iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Indicators for the assessment and certification of cork oak management sustainability in Italy

Martina Pollastrini (1-2)   , Ugo Chiavetta (1), Andrea Cutini (1), Antonio Casula (3), Sara Maltoni (3), Sandro Dettori (4), Piermaria Corona (1)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 668-674 (2018)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2587-011
Published: Oct 04, 2018 - Copyright © 2018 SISEF

Research Articles

Collection/Special Issue: INCOTW - Sassari, Italy (2017)
International Congress on Cork Oak Trees and Woodlands
Guest Editors: Piermaria Corona, Sandro Dettori

Sustainable forest management (SFM) is crucial for forest ecosystem productivity and conservation, especially in systems such as cork oak (Quercus suber L.) threatened by human activities and biotic and abiotic factors. In this study SFM indicators with particular reference to cork oak forests in the region of Sardinia (Italy) are proposed and tested. Sustainable and responsible management options specifically aimed at cork oak forest management and chain of custody certification are also provided. A set of ten indicators was proposed and assessed by an expert panel in cork oak management. Five indicators were also tested against data on structure, origin, health condition and management in 285 forest compartments managed by FoReSTAS (Regional Forest Agency for Land and Environment of Sardinia, Italy), including 361 sampling plots and 5345 trees. In order to investigate the priorities and perceptions of SFM experts and stakeholders, a survey was also carried out by completion of a questionnaire on the technical issues of cork oak woodland management. The survey results highlighted a need to improve environmental and economic performance by means of SFM and certification. The indicators tested in Sardinian cork oak woodlands showed that about 80% of the stands fulfilled management sustainability requirements. The suggested SFM indicators can effectively support proactive management and conservation measures, representing a valuable tool in the current context of growing environmental and socioeconomic awareness.


Quercus suber, Sustainable Forest Management, Forest Management Planning, Non-wood Forest Products, Sardinia, Italy

Authors’ address

Martina Pollastrini
Ugo Chiavetta
Andrea Cutini
Piermaria Corona
CREA, Research Centre for Forestry and Wood, v.le Santa Margherita 80, I-52100, Arezzo (Italy)
Martina Pollastrini
Università degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Agroalimentari e dell’Ambiente, p.le delle Cascine 28, I-50144 Firenze (Italy)
Antonio Casula
Sara Maltoni
Agenzia Forestale Regionale per lo Sviluppo del Territorio e dell’Ambiente della Sardegna (FoReSTAS), v.le Merello 86, I-09123 Cagliari (Italy)
Sandro Dettori
Università degli Studi di Sassari, Dipartimento Scienza della Natura e del Territorio, v. De Nicola, I-07100 Sassari (Italy)

Corresponding author

Martina Pollastrini


Pollastrini M, Chiavetta U, Cutini A, Casula A, Maltoni S, Dettori S, Corona P (2018). Indicators for the assessment and certification of cork oak management sustainability in Italy. iForest 11: 668-674. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2587-011

Academic Editor

Marco Borghetti

Paper history

Received: Aug 07, 2017
Accepted: Aug 27, 2018

First online: Oct 04, 2018
Publication Date: Oct 31, 2018
Publication Time: 1.27 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 17085
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 13031
Abstract Page Views: 1038
PDF Downloads: 2286
Citation/Reference Downloads: 8
XML Downloads: 722

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2120
Overall contacts: 17085
Avg. contacts per week: 56.41

