iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Wind contribution to yearly silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) compression wood development in the Romanian Carpathians

Florin Dinulica, Viorela Marcu, Stelian Alexandru Borz, Maria-Magdalena Vasilescu, Ion Catalin Petritan   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 927-936 (2016)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1742-008
Published: Oct 02, 2016 - Copyright © 2016 SISEF

Research Articles

Since the 1950s, wind has represented one of the main disturbances to forest ecosystems in Europe, causing an increase in the frequency and amount of trees uprooted or broken by wind. Such phenomenon has also increased the incidence of compression wood in the xylem of remnant trees, thus leading to a general decrease in timber quality. In this study, we aimed to determine how wind regime affects the incidence of compression wood by reconstructing its chronology at both inter- and intra-annual scale using dendroclimatic methods. Six silver fir stands at different elevations were selected in central Romania, and compression wood time series were obtained from both increment cores from standing trees and radial discs from felled trees. Wood-structure variables were statistically analyzed as time series, while fluctuations of wind frequency and speed over the period 1921-present were reconstructed based on meteorological data. The structural response of sampled trees to wind was assessed based on the annual fluctuation in the frequency and intensity of compression wood. Results showed that the incidence of compression wood in the time series was synchronized with the intensity of the wind, rather than its duration. Wind regime in December of the preceding calendar year was significantly correlated with the frequency of compression wood, whereas its intensity was significantly correlated with wind load of previous September. The response of cambium to the wind stimulus increased with distance from the tree collar, peaking in the section at the base of the crown. At a decennial scale, only high-intensity wind stress triggered structural responses in the studied trees. Wind effects on xylogenesis in the analyzed stands increased over the last decades as a consequence of the local forest management. A better understanding of the structural response of forest trees to wind regime may explain how individual and groups of trees compete for stability and can help to improve forest management strategies in windy regions.


Reaction Wood, Wind Regime, Dendroclimatology, Silver Fir, Carpathian Mountains

Authors’ address

Florin Dinulica
Viorela Marcu
Stelian Alexandru Borz
Maria-Magdalena Vasilescu
Ion Catalin Petritan
Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Department of Forest Engineering, Forest Management and Terrestrial Measurements, Sirul Beethoven 1, 500123 Brasov (Romania)

Corresponding author

Ion Catalin Petritan


Dinulica F, Marcu V, Borz SA, Vasilescu M-M, Petritan IC (2016). Wind contribution to yearly silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) compression wood development in the Romanian Carpathians. iForest 9: 927-936. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1742-008

Academic Editor

Enrico Marchi

Paper history

Received: Jun 12, 2015
Accepted: Sep 14, 2016

First online: Oct 02, 2016
Publication Date: Dec 14, 2016
Publication Time: 0.60 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 20433
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 15746
Abstract Page Views: 815
PDF Downloads: 2732
Citation/Reference Downloads: 68
XML Downloads: 1072

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2755
Overall contacts: 20433
Avg. contacts per week: 51.92

