iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Wood modification technologies - a review

Dick Sandberg (1)   , Andreja Kutnar (2-3), George Mantanis (4)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 6, Pages 895-908 (2017)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2380-010
Published: Dec 01, 2017 - Copyright © 2017 SISEF

Review Papers

Collection/Special Issue: COST action FP1407
Understanding wood modification through an integrated scientific and environmental impact approach
Guest Editors: Giacomo Goli, Andreja Kutnar, Dennis Jones, Dick Sandberg

The market for new durable products of modified wood has increased substantially during the last few years, especially in Europe. This increased interest depends partly on the restricted use of toxic preservatives due to increased environmental concern, as well as the need for reduced maintenance for wood products that are mainly for exterior use. Furthermore, as sustainability becomes a greater concern, the environmental impact of construction and interior materials should be included in planning by considering the entire life cycle and embodied energy of the materials used. As a result, wood modification has been implemented to improve the intrinsic properties of wood, widen the range of sawn timber applications, and acquire the form and functionality desired by engineers, without bringing environmental friendliness into question. The different wood modification processes are at various stages of development, and the challenges that must be overcome to expand to industrial applications differ amongst them. In this paper, three groups of wood modification processes are discussed and exemplified with modified wood products that have been newly introduced to the market: (i) chemical processing (acetylation, furfurylation, resin impregnation etc.); (ii) thermo-hydro processing (thermal treatment); and (iii) thermo-hydro-mechanical processing (surface densification). Building on these examples, the paper will discuss the environmental impact assessment of modification processes and further development needs.


Chemical Treatments, Thermo-hydro-mechanical, LCA, Acetylation, Furfurylation, Resin Impregnation, Environmental Impacts, Densification

Authors’ address

Dick Sandberg
Luleå University of Technology, Wood Science and Engineering, SE-931 87 Skellefteå (Sweden)
Andreja Kutnar
University of Primorska, Andrej Marušič Institute, Muzejski trg 2, SI-6000 Koper (Slovenia)
Andreja Kutnar
InnoRenew CoE, Livade 6, SI-6310 Izola (Slovenia)
George Mantanis
TEI of Thessaly, Research Lab of Wood Science and Technology, Griva 11, GR-43100 Karditsa (Greece)

Corresponding author

Dick Sandberg


Sandberg D, Kutnar A, Mantanis G (2017). Wood modification technologies - a review. iForest 10: 895-908. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2380-010

Academic Editor

Giacomo Goli

Paper history

Received: Jan 30, 2017
Accepted: Aug 13, 2017

First online: Dec 01, 2017
Publication Date: Dec 31, 2017
Publication Time: 3.67 months

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