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

Total number of cites (since 2018): 3
Average cites per year: 1.00


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Acácio V, Holmgren M (2014)
Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems. Annals of Forest Science 71: 5-13.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Agnoletti M, Agrimi MG, Barbati A, Barbera G, Bovio G, Casanova P, Chirici G, Ciancio O, Corona P, Cullotta S, Dettori S, Di Massimo G, Ferrari E, Filigheddu MR, Garfì V, Hermanin L, Iovino F, La Mantia T, La Mela Veca DS, Marchetti M, Maltoni A, Mariotti B, Masci A, Memoli A, Menguzzato G, Nocentini S, Pettenella D, Pizzurro G, Portoghesi L, Scarascia Mugnozza G, Scotti R, Secco L, Sedda L, Tani A, Veltri A (2004)
Standard di buona gestione forestale per i boschi Appenninici e Mediterranei (SAM) [Forest management standards for the Appenine and Mediterranean forests]. Accademia di Scienze Forestali, Firenze, pp. 23. [in Italian]
APCOR (2015)
Cork - environmental importance. Cork Information Bureau, Portuguese Cork Association (APCOR), Santa Maria de Lamas, Portugal, pp. 3-13.
Aronson J, Pereira JS, Pausas JG (2009)
Cork oak woodlands on the edge. In: “Ecology, Adaptive Management, and Restoration” (Aronson J, Pereira JS, Pausas JG eds). Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 11-17.
Arosa ML, Bastos R, Cabral JA, Freitas H, Costa SR, Santos M (2017)
Long-term sustainability of cork oak agro-forests in the Iberian peninsula: a model-based approach aimed at supporting the best management options of the montado conservation. Ecological Modelling 343: 68-79.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Barberis A, Dettori S, Filigheddu MR (2003)
Management problems in Mediterranean cork oak forests: post fire recovery. Journal of Arid Environments 54 (3): 565-569.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Branco M, Ramos AP (2009)
Coping with pest and diseases. In: “Ecology, Adaptive Management, and Restoration” (Aronson J, Pereira JS, Pausas JG eds). Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 103-111.
Brunori A, Dini F, Noriega AB, Salazar P (2017)
PEFC certification, sustainable cork production with marketing appeal. In: Proceedings of the “International Congress on Cork Oak Trees and Woodlands. Conservation, Management, Products and Challenge for the Future” (Dettori S, Filigheddu MR, Cillara M eds). Sassari (Italy) 25-26 May 2017, Abstract book, pp. 71.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bugalho M, Plieniinger T, Aronson J, Ellatifi M, Gomes Crespo D (2009)
Open woodlands: a diversity of uses (and overuses). In: “Ecology, Adaptive Management, and Restoration” (Aronson J, Pereira JS, Pausas JG eds). Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 33-45.
Bugalho MN, Caldeira MC, Pereira JS, Aronson J, Pausas JG (2011)
Mediterranean cork oak savannas require human use to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 9 (5): 278-286.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Camilo-Alves C, Da Clara M, De Almeida Ribeiro N (2013)
Decline of Mediterranean oak trees and its association with Phytophtora cinnamomi: a review. European Journal of Forest Research 132: 411-432.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Catry FX, Moreira F, Pausas JG, Fernandes PM, Rego F, Cardilo E, Curt T (2012)
Cork oak vulnerability to fire: the role of bark harvesting, tree characteristics and abiotic factors. PLoS One 7 (6): e39810.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cañellas I, Montero G (2002)
The influence of cork oak pruning on the yield and growth of cork. Annals of Forest Science 59: 753-760.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Corona P, Ascoli D, Barbati A, Bovio G, Colangelo G, Elia M, Garfì V, Iovino F, Lafortezza R, Leone V, Lovreglio R, Marchetti M, Marchi E, Menguzzato G, Nocentini S, Picchio R, Portoghesi L, Puletti N, Sanesi G, Chianucci F (2015)
Integrated forest management to prevent wildfires under Mediterranean environments. Annals of Silvicultural Research 39: 1-22.
Online | Gscholar
Costa A, Pereira H (2010)
Influence of cutting direction of cork planks on the quality and porosity characteristics of natural cork stoppers. Forest Systems 19: 51-60.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Costa A, Barbosa I, Roussado C, Graa J, Spiecker H (2016)
Climate response of cork growth in the Mediterranean oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands of southwestern Portugal. Dendrochronologia 38: 72-81.
CrossRef | Gscholar
CPF (2014)
Cork oak forests. Forest typologies and management models. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament d’Agricultura, Ramadeira, Pesca, Alimentació i Medi Natural - Centre de la Propietat Forestal, Lleida, Spain, pp. 5-39.
Dalla Vecchia I, Pettenella D (2017)
Cork oak certification in the Mediterranean basin: state of the art and market trends. In: Proceedings of the “International Congress on Cork Oak Trees and Woodlands. Conservation, Management, Products and Challenge for the Future” (Dettori S, Filigheddu MR, Cillara M eds). Sassari (Italy) 25-26 May 2017.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dettori S, Filigheddu MR, Gutierrez M (2001)
La gestione delle sugherete. La coltivazione della quercia da sughero [Cork oak management. Plantation of cork oak]. In: “Nuove metodologie per la gestione sostenibile dei sistemi forestali complessi nell’Italia meridionale” [New methodologies for the sustainable management of forest systems in southern Italy]. Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali, Firenze, pp. 95-110. [in Italian]
DGRF (2005)
