iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Modeling Italian forests: state of the art and future challenges

G Vacchiano (1)   , F Magnani (2), A Collalti (3)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 113-120 (2012)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0614-005
Published: Jun 05, 2012 - Copyright © 2012 SISEF

Review Papers

This review is a follow-up to the first meeting of the Forest modeling working group (FMWG) of the Italian Society of Silviculture and Forest Ecology (SISEF), held in December 2009. 18 talks were delivered to an audience of 40 researchers. We review the state of the art of forest ecosystem modeling in Italy, highlight findings from Italian research groups, and summarize relevant issues. Developing on the discussion session of the meeting, we indicate current research gaps and future challenges for modelers, forest ecologists and foresters alike, with a special emphasis on model validation, data availability, and communication between researchers and managers.


Forest Models, Forest Inventory, SISEF, Ecological Modeling, Carbon Balance

Authors’ address

G Vacchiano
Department of Agriculture, Silviculture and Land Management, Università di Torino, v. L. da Vinci 44, I-10095 Grugliasco (TO - Italy)
F Magnani
Department of Fruit Tree and Woody Plant Science, Università di Bologna, v.le Fanin 46, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)
A Collalti
Impacts on Agriculture, Forest and Natural Ecosystem division (IAFENT), Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, v. Augusto Imperatore 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

Corresponding author


Vacchiano G, Magnani F, Collalti A (2012). Modeling Italian forests: state of the art and future challenges. iForest 5: 113-120. - doi: 10.3832/ifor0614-005

Academic Editor

Marco Borghetti

Paper history

Received: Mar 14, 2012
Accepted: Apr 10, 2012

First online: Jun 05, 2012
Publication Date: Jun 29, 2012
Publication Time: 1.87 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 30819
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 23608
Abstract Page Views: 1410
PDF Downloads: 4564
Citation/Reference Downloads: 29
XML Downloads: 1208

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 4206
Overall contacts: 30819
Avg. contacts per week: 51.29

