iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Application of fungicides and urea for control of ash dieback

Tine Hauptman (1)   , Franci Aco Celar (2), Maarten de Groot (1), Dušan Jurc (1)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 165-171 (2015)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1272-008
Published: Aug 13, 2014 - Copyright © 2015 SISEF

Research Articles

Ash dieback is caused by a highly pathogenic fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea). Possibilities for disease control are limited, and treatment of fallen leaf debris to prevent sporulation of the pathogen is one of the possible options to control the disease. In some cases chemical treatments could be used, but data on effective chemical agents for control of the ash dieback are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different chemical fungicides and urea on the pathogen. Out of eight tested fungicides, mycelial growth in Petri plates as well as development of H. pseudoalbidus apothecia on ash leaf petioles were most efficiently inhibited by carbendazim. Urea also proved to be effective in prevention of apothecial formation. In addition to inhibition of the pathogen, urea accelerates the degradation of treated leaf debris. Therefore, the use of urea for treatment of infected ash leaf debris could be more effective than the use of fungicides and also more environmentally acceptable.


Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, Chemical Control, Mycelial Growth, Leaf Petioles, Apothecia Formation

Authors’ address

Tine Hauptman
Maarten de Groot
Dušan Jurc
Department of Forest Protection, Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Franci Aco Celar
Agronomy Department, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

Corresponding author

Tine Hauptman


Hauptman T, Celar FA, de Groot M, Jurc D (2015). Application of fungicides and urea for control of ash dieback. iForest 8: 165-171. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1272-008

Academic Editor

Alberto Santini

Paper history

Received: Feb 20, 2014
Accepted: May 07, 2014

First online: Aug 13, 2014
Publication Date: Apr 01, 2015
Publication Time: 3.27 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 25318
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 19708
Abstract Page Views: 1003
PDF Downloads: 3398
Citation/Reference Downloads: 29
XML Downloads: 1180

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 3596
Overall contacts: 25318
Avg. contacts per week: 49.28