Código International de praticas subericolas. [International code of the cork oak practice]. Interreg III A Cooperación Transfrontaliza Espana-Portugal, Fondo Europeo de Desarollo Regional Iniciativa Comunitaria Interregg III, Evora, Portugal, pp. 1-13. [in Portuguese]
European Commission (2013)
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament. The Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and The Committee of the Regions, 20 September 2013.
FSC Portugal (2012)
FSC standards for forest management for Portugal. FSC-STD-PRT-01-2012, Portugal plantation and Natural EN, Associação para uma Gestão Florestal Responsável (AGFR), Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 44-64.
INFC (2007)
Le stime di superficie 2005 - Prima Parte [Estimation of Italian forest area 2005 - First Part] (Tabacchi G, De Natale F, Di Cosmo L, Floris A, Gagliano C, Gasperini P, Genchi G, Scrinzi G, Tosi V eds). Inventario Nazionale delle Foreste e dei Serbatoi Forestali di Carbonio. MiPAF - Corpo Forestale dello Stato - Ispettorato Generale, CRA - ISAFA, Trento, Italy, web site [in Italian]
Online | Gscholar
Mancini D, Barbati A, Corona P (2017)
Geospatial analysis of woodland fire occurrence and recurrence in Italy. Annals of Silvicultural Research 41: 41-47.
CrossRef | Gscholar
MCPF (1993)
General guidelines for the sustainable management of forest in Europe. Resolution H1, Second Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe, 16-17 June 1993, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 2-5.
Moricca S, Linaldeddu B, Ginetti B, Scanu B, Franceschini A, Ragazzi A (2016)
Endemic and emerging pathogens threating cork oak trees: management options for conserving a unique forest ecosystem. Plant Disease 100 (11): 2184-2193.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Oliveira G, Costa A (2012)
How resilient is Quercus suber L. to cork harvesting? A review and identification of knowledge gaps. Forest Ecology and Management 270: 257-272.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Oliveira V, Lauw A, Pereira H (2016)
Sensitivity of cork growth to drought events: insights from a 24-years chronology. Climatic Change 137: 261-274.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Palahi M, Mavsar R, Gracia C, Birot Y (2008)
Mediterranean forests under focus. The International Forestry Review 10 (4): 676-688.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Palma JHN, Paulo JA, Faias SP, Garcia-Gonzalo J, Borges JG, Tomé M (2015)
Adaptive management and debarking schedule optimization of Quercus suber L. stands under climate change. Case study in Chamusca, Portugal. Regional Environmental Change 15: 1569-1580.
CrossRef | Gscholar
PEFC Italy (2015)
Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management certification on an individual and group scale. PEFC ITA 1001-1, Italy, pp. 28.
Online | Gscholar
Pizzurro G, Maetzke F, La Mela Veca D (2010)
Differences of raw cork quality in productive cork oak woods in Sicily in relation to stand density. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 923-929.
CrossRef | Gscholar
RAS (1994)
Legge regionale 9 Febbraio 1994, n. 4 della Regione Autonoma della Sardegna, Disciplina e provvidenze a favore della sughericoltura e modifiche alla legge regionale 9 Giugno 1989 n. 37 “Disciplina e provvidenze a favore della sughericoltura e dell’industria sughericola” [Regional law 4 of 9 February 1994, Guidelines for cork oak plantation and changes of regional law n. 37 of 9 of June 1989 “Guidelines for cork oak plantation and cork oak sector”]. Regione Autonoma della Sardegna, Cagliari, Italy. [in Italian]
RAS (2008)
Carta di uso del suolo in scala 1:25000 [Land use map at scale 1.25000]. Regione Autonoma della Sardegna, Cagliari, Italy. [in Italian]
Online | Gscholar
Ricotta C, Di Vito S (2014)
Modeling the landscape drivers of fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy). Environmental Management 53 (6): 1077-1084.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ruju S (2002)
Il peso del sughero. Storia e memorie dell’industria sugheriera in Sardegna (1830-2000) [Cork oak’s weight. History and memories of cork oak sector in Sardinia (1830-2000)]. Stazione Sperimentale del Sughero, Sassari, Italy, pp. 100-102. [in Italian]
Salis M, Arca B, Alcasena-Urdiroz F, Bacciu V, Massaiu A, Bosseur F, Caramelle P, Molina-Terren D, Santoni PA, Vega-Garcia C, Spano D, Duce P (2017)
Recent dynamics of wildfires in Quercus suber L. woodlands in Sardinia, Corsica and Catalonia. In: Proceedings of the “International Congress on Cork Oak Trees and Woodlands. Conservation, Management, Products and Challenge for the Future” (Dettori S, Filigheddu MR, Cillara M eds). Sassari (Italy) 25-26 May 2017, Abstract book, pp. 59.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sedda L, Delogu G, Dettori S (2011)
Forty-four years of land use changes in a Sardinian cork oak agro-silvopastoral system: a qualitative analysis. The Open Forest Science Journal 4: 57-66.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sirca C, Filigheddu MR, Zucca GM, Cillara M, Bacciu A, Bosu S, Dettori S (2015)
Long-term researches on post fire recovery techniques of cork oak stands. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Silviculture “Designing the Future of the Forestry Sector”. Firenze (Italy) 26-29 Nov 2014. Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali, Firenze, Italy, vol. 1, pp. 491-496.
Vallejo RV, Aronson J, Pausas JG, Pereira JS, Fontaine C (2009)
The way forward. In: “Ecology, Adaptive Management, and Restoration” (Aronson J, Pereira JS, Pausas JG eds). Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 235-242.

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info