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

Total number of cites (since 2012): 16
Average cites per year: 1.78


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Alessandri A, Navarra A (2008)
On the coupling between vegetation and rainfall inter-annual anomalies: possible contributions to seasonal rainfall predictability over land areas. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35: L02718.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Amaro A, Reed D, Soares P (2003)
Modelling forest systems. CABI, Oxford, UK.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Amaro A, Tomé M (1999)
Empirical and process based models for forest tree and stand growth simulation. In: Proceedings of a IUFRO Conference. Oeiras (Portugal), 21-27 September 1997. Edicões Salamandra, Lisboa, Portugal.
Amorini E, Brandini PG, Fabbio G, Tabacchi G (1998)
Modelli di previsione delle masse legnose e delle biomasse per i cedui di cerro della Toscana centro-meridionale. Annali dell’istituto Sperimentale per la Selvicoltura 29: 41-56.
Arca B, Duce P, Laconi M, Pellizzaro G, Salis M, Spano D (2007)
Evaluation of FARSITE simulator in mediterranean maquis. International Journal of Wildland Fire 16: 563-572.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Arnold TW (2010)
Uninformative parameters and model selection using Akaike’s information criterion. Journal of Wildlife Management 74 (6): 1175-1178.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Attorre F, Francesconi F, Scarnati L, De Sanctis M, Alfò M, Bruno F (2008)
Predicting the effect of climate change on tree species abundance and distribution at a regional scale. iForest 1: 132-139.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Baldocchi D, Falge E, Gu LH, Olson R, Hollinger D, Running S, Anthoni P, Bernhofer C, Davis K, Evans R, Fuentes J, Goldstein A, Katul G, Law B, Lee XH, Malhi Y, Meyers T, Munger W, Oechel W, U KTP, Pilegaard K, Schmid HP, Valentini R, Verma S, Vesala T, Wilson K, Wofsy S (2001)
Fluxnet: a new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82: 2415-2434.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Benz J, Knorrenschild M (1997)
Call for a common model documentation etiquette. Ecological modelling 97: 141-143.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bernetti G, Cantiani M, Hellrigl B (1969)
Ricerche alsometriche e dendrometriche sulle pinete di pino nero e laricio della Toscana. L’Italia Forestale e Montana 44 (1): 10-33.
Bianchi M (1981)
Le fustaie di faggio di origine agamica della Toscana: tavole di produzione per i boschi coetanei. Annali Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali, vol. 30, Firenze, Italy.
Bittelli M, Tomei F, Pistocchi A, Flury M, Boll J, Brooks ES, Antolini G (2010)
Development and testing of a physically based, three-dimensional model of surface and subsurface hydrology. Advances in Water Resources 33: 106-122.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Boitani L, Corsi F, Falcucci A, Marzetti I, Masi M, Montemaggiori A, Ottavini D, Reggiani G, Rondinini C (2002)
Rete ecologica nazionale. Un approccio alla conservazione dei vertebrati italiani. Università La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell’Uomo, Roma, Italy.
Online | Gscholar
Borghetti M, Ferrara A (2010)
INFC, a different opinion on data availability. Forest@ 7: 1.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bossel H (1991)
Modelling forest dynamics: moving from description to explanation. Forest Ecology and Management 42: 129-142.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bossel H (1994)
Modelling and simulation. A.K. Peters Ltd., Wellsley, UK.
Botkin DB, Janak JF, Wallis JR (1972)
Some ecological consequences of a computer model of forest growth. Journal of Ecology 60: 849-873.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Brang P, Courbaud B, Fischer A, Kissling-Näf I, Pettenella D, Schönenberger W, Spörk J, Grimm V (2002)
Developing indicators for the sustainable management of mountain forests using a modelling approach. Forest Policy and Economics 4: 113-123.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Brugnoli A, Brugnoli R (2006)
La foresta come habitat del Gallo cedrone: ricerca applicata e nuove esperienze di gestione. Forest@ 3: 168-182.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bruner HD, Moser JW (1973)
A Markov chain approach to the prediction of diameter distributions in uneven-aged forest stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 3: 409-417.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bugmann H (2001)
A review of forest gap models. Climate Change 51: 259-305.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bugmann H, Palahi M, Bontemps JD, Tome T (2010)
Trends in modeling to address forest management and environmental challenges in Europe: introduction. Forest Systems 19: 3-7.
Burkhart HE, Rauscher HM, Johann K (1989)
Artificial intelligence and growth models for forest management decisions. In: Proceedings of a meeting at Universitat fur Bodenkultur, Vienna (Austria) Sep. 18-22, 1989. FWS-1-89, School of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
Camia A (2009)
Storia, sviluppi recenti e applicazioni della previsione del pericolo di incendio boschivo in Italia. In: “Atti del Terzo Congresso Nazionale di Selvicoltura per il miglioramento e la conservazione dei boschi italiani” (Ciancio O ed). Vol. 1, AISF, Firenze, pp. 339-344.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cantiani MG, Floris A, Tabacchi G (2000)
Aspetti produttivi delle peccete altomontane e subalpine della Val di Fiemme. Comunicazioni di ricerca dell’ISAFA, vol. 3, Trento, Italy, pp. 3-21.
Carpenter S (2002)
Ecological futures: building an ecology of the long now. Ecology 83: 2069-2083.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Castellani C (1982)
Tavole stereometriche ed alsometriche costruite per i boschi italiani. Istituto Sperimentale per l’Assestamento Forestale e per l’Alpicoltura, Trento.
