iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Life cycle assessment of tannin extraction from spruce bark

Tianran Ding (1-3), Sauro Bianchi (2), Christelle Ganne-Chédeville (2), Petri Kilpeläinen (1), Antti Haapala (3), Tarmo Räty (1)   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 807-814 (2017)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2342-010
Published: Sep 25, 2017 - Copyright © 2017 SISEF

Research Articles

Collection/Special Issue: COST action FP1407
Understanding wood modification through an integrated scientific and environmental impact approach
Guest Editors: Giacomo Goli, Andreja Kutnar, Dennis Jones, Dick Sandberg

Tannins have shown antifungal effects and have been considered a potential natural compound for wood preservation. Extracts produced from softwood bark contain both tannins and non-tannin compounds, which may reduce the effectiveness of tannin used as a wood preservative. The purpose of this research is to study the environmental impact of hot water extraction, identify the hot spots within the tannin cradle-to-gate life cycle and give suggestions to optimize its environmental profile. Different extraction and post-extraction scenarios of tannin production are compared using the life-cycle assessment method. Experiments were designed to study the tannin yield under different extraction scenarios; the post-extraction scenario analysis was based on literature review. The results show that the extract drying process is the primary contributor to the environmental impact of tannin production. Both preliminary cold water extraction and ultrafiltration after extraction are beneficial as they have fewer non-tannin compounds in the final products; however, preliminary cold water extraction had a considerably lower environmental performance. Successive extractions using fresh water at each cycle increased the total tannin yield, but increased the environmental burden. Using only evaporation to obtain a desired tannin concentration is not environmentally efficient. This paper provides a quantified environmental analysis for the development of tannin-treated wood products and discusses the different tannin extraction scenarios from an environmental point of view.


LCA, Tannin, Spruce Bark, Hot Water Extraction, Evaporation, Spray Drying, Ultrafiltration, Preservative

Authors’ address

Tianran Ding
Petri Kilpeläinen
Tarmo Räty
Natural Resources Institute Finland - Luke, Helsinki (Finland)
Sauro Bianchi
Christelle Ganne-Chédeville
Bern University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Materials and Wood Technology, Biel (Switzerland)
Tianran Ding
Antti Haapala
University of Eastern Finland, School of Forestry, PO Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland)

Corresponding author

Tarmo Räty


Ding T, Bianchi S, Ganne-Chédeville C, Kilpeläinen P, Haapala A, Räty T (2017). Life cycle assessment of tannin extraction from spruce bark. iForest 10: 807-814. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2342-010

Academic Editor

Giacomo Goli

Paper history

Received: Jan 02, 2017
Accepted: Jun 13, 2017

First online: Sep 25, 2017
Publication Date: Oct 31, 2017
Publication Time: 3.47 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 20419
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 14243
Abstract Page Views: 1119
PDF Downloads: 4079
Citation/Reference Downloads: 21
XML Downloads: 957

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2434
Overall contacts: 20419
Avg. contacts per week: 58.72