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

Total number of cites (since 2016): 1
Average cites per year: 0.20


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Box GEP, Jenkins GM, Reinsel GR (2008)
Time series analysis: forecasting and control. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, pp. 784.
Butler DR, Sawyer CF (2008)
Dendrogeomorphology and high-magnitude snow avalanches: a review and case study. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 8: 303-309.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cherubini P, Piussi P, Schweingruber F (1996)
Spatiotemporal growth dynamics and disturbances in a subalpine spruce forest in the Alps: a dendroecological reconstruction. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 991-1001.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cook ER, Briffa K (1992)
Data analysis. In: “Methods of Dendrocronology” (Cook ER, Kairiukstis E eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, UK, pp. 97-162.
Cook ER, Pederson N (2011)
Uncertainty, emergence and statistics in dendrocronology. In: “Dendroclimatology. Progress and Prospects” (Hughes MK, Swetnam TS, Diaz HF eds). Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp.77-112.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Coutts MP (1983)
Root architecture and tree stability. Plant and Soil 71: 171-188.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cown DJ, Young GD, Burdon RD (1992)
Variation in wood characteristics of 20-year-old half-sib families of Pinus radiata. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science 22 (1): 63-76.
Online | Gscholar
Dinulica F (2005)
Cercetari privind incidenta lemnului de compresiune la brad [On the silver fir compression wood]. Proceedings of the Symposium “Forest and Sustainable Development”. Transilvania University Press, Brasov, Romania, pp. 317-322. [in Romanian]
Dinulica F (2008)
Cercetari privind factorii de influenta asupra formarii lemnului de compresiune la brad [Researches on the influencing factors on silver fir compression wood formation]. PhD Thesis, Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania, pp. 236. [in Romanian]
Dissescu R (1962)
Frecventa daunelor produse de vant si esalonarea masurilor amenajistice de protectie [The frequency of wind damage and planning of the protection measures]. Revista Padurilor 77 (10): 611-614. [in Romanian]
Du SH, Yamamoto F (2007)
An overview of the biology of reaction wood formation. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 49: 131-143.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Duncker P, Spiecker H (2005)
Compression wood formation and pith eccentricity in Picea abies L. depending on the selected site-factors: detection of compression wood by its spectral properties in reflected light. In: Proceedings of the DendroSymposium 2004 “TRACE - Tree Rings in Archaeology, Climatology and Ecology, Vol. 3” (Gärtner H, Esper J, Schleser G eds). Birmensdorf (Switzerland) 22-24 Apr 2004. Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich, Reihe Umwelt 53: 150-158.
Online | Gscholar
Duncker P, Spiecker H (2008)
Cross-sectional compression wood distribution and its relation to eccentric radial growth in Picea abies Karst. Dendrochronologia 26: 195-202.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Enoos AR (1999)
The aerodynamics and hydrodinamics of plants. Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 3281-3284.
EUCWP (2004)
Compression wood in conifers. The characterisation of its formation and its relevance to timber quality. QLK5-CT-2001-00177 Final report, pp. 379.
Online | Gscholar
Geiger R, Aron RH, Todhunter P (2003)
The climate near the ground. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc., Lanham Boulder, New York, USA, pp. 91-100.
Grissino-Mayer HD, Miller DL, Mora CI (2010)
Dendrotempestology and the isotropic record of tropical cyclones in tree rings of the Southeastern Unites States. In: “Tree Ring and Natural Hazards. A State-of-the-Art” (Stoffel M, Bollschweiler M, Butler DR, Luckman BH eds). Springer, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York, pp. 291-304.
Gruber A, Baumgartner D, Zimmermann J, Oberhuber W (2009)
Temporal dynamic of wood formation in Pinus cembra along the alpine treeline ecotone and the effect of climate variables. Trees 23: 623-635.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Harris JM (1977)
Shrinkage and density of radiata pine compression wood in relation to its anatomy and mode of formation. New Zeeland Journal of Forest Science 7 (1): 91-106.
Online | Gscholar
Helliwell R (2004)
Uneven-aged silviculture. In: “Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences” (Burley J, Evans J, Youngquist JA eds). Elsevier Ltd., Oxford, UK, pp. 1073-1077.
Kozlowski T, Pallardy SG (1997)
Growth control in woody plants. Academic Press, London, UK, pp. 383.
Online | Gscholar
Low AJ (1964)
A study of compression wood in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Forestry 37: 179-201.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lutgens FK, Tarbuck EJ (2013)
The atmosphere. An introduction to meteorology (12th edn). Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, pp. 528.
Macdonald E, Hubert J (2002)
A review of the effects of silviculture on timber quality of Sitka spruce. Forestry 75: 107-138.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Marcu M, Huber V, Chitea G (2006)
Cercetari privind distributia spatio-temporala a precipitatiilor în regiunile muntoase (Muntii Brasovului) [Researches on the spatio-temporal distribution of rainfall in the mountainous area (the mountains surrounding Brasov region)]. Silvologie 5: 190-205. [in Romanian]
Marcu-Huber V (2001)
Influenta reliefului muntos asupra circulatiei atmosferice în zona Carpatilor de Curbura [Mountainous ground influence on the air circulation in the Curvature Carpathians Region]. Revista de Silvicultura 6 (13-14): 22-26. [In Romanian]
Martin L, Leblanc-Fournier N, Azri W, Lenne C, Henry C, Coutand C, Julien JL (2009)
