iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Physical and mechanical properties of particleboards manufactured using charcoal as additives

Grzegorz Kowaluk   , Mateusz Zajac, Ewelina Czubak, Radoslaw Auriga

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 70-74 (2016)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1963-009
Published: Jun 29, 2016 - Copyright © 2016 SISEF

Research Articles

The objective of this work was to evaluate selected physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboards manufactured from pine and spruce with charcoal particles in their core layer. For all the manufactured boards the average density was 750 kg m-3, while the mass share of charcoal in the core layer was changed (0%, 10% and 50%). The manufactured panels were tested with respect to their mechanical and physical properties, including formaldehyde emission. The results indicated that the share of charcoal significantly influenced mechanical properties, swelling, and water relations of the boards. In addition, a test on formaldehyde emission from panels were carried out, which revealed that the charcoal share has a considerable impact on the amount of formaldehyde released by the manufactured boards. The 50% content of charcoal caused about 80% reduction of formaldehyde emission.


Charcoal, Particleboard, Filler, Bending, Formaldehyde, Emission

Authors’ address

Grzegorz Kowaluk
Mateusz Zajac
Ewelina Czubak
Radoslaw Auriga
Faculty of Wood Technology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska Str. 159, 02-776 Warsaw (Poland)

Corresponding author

Grzegorz Kowaluk


Kowaluk G, Zajac M, Czubak E, Auriga R (2016). Physical and mechanical properties of particleboards manufactured using charcoal as additives. iForest 10: 70-74. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1963-009

Academic Editor

Giacomo Goli

Paper history

Received: Dec 22, 2015
Accepted: Feb 29, 2016

First online: Jun 29, 2016
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2017
Publication Time: 4.03 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 20180
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 14703
Abstract Page Views: 712
PDF Downloads: 3890
Citation/Reference Downloads: 40
XML Downloads: 835

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2910
Overall contacts: 20180
Avg. contacts per week: 48.54

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

Total number of cites (since 2017): 1
Average cites per year: 0.25


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Akgül M, Ayrilmis N, Çamlibel O, Korkut S (2013)
Potential utilization of burned wood in manufacture of medium density fiberboard. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 15: 195-201.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Chen L, Gao Q, Zhang J, Chen H, Zhang S, Li J (2014)
Effects of assembly time on wet shear strength and formaldehyde emission of plywood bonded by urea formaldehyde resin. BioResources 9 (2): 2975-2986.
Online | Gscholar
Ding W, Li W, Gao Q, Han C, Zhang S, Li J (2013)
The effects of sealing treatment and wood species on formaldehyde emission of plywood. BioResources 8 (2): 2568-2582.
Online | Gscholar
EN310 (1994)
Wood-based panels. Determination of modulus of elasticity in bending and of bending strength. CEN, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 9.
Online | Gscholar
EN312 (2010)
Particleboards - Specifications. CEN, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 18.
Online | Gscholar
EN317 (1993)
Particleboards and fibreboards. Determination of swelling in thickness after immersion in water. CEN, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 7.
Online | Gscholar
EN319 (1993)
Particleboards and fibreboards. Determination of tensile strength perpendicular to the plane of the board. CEN, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 8.
Online | Gscholar
EN320 (2011)
Particleboards and fibreboards. Determination of resistance to axial withdrawal of screws. CEN, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 10.
Online | Gscholar
EN717-2 (1999)
Wood-based panels. Determination of formaldehyde release. Formaldehyde release by the gas analysis method. CEN, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, pp. 10.
Online | Gscholar
Huang J, Li C, Li K (2011)
A new soy flour-polyepoxide adhesive system for making interior plywood. Holzforschung 66 (4): 427-431.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kumar A, Gupta A, Sharma KV, Nasir M, Khan TA (2013)
Influence of activated charcoal as filler on the properties of wood composites. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 46: 34-39.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Li B, Zhang J, Ren XY, Chang JM, Gou JS (2014)
Preparation and characterization of bio-oil modified urea-formaldehyde wood adhesives. BioResources 9 (3): 5125-5133.
Online | Gscholar
Li X, Li J, Li J, Gao Q (2015)
Effect of sepiolite filler in melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin on the properties of three-ply plywood. BioResources 10 (4): 6624-6634.
Online | Gscholar
Luo J, Zhang J, Luo J, Li J, Gao Q (2015)
Effect of melamine allocation proportion on chemical structures and properties of melamine-urea-formaldehyde resins. BioResources 10 (2): 3265-3276.
Online | Gscholar
Myers GE, Koutsky JA (1990)
Formaldehyde liberation and cure behavior of urea-formaldehyde resins. Holzforschung 44 (2): 117-126.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Park CY, Choi CH, Lee JH, Kim S, Park KW, Cho JH (2013)
Evaluation of formaldehyde emissions and combustion behaviors of wood-based composites subjected to different surface finishing methods. BioResources 8 (4): 5515-5523.
Online | Gscholar
Shi Y, Chrusciel L, Zoulalian A (2007)
Production of charcoal from different wood species. Récents Progrès en Génie des Procédés, Numéro 96/2007, Ed. SFGP, Paris, France, pp. 9.
Online | Gscholar
Wang W, Zhao Z, Gao Z, Guo M (2012)
Water-resistant whey protein based wood adhesive modified by post-treated phenol-formaldehyde oligomers (PFO). BioResources 7 (2): 1972-1983.
Online | Gscholar
Zhang H, Zhang J, Song S, Wu G, Pu J (2011)
Modified nanocrystalline cellulose from two kinds of modifiers used for improving formaldehyde emission and bonding strength of urea-formaldehyde resin adhesive. BioResources 6 (4): 4430-4438.
Online | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info