadian Boreal Forest Transect Case Study. Écoscience 21 (3-4): 202-216.
CrossRef | Gscholar
R Core Team (2017)
R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Online | Gscholar
Rautio P, Fürst A, Stefan K, Raitio H, Bartels U (2016)
Part XII: Sampling and analysis of needles and leaves. In: “Manual on Methods and Criteria for Harmonized Sampling, Assessment, Monitoring and Analysis of the Effects of Air Pollution on Forests” (UNECE ICP Forests Programme Co-ordinating Centre ed). Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, Eberswalde, Germany, pp. 19.
Online | Gscholar
Ribbons RR, Levy-Booth DJ, Masse J, Grayston SJ, McDonald MA, Vesterdal L, Prescott CE (2016)
Linking microbial communities, functional genes and nitrogen-cycling processes in forest floors under four tree species. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 103: 181-191.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sánka M, Materna J (2004)
Indikátory kvality zemedelských a lesních pud CR [Quality indicators of the agriculture and forest soils of the Czech Republic]. Ministerstvo životního prostredí, Praha, Czech Republic, pp. 84. [in Czech]
Slodičák M, Balcar V, Bednárová E, Boruvka L, Fadrhonsová V, Jurásek A, Hadaš P, Kacálek D, Kantor P, Kulasová A, Kulhavy J, Leube F, Lomský B, Matejka K, Mauer O, Navrátil P, Nárovec V, Novák J, Ostrovsky J, Palátová E, Podrázsky V, Rychnovská A, Ričár L, Skorupski M, Smejkal J, Souček J, Stoklasa M, Vacek S (2009)
Lesnické hospodarení v Jizerských horách [Forestry management in the Jizerské hory Mts. ]. Lesnická práce, Kostelec nad ÄŒernými lesy, Czech Republic, pp. 232. [in Czech]
Slodičák M, Balcar V, Novák J, Boruvka L, Derco D, Detu E, Fadrhonsová V, Fiala P, Hadaš P, Hajnala M, Havránek F, Hellebrandová K, Humplík J, Hynek V, Jarsky V, Jurásek A, Kacálek D, Kanák J, Kmínek A, Kobliha J, Kula E, Kulhavy J, Lachmanová Z, Lehner J, Lehnerová L, Lehečka J, Leugner J, Lomský B, Martincová J, Matejka K, Mauer O, Menšík L, Mutínsky V, Nárovcová J, Nárovec V, Navrátil P, Novotny R, Novy L, Penička L, Pospíšil J, Pulkrab K, Skoblík J, Sloup M, Smejkal J, Sychrava J, Vortelová L, Vyslyšel K (2008)
Lesnické hospodarení v Krušných horách. [Forestry management in the Krušné hory Mts.]. LCR s.p., Hradec Králové, Czech Republic, pp. 480. [in Czech]
Srámek V, Lomský B, Novotný R (2009)
Hodnocení obsahu a zásoby živin v lesních porostech - literární prehled. [Content of nutrients in forest stands - review]. Reports of Forestry Research - Zprávy lesnického výzkumu 51 (4): 307-315. [in Czech]
Thomas KD, Prescott CE (2000)
Nitrogen availability in forest floors of three tree species on the same site: the role of litter quality. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30 (11): 1698-1706.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Vu VQ (2011)
Ggbiplot. A tool for visualizing the results of PCA. Software, Web site.
Online | Gscholar
Zbíral J (2001)
Porovnání extrakčních postupu pro stanovení základních živin v pudách CR. [Comparison of the extraction methods for assessment of the basic nutrients in soils of the Czech Republic]. ÚKZÚZ, Brno, Czech Republic, pp. 205. [in Czech]

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info