iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Selection of optimal conversion path for willow biomass assisted by near infrared spectroscopy

Anna Sandak (1-2), Jakub Sandak (1-2)   , Boguslawa Waliszewska (3), Magdalena Zborowska (3), Miroslaw Mleczek (4)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 506-514 (2017)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1987-010
Published: Apr 20, 2017 - Copyright © 2017 SISEF

Research Articles

Willow (Salix sp.) is one of the most common hardwood species suitable for short-rotation coppice. It can be converted to different products, including chemicals, fuels, fibers or furniture. It may also be used in agriculture and environmental engineering. Molecular composition of biomass and its physical properties highly influence effectiveness of its chemical, thermo-chemical or mechanical-chemical conversion. Therefore, it is challenging to provide biomass feedstock with optimized properties, best suited for further downstream conversion. The goal of this research was to establish a procedure for determination of the willow biomass optimal use cultivated in four different plantations in Poland. A special attention has been paid to the application of the near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of biomass chemical composition and its physical properties. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) could be an alternative to standard analytical methods supporting the research and development of biomass production technologies. Partial least squares regression models for quantitative prediction of wood chemical components (lignin, cellulose, holocellulose, hemicellulose and extractives) and high heating values were developed. The residual prediction deviation (RPD) values confirm the applicability of chemometric models for screening in breeding programmes (for lignin, cellulose and extractives content) and for research in the case of high heating value. The analysis of NIR spectra highlighted several peculiarities in the chemical composition of the investigated willow clones. Finally, a knowledge-based expert system and a prototype automatic NIR system allowing the computation of a “suitability index” based on PLS models and dedicated to selection of optimal biomass conversion path, was developed.


Willows, NIR Spectroscopy, Optimal Conversion, Biomass Feedstock

Authors’ address

Anna Sandak
Jakub Sandak
CNR-IVALSA, Trees and Timber Institute, via Biasi 75, I-38010 San Michele all’Adige (Italy)
Anna Sandak
Jakub Sandak
University of Primorska, Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technology, Glagoljaška 8, 6000 Koper (Slovenia)
Boguslawa Waliszewska
Magdalena Zborowska
Poznan University of Life Sciences, Institute of Chemical Wood Technology, ul. Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznan (Poland)
Miroslaw Mleczek
Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry, ul. Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznan (Poland)

Corresponding author

Jakub Sandak


Sandak A, Sandak J, Waliszewska B, Zborowska M, Mleczek M (2017). Selection of optimal conversion path for willow biomass assisted by near infrared spectroscopy. iForest 10: 506-514. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1987-010

Academic Editor

Giorgio Alberti

Paper history

Received: Jan 18, 2016
Accepted: Feb 13, 2017

First online: Apr 20, 2017
Publication Date: Apr 30, 2017
Publication Time: 2.20 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 20067
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 15303
Abstract Page Views: 778
PDF Downloads: 2996
Citation/Reference Downloads: 24
XML Downloads: 966

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2596
Overall contacts: 20067
Avg. contacts per week: 54.11

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

(No citations were found up to date. Please come back later)