Characterization and expression analysis under bending and other abiotic factors of PtaZFP2, a poplar gene encoding a Cys2/His2 zinc finger protein. Tree Physiology 29: 125-136.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mihai E (1975)
Depresiunea Brasov. Studiu climatic [Brasov depression. Climatic study]. Romanian Academy Publishing House, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 209. [In Romanian]
Mori IC, Schroeder JI (2004)
Reactive oxygen species activation of plant Ca2+ channels. Signaling mechanisms in polar growth, hormone transduction, stress signaling, and hypothetically mechanotransduction. Plant Physiology 135: 702-708.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nicolescu NV (2014)
Silvicultura II: Silvotehnica. [Silviculture II: Forest operations]. Aldus Publishing House, Brasov, Romania, pp. 289. [in Romanian]
Panayotov M, Yurukov S (2005)
Dendroecological analysis of the influence of strong winds and snow accumulation on the growth of trees at the treeline in Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria. In: Proceedings of the DendroSymposium 2005 “TRACE - Tree Rings in Archaeology, Climatology and Ecology, Vol. 4” (Heinrich I, Gärtner H, Monbaron M, Schleser G eds). Fribourg (Switzerland) 21-23 Apr 2005. Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich, Reihe Umwelt 61: 165-174.
Online | Gscholar
Pillow MY (1931)
Compression wood records hurricane. Journal of Forestry 29: 575-578.
Online | Gscholar
Popa I (2007)
Managementul riscului la doboraturi produse de vant [Risk management at windthrow]. Tehnica Silvica Publishing House, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 33-47. [in Romanian]
Radi M, Castera P (1992)
Qualification de la forme de deux pin maritimes en liaison avec la structure de leur bois [Qualifying the shape of two maritime pine trees (Pinus pinaster) in connexion with their wood structure]. Annals of Forest Science 49: 185-200. [In French]
CrossRef | Gscholar
Read J, Stokes A (2006)
Plant biomechanics in a ecological context. American Journal of Botany 93: 1546-1565.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Robertson A (1990)
Directionality of compression wood in balsam fir wave forest trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20 (8): 1143-1148.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Schelhaas MJ, Nabuurs GJ, Schuck A (2003)
Natural disturbances in the European forests in the 19th and 20th centuries. Global Change Biology 9: 1620-1633.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Schweingruber FH (2007)
Wood structure and environment. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp. 279.
Online | Gscholar
Schütz JP (2004)
Stabilité au vent des hêtraies: les enseignements de la tempête de 1999 dans le nord-est de la France [Wind resistance of beech groves: lessons learned from the 1999 storm in the north-east of France]. RDV techniques 3: 21-28. [In French]
Shelbourne CJA, Ritchie K (1968)
Relationship between degree of compression wood development and specific gravity and tracheid characteristics in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Holzforschung 22: 185-190.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sheskin DJ (2004)
Hanbook of parametric and nonparametric statistical procedures (3rd edn). Chapman&Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington, pp. 1182.
Stoffel M, Bollschweiler M (2008)
Tree-ring analysis in natural hazards research - an overview. Natural Hazards Earth System Science 8: 187-202.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Strohm AK, Baldwin KL, Masson PH (2012)
Multiple roles for membrane-associated protein trafficking and signaling in gravitropism. Frontiers in Plant Science 3: 274.
Telewski FW (1989)
Structure and function of flexure wood in Abies fraseri. Tree Physiology 5: 113-121.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Timell TE (1986)
Compression wood in Gymnosperms. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp. 2150.
Online | Gscholar
Topor N (1964)
Ani ploiosi si secetosi în R.P. Romîna [Rain and drought years in Romania]. C.S.A. Institutul Meteorologic, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 304. [In Romanian]
Ueda M, Shibata E (2004)
Why do trees decline or dieback after a strong wind? Water status of Hinoki cypress standing after typhoon. Tree Physiology 24: 701-706.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wedel KW, Zobel BJ, Shelbourne CJA (1968)
Prevalence and effects of knots in young loblolly pine. Forest Products Journal 18: 97-103.
Wimmer R, Johansson M (2014)
Effects of reaction wood on the performance of wood and wood-based products. In: “The biology of reaction wood” (Gardiner B, Barnett J, Saranpää P, Gril J eds). Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 225-274.
CrossRef | Gscholar
WinDENDRO (2007)
WinDENDROTM2006 for tree-ring analysis. Manual of exploitation. Régent Instruments Inc., Québec City, Canada, pp. 133.
WRB (1998)
World reference base for soil resources. World Soil Resources 84, FAO, Rome, Italy, pp. 88.
Yoshizawa N, Idei T (1987)
Some structural and evolutionary aspects of compression wood tracheids. Wood and Fiber Science 19: 343-352.
Online | Gscholar
Young GD, McConchie DL, McKinley RB (1991)
Utilisation of 25-year-old Pinus radiata. Part 1: wood properties. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 21 (2-3): 217-227.
Online | Gscholar
Zeng H, Peltola H, Talkkari A, Venäläinen A, Strandman H, Kellomäki S, Wang K (2004)
Influence of clear-cutting on the risk of wind damage at forest edges. Forest Ecology and Management 203: 77-88.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Zielonka T, Malcher P (2009)
The dynamics of mountain mixed forest under wind disturbances in the Tatra Mountains, central Europe - a dendrochronlogical reconstruction. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39 (11): 2215-2223.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info