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

Total number of cites (since 2015): 5
Average cites per year: 0.83


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Bengtsson M, Green H, Leroul N, Pedersen HL, Hockenhull J (2006)
Effect of autumn application of urea on saprotrophic fungi in off-season leaf litter of sour cherry and evaluation of fungal isolates to reduce primary inoculum of Blumeriella jaapii. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 113: 107-112.
Online | Gscholar
Carisse O, Philion V, Rolland D, Bernier J (2000)
Effect of fall application of fungal antagonists on spring ascospore production of the apple scab pathogen, Venturia inaequalis. Phytopathology 90: 31-37.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cleary MR, Daniel G, Stenlid J (2013)
Light and scanning electron microscopy studies of the early infection stages of Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus on Fraxinus excelsior. Plant Pathology 62 (6): 1294-1301.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cooke L, Fleming C, McCracken A (2013)
Efficacy of biocides, disinfectants and other treatments to limit the spread of ash dieback caused by Chalara fraxinea. Agri-Food and Bioscience Institute, pp. 37.
Online | Gscholar
Dal Maso E, Fanchin G, Mutto Accordi S, Scattolin L, Montecchio L (2012)
Ultrastructural modifications in Common ash tissues colonised by Chalara fraxinea. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 51: 599-606.
Online | Gscholar
Deacon JW (2006)
Fungal Biology. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, USA, pp. 371.
Drenkhan R, Hanso M (2010)
New host species for Chalara fraxinea. New Disease Reports 22: 16.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Green H, Bengtsson M, Duval X, Pedersen HL, Hockenhull J, Larsen J (2006)
Influence of urea on the cherry leaf spot pathogen, Blumeriella jaapii, and on microorganisms in decomposing cherry leaves. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38: 2731-2742.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gross A, Zaffarano PL, Duo A, Grünig CR (2012)
Reproductive mode and life cycle of the ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus. Fungal Genetics and Biology 49: 977-986.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gross A, Holdenrieder O, Pautasso M, Queloz V, Sieber TN (2014)
Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, the causal agent of European ash dieback. Molecular Plant Pathology 15: 5-21.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hauptman T, Piškur B, de Groot M, Ogris N, Ferlan M, Jurc D (2013)
Temperature effect on Chalara fraxinea: heat treatment of saplings as a possible disease control method. Forest Pathology 43 (5): 360-370.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Johansson SM, Pratt JE, Asiegbu FO (2002)
Treatment of Norway spruce and Scots pine stumps with urea against the root and butt rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum - possible modes of action. Forest Ecology and Management 157: 87-100.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kirisits T, Matlakova M, Mottinger-Kroupa S, Cech T, Halmschlager E (2009)
The current situation of ash dieback caused by Chalara fraxinea in Austria. In: Proceedings of the “IUFRO Working party 7.02.02” (Dogmus-Lehtijärvi T eds). Egirdir (Turkey) 11-16 May 2009. Süleyman Demirel University, SDU Faculty of Forestry Journal, Special Issue, pp. 97-119.
Kirisits T, Matlakova M, Mottinger-Kroupa S, Halmschlager E, Lakatos F (2010)
Chalara fraxinea associated with dieback of narrow-leafed ash (Fraxinus angustifolia). Plant Pathology 59: 411.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kowalski T (2006)
Chalara fraxinea sp. nov. associated with dieback of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in Poland. Forest Pathology 36: 264-270.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kowalski T, Bartnik C (2010)
Morphological variation in colonies of Chalara fraxinea isolated from ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) stems with symptoms of dieback and effects of temperature on colony growth and structure. Acta Agrobotanica 63: 99-106.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kowalski T, Bialobrzeski M, Ostafinska A (2013)
The occurrence of Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus apothecia in the leaf litter of Fraxinus excelsior stands with ash dieback symptoms in southern Poland. Acta Mycologica 48: 135-146.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kowalski T, Holdenrieder O (2009)
Pathogenicity of Chalara fraxinea. Forest Pathology 39: 1-7.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pautasso M, Aas G, Queloz V, Holdenrieder O (2013)
European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) dieback - a conservation biology challenge. Biological Conservation 158: 37-49.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Queloz V, Grünig CR, Berndt R, Kowalski T, Sieber TN, Holdenrieder O (2011)
Cryptic speciation in Hymenoscyphus albidus. Forest Pathology 41: 133-142.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Quinn G, Keough M (2002)
Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 537.
Online | Gscholar
R Development Core Team (2011)
R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Online | Gscholar
Santamaría O, González MA, Pajares JA, Diez JJ (2007)
Effect of fungicides, endophytes and fungal filtrates on in vitro growth of Spanish isolates of Gremmeniella abietina. Forest Pathology 37: 251-262.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Schumacher J, Kehr R, Leonhard S (2010)
Mycological and histological investigations of Fraxinus excelsior nursery saplings naturally infected by Chalara fraxinea. Forest Pathology 40: 419-429.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sutton DK, MacHardy WE, Lord WG (2000)
Effects of shredding or treating apple leaf litter with urea on ascospore dose of Venturia inaequalis and disease buildup. Plant Disease 84: 1319-1326.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Timmermann V, Børja I, Hietala AM, Kirisits T, Solheim H (2011)
Ash dieback: pathogen spread and diurnal patterns of ascospore dispersal, with special emphasis on Norway. EPPO Bulletin 41: 14-20.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Tomlin CDS (2003)
The pesticide manual: a world compendium. British Crop Protection Council, Hampshire, UK, pp. 1344.
Veverka K, Stolcova J, Ruzek P (2007)
Sensitivity of fungi to urea, ammonium nitrate and their equimolar solution UAN. Plant Protection Science 43 (4): 157-164.
Online | Gscholar
Zhao YJ, Hosoya T, Baral HO, Hosaka K, Kakishima M (2012)
Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, the correct name for Lambertella albida reported from Japan. Mycotaxon 122: 25-41.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Zuur A, Ieno EN, Walker N, Savelie AA, Smith GM (2009)
Mixed effect models and extensions in ecology with R. Springer, New York, USA, pp. 596.
Online | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info