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Benetka V, Novotná K, Stochlová P (2014)
Biomass production of Populus nigra L. clones grown in short rotation coppice systems in three different environments over four rotations. iForest 7: 233-239.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Browning BL (1967)
The chemistry of wood. Interscience Publisher, New York, USA, pp. 407.
Everard CD, McDonnell KP, Fagan CC (2012)
Prediction of biomass gross calorific values using visible and near infrared spectroscopy. Biomass and Bioenergy 45: 203-211.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hanley SJ, Karp A (2014)
Genetic strategies for dissecting complex traits in biomass willows (Salix spp.). Tree Physiology 34 (11): 1167-80.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Holladay JE, White JF, Bozell JJ, Johnson D (2007)
Top value-added chemicals from biomass - Volume II. Results of screening for potential candidates from biorefinery lignin. PNNL-16983, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, pp89.
Online | Gscholar
Hou S, Li L (2011)
Rapid characterization of woody biomass digestibility and chemical composition using near-infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 53 (2): 166-75.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Jensen PD, Hartmann H, Bohm T, Temmerman M, Rabierc F, Morsing M (2006)
Moisture content determination in solid biofuels by dielectric and NIR reflection methods. Biomass and Bioenergy 30 (11): 935-943.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Karp A, Hanley SJ, Trybush SO, Macalpine W, Pei M, Shield I (2011)
Genetic improvement of willow for bioenergy and biofuels. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 53 (2): 151-165.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kelley SS, Rowell RM, Davis M, Jurich CK, Ibach R (2004)
Rapid analysis of the chemical composition of agricultural fibers using near infrared spectroscopy and pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry. Biomass and Bioenergy 27 (1): 77-88.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Krzyzniak M, Stolarski M, Waliszewska B, Szczukowski S, Tworkowski J, Zaluski D, Snieg M (2014)
Willow biomass as feedstock for an integrated multi-product biorefinery. Industrial Crops and Products 58: 230-237.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Manley M (2014)
Near-infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging: non-destructive analysis of biological materials. Chemical Society Reviews 43: 8200-8214.
CrossRef | Gscholar
PN-81/G-04513 (1981)
Paliwa stale Oznaczanie ciepla spalania i obliczanie wartosci opalowej [Solid fuels determination of gross calorific value and calculation of net calorific value]. Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny, Warsaw, Poland, pp. 11. [in Polish]
Pulford ID, Watson C (2003)
Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees - a review. Environment International 29 (4): 529-540.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Rascioa N, Navari-Izzob F (2011)
Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Science 180 (2): 169-181.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Rowe RL, Hanley ME, Goulson D, Clarke DJ, Doncaster CP, Taylor G (2011)
Potential benefits of commercial willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for farm-scale plant and invertebrate communities in the agri-environment. Biomass and Bioenergy 35 (1): 325-336.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Rowell RM, Han JS, Bisen SS (1997)
Changes in fiber properties during the growing season. In: “Paper and Composite from Agro-based Resources” (Rowell RM, Young RA, Rowell JK eds). Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton/New York/ London/Tokyo, pp. 23-37.
Sandak J, Sandak A (2011)
FT-NIR assessment of biomass composition of shrub willow clones (Salix sp.) for optimal bio-conversion process. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 19 (5): 309-318.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sandak J, Sandak A, Cantini C, Autino A (2015)
Differences in wood properties of Picea abies L. Karst. in relation to site of provenance and population genetics. Holzforshung 69 (4): 385-397.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Santoni I, Callone E, Sandak A, Sandak J, Dirè S (2015)
Solid state NMR and IR characterization of wood polymer structure in relation to tree provenance. Carbohydrate Polymers 117: 710-721.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Serapiglia MJ, Cameron KD, Stipanovic AJ, Abrahamson LP, Volk TA, Smart LB (2013)
Yield and woody biomass traits of novel shrub willow hybrids at two contrasting sites. Bioenergy Research 6 (2): 533-546.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Serapiglia MJ, Gouker FE, Hart JF, Unda F, Mansfield SD, Stipanovic AJ (2015)
Ploidy level affects important biomass traits of novel shrub willow (Salix) hybrids. Bioenergy Research 8: 259-269.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sinha S, Jhalani A, Ravi MR, Ray A (2000)
Modeling of pyrolysis in wood: a review. Journal of the Solar Energy Society of India 10 (1): 41-62.
Szczukowski S, Stolarski M, Tworkowski J, Przyborowski J, Klasa A (2005)
Productivity of willow coppice plants grown in short rotations. Plant, Soil and Environment 9: 423-430.
Online | Gscholar
Tanger P, Field JL, Jahn CE, DeFoort MW, Leach JE (2013)
Biomass for thermochemical conversion: targets and challenges. Frontiers in Plant Science 4 (218): 1-20.
CrossRef | Gscholar
TAPPI (2006)
Acid Insoluble lignin in wood and pulp. T 222 om-06. Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, New York, USA, pp. 5.
TAPPI (2008)
Solvent extractives of wood and pulp. T 207 cm-08. Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, New York, USA, pp 4.
Tognetti R, Cocozza C, Marchetti M (2013)
Shaping the multifunctional tree: the use of Salicaceae in environmental restoration. iForest 6: 37-47.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ye XP, Liu L, Hayes D, Womac A, Kunlun H, Sokhansanj S (2008)
Fast classification and compositional analysis of cornstover fractions using Fourier transform near-infrared techniques. Bioresource Technology 99 (15): 7323-7332.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info