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

Total number of cites (since 2017): 9
Average cites per year: 2.25


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Anttila AK, Pirttilä AM, Häggman H, Harju A, Venäläinen M, Haapala A, Holmbom B, Julkunen-Tiito R (2013)
Condensed conifer tannins as antifungal agents in liquid culture. Journal of Holzforschung 67 (7): 825-832.
Online | Gscholar
Bahnasawy AH, Shenana ME (2010)
Flux behaviour and energy consumption of ultrafiltration (UF) process of milk. Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering 1 (2): 54-65.
Berg S, Karjalainen T (2003)
Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from forest operations in Finland and Sweden. Forestry 76 (3): 271-284.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bianchi S, Kroslakova I, Janzon R, Mayer I, Saake B, Pichelin F (2015)
Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species. Phytochemistry 120: 53-61.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bianchi S, Koch G, Janzon R, Mayer I, Saake B, Pichelin F (2016)
Hot water extraction of Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]) bark: analyses of the influence of bark aging and the process parameters on the extract composition. Holzforschung 70 (7): 619-631.
CrossRef | Gscholar
CML-IA (2016)
CML-IA characterisation factors. Center of Environmental Science, Department of Industrial Ecology, Leiden University, The Netherlands.
Online | Gscholar
EN-15804 (2014)
Sustainability of construction works. Environmental product declarations. Core rules for the product category of construction products. SFS-EN 15804 + A1, Finnish Standards Association, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 97.
Foelkel C (2008)
Eucalyptus and leguminosae, Part 01: Acacia mearnsii. Eucalyptus Online Book and Newsletter 14 (2008): 13.
Frühwald A, Wegener G, Scharai-Rad M, Zimmer B, Hasch J (1996)
Grundlagen für Ökoprofile und Ökobilanzen in der Forst- und Holzwirtschaft [Introduction to Ecoprofiles and Life Cycle Assessment in Forestry and Timber Management]. Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, Hamburg, pp. 168. [in German]
González Laredo RF (1996)
Preservación de madera con taninos [Preservation of wood with tannins]. Madera y Bosques 2 (2): 67-73. [in Spanish]
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gravelsins RJ (1998)
Studies of grinding of wood and bark-wood mixtures with the szego mill. PhD thesis, University of Toronto, Canada, pp. 182.
ISO-14040 (2006)
Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and framework. International Organisation for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 20.
ISO-14044 (2006)
Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines. International Organisation for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 46.
Karjalainen T, Asikainen A (1996)
Greenhouse gas emissions from the use of primary energy in forest operations and long-distance transportation of timber in Finland Forestry. Forestry 69 (3): 215-228.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kemppainen K, Siika-Aho M, Pattathil S, Giovando S, Kruus K (2014)
Spruce bark as an industrial source of condensed tannins and non-cellulosic sugars. Industrial Crops and Products 52: 158-168.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Liibert L, Treu A, Meier P (2011)
The fixation of new alternative wood protection systems by means of oil treatment. Material Science (Medžiagotyra) 17 (4): 402-406.
Online | Gscholar
Lu J, Venäläinen M, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Harju AM (2016)
Stilbene impregnation retards brown-rot decay of scots pine sapwood. Holzforschung 70 (3): 261-266.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nawas H, Shi J, Mittal GS, Kakuda Y (2006)
Extraction of polyphenols from grape seeds and concentration by ultrafiltration. Separation and Purification Technology 48: 176-181.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pearce RB (1996)
Antimicrobial defences in the wood of living trees (Tansley review no. 87). New Phytology 132: 203-233.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pinto PCR, Mota IF, Loureiro JM, Rodrigues AE (2014)
Membrane performance and application of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration to ethanol/water extract of Eucalyptus bark. Separation and Purification Technology 132: 234-243.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pizzi A (2008)
Tannins: major resources, properties and applications. In: “Monomers, Polymers and Composites from Renewable Sources” (Belgacem MN, Gandini A eds). Elsevier, Oxford, UK, pp. 179-199.
Online | Gscholar
Plaza M, Turner C (2015)
Pressurized hot water extraction of bioactives. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 71: 39-54.
CrossRef | Gscholar
PRé Consultants (2011)
SimaPro. Web Site.
Online | Gscholar
Rodríguez-Meizoso I, Castro-Puyana M, Börjesson P, Mendiola JA, Turner C, Ibáñez E (2012)
Life cycle assessment of green pilot-scale extraction processes to obtain potent antioxidants from rosemary leaves. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 72: 205-212.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Roffael E, Dix B (1994)
Tannine als Bindemittel für Holzwerkstoffe [Tannins as binders for wood materials]. Holz-Zentralblatt 120 (6): 90-93. [in German]
Stather F (1957)
Gerbereichemie und Gerbereitechnologie [Tannin Chemistry and Tannin Technology] (3rd edn). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 948. [in German]
Statistics Finland (2014)
Supply of electricity by energy source. Web Site.
Online | Gscholar
Statistics Finland (2016)
Energy prices in heat production, June 2016. Web site.
Online | Gscholar
Tascioglu C, Mesut Y, Selim S, Caglar A (2013)
Antifungal properties of some plant extracts used as wood preservatives. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 85 (3): 23-28.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Technical Research Centre of Finland (2015)
New products from bark to replace fossil compounds: adhesives and insulating foams from softwood bark tannins. VTT, Finland, Web site.
Online | Gscholar
Thévenon MF, Tondi G, Pizzi A (2009)
Environmental friendly wood preservative system based on polymerized tannin resin-boric acid for outdoor applications. Ciencia y Tecnologia 12 (3): 253-257.
Tondi G, Wieland S, Wimmer T, Thévenon MF (2012)
Tannin-boron preservatives for wood buildings: mechanical and fire properties. European Journal of Wood Products 70: 689-696.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Tondi G, Thévenon MF, Mies G, Standfest G, Petutschnigg A, Wieland S (2013)
Impregnation of Scots pine and beech with tannin solutions: effect of viscosity and wood anatomy in wood infiltration. Wood Science and Technology 47 (3): 615-626.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Turner C, Ibáñez E (2011)
Pressurized hot water extraction and processing. In: “Enhancing Extraction Processes in the Food Industry” (Lebovka N, Vorobiev E, Chemat F eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 223-254.
Turtola S, Manninen AM, Holopainen JK, Levula T, Raitio H, Kainulainen P (2002)
Secondary metabolite concentrations and terpene emissions of Scots pine xylem after long-terms forest fertilization. Journal of Environmental Quality 31: 1694-1701.
Online | Gscholar
Väisänen T, Haapala A, Lappalainen R, Tomppo L (2016)
Utilization of organic waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: a review. Waste Management 54: 62-73.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wang LJ (2008)
Concentration, dehydration, and drying. In: “Energy Efficiency and Management in Food Processing Facilities”. CRC press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 218.
Werner F, Richter K (2007)
Wooden building products in comparative LCA. Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 12 (7): 470-479.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wernet G, Bauer C, Steubing B, Reinhard J, Moreno-Ruiz E, Weidema B (2016)
The ecoinvent database version 3 (part I): overview and methodology. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 21 (9): 1218-1230.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info