iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Feasibility study of near infrared spectroscopy to detect yellow stain on cork granulate

David Pérez-Terrazas (1)   , José Ramón González-Adrados (2), Mariola Sánchez-González (1)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 111-117 (2018)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2563-010
Published: Jan 31, 2018 - Copyright © 2018 SISEF

Research Articles

Collection/Special Issue: INCOTW - Sassari, Italy (2017)
International Congress on Cork Oak Trees and Woodlands
Guest Editors: Piermaria Corona, Sandro Dettori

The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the anomaly known as yellow stain on cork granulate. Detecting this anomaly is crucial to the cork granulate stopper industry, since it is associated with the presence of 2.4.6-Trichloroanisole (TCA), this compound having been identified as the main agent responsible for cork off-flavours. Samples for the NIRS spectra were prepared by mixing in different proportions cork granulate with high visual quality and cork granulate with yellow stain, obtaining 120 samples with 8 different percentages of yellow stain (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35, 50 and 100%). Two spectra per sample were collected using a Bruker MPA spectrophotometer and the partial least squares (PLS) method was used to obtain numerous equations. The best equation was obtained by utilizing the standard normal variate (SNV) spectral preprocessing, making use of only one specific part of the near infrared spectral range: 9400-4250 cm-1. This equation shows a coefficient of determination (R²) of 99.42%, a root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.34%, and a residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 13.10. The critical level and the limit of detection are 3.8% and 7.6%, respectively. The calculated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show great discrimination capacity and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is higher than 0.93 in any case. This study demonstrates that NIRS provides a viable technique for detecting yellow stain in cork granulate.


Cork, Granulate, Yellow Stain, 2.4.6-Trichloroanisole, TCA, Near Infrared Spectroscopy, NIRS

Authors’ address

David Pérez-Terrazas
Mariola Sánchez-González
INIA-CIFOR, Ctra. de La Coruña km 7.5, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
José Ramón González-Adrados
MONTES (School of Forest Engineering and Natural Environment), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/ José Antonio Novais s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

Corresponding author

David Pérez-Terrazas


Pérez-Terrazas D, González-Adrados JR, Sánchez-González M (2018). Feasibility study of near infrared spectroscopy to detect yellow stain on cork granulate. iForest 11: 111-117. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2563-010

Academic Editor

Piermaria Corona

Paper history

Received: Jul 25, 2017
Accepted: Dec 12, 2017

First online: Jan 31, 2018
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2018
Publication Time: 1.67 months

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