Cescatti A, Piutti E (1998)
Silvicultural alternatives, competition regime and sensitivity to climate in a European beech forest. Forest Ecology and Management 102(2-3): 213-223.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ciancio O, Nocentini S (2004)
Il bosco ceduo. Selvicoltura Assestamento Gestione. Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali, Firenze, Italy.
Collalti A, Santini M, Valentini R (2010)
Light competition and carbon partitioning-allocation in an improved forest ecosystem model. Geophysical Research, Abstracts EGU2010-12135.
Coops NC, Waring RH, Landsberg JJ (1998)
Assessing forest productivity in Australia and New Zealand using a physiologically-based model driven with averaged monthly weather data and satellite-derived estimates of canopy photosynthetic capacity. Forest Ecology and Management 104: 113-127.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Corona P, Marziliano PA, Scotti R (2002)
Top-down growth modelling: a prototype for poplar plantations in Italy. Forest Ecology and Management 161: 65-73.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Corona P, Scotti R (1998)
Forest growth-and-yield models: questioning support for sustainable forest management. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 7 (3-4): 131-143.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Corona P, Scotti R, De Paoli M, Tomaiuolo M (1997)
DOUG_IT: a growth-and-yield Java applet for Italian Douglas-fir plantations. In: Proceedings of the IUFRO Conference “Modelling growth of fast-grown tree species” (Ortega A, Gezan S eds). Universidad Austral de Chile 5-7 September 1997, pp. 118-126.
Corpo Forestale dello Stato (2010)
Dati statistici sugli incendi boschivi in Italia.
Online | Gscholar
Crookston NL, Rehfeldt GE, Dixon GE, Weiskittel AR (2010)
Addressing climate change in the forest vegetation simulator to assess impacts on landscape forest dynamics. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 1198-1211.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S, Neilson RP, Ayres MP, Flannigan MD, Hanson PJ, Irland LC, Lugo AE, Peterson CJ, Simberloff D, Swanson FJ, Stocks BJ, Wotton BM (2001)
Climate change and forest disturbances. BioScience 51: 723-734.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ditzer T, Glauner R, Forster M, Kohler P, Huth A (2000)
The process-based stand growth model FORMIX 3-Q applied in a GIS environment for growth and yield analysis in a tropical rain forest. Tree Physiology 20: 367-381.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dixon GE (2003)
Essential FVS: a user’s guide to the Forest Vegetation Simulator. Internal Report, Forest Management Service Center, USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
Dixon R, Meldahl R, Ruark G, Warren W (1990)
Process modeling of forest growth responses to environmental stress. Timber Press, Portland, OR, USA.
Dreyfus P, Bonnet FR (1996)
CAPSIS (Computer-Aided Projection of Strategies In Silviculture): an interactive simulation and comparison tool for tree and stand growth, silvicultural treatments and timber assortment. In: Proceedings of the Conference on “Connection Between Silviculture and Wood Quality Through Modelling Approaches and Simulation Softwares” (Nepveu G ed). INRA, Nancy, France, pp. 194-202.
Drigo R, Chirici G, Lasserre B, Marchetti M (2007)
Analisi su base geografica della domanda e dell’offerta di combustibili legnosi in Italia. L’Italia Forestale e Montana 5-6: 304-324.
Dudek A, Ek AR (1980)
A bibliography of worldwide literature on individual tree based forest stand growth models. Staff Paper Series 12, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, USA.
Eastaugh CS, Pötzelsberger E, Hasenauer H (2011)
Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC. Tree Physiology 31:262-274.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ek A, Burk T, Shifley S (1988)
Forest growth modelling and prediction. In: Proceedings of the IUFRO Conference. Minneapolis (USA) August 23-27, 1987. GTR-NC-120, North Central Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, Chicago, USA.
Fiorese G, Gatto M, Ranci Ortigosa G, De Leo G (2005)
Scenari futuri di impatto dei cambiamenti climatici globali tramite l’applicazione di modelli di vocazionalità faunistica a ungulati alpini. In: Atti del XV Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Ecologia (Comoglio C, Comino E, Bona F eds). Torino (Italy) 12-14 settembre 2005.
Online | Gscholar
Fontes L, Bontemps JD, Bugmann H, Van Oijen M, Gracia C, Kramer K, Lindner M, Rötzer T, Skovsgaard JP (2010)
Models for supporting forest management in a changing environment. Forest Systems 2010: 8-29.
Franc A, Gourlet-Fleury S, Picard N (2000)
Une introduction à la modélisation des forêts hétérogènes. ENGREF, Nancy, France.
Franklin O, Moltchanova E, Kraxner F, Seidl R, Böttcher H, Rokityiansky D, Obersteiner M (2012)
Large-scale forest modeling: deducing stand density from inventory data. International Journal of Forestry Research 2012: 934974.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Fries J (1974)
Growth models for tree and stand simulation: proceedings of meetings in 1973. Research notes #30, Dept. of Forest Yield Research, IUFRO Working Party S4.01, Stockholm, Sweden.
Gasparini P, Maltoni ML, Tabacchi G (2000)
Un modello a matrice di transizione per i boschi misti pluristratificati di abete rosso, abete bianco e faggio, del Trentino. Vol. 3, Comunicazioni di ricerca ISAFA, Trento, Italy, pp. 23-88.
Godfrey K (1983)
Compartmental models and their applications. Academic Press, New York, USA.
Grimm V, Railsback S (2005)
Individual-based modeling and ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.
Haefner J (2005)
Modeling biological systems: principles and applications. Springer, New York, USA.
Hanewinkel M, Peltola H, Soares P, Gonzales-Olabarria JR (2010)
Recent approaches to model the risk of storm and fire to European forests and their integration into simulation and decision support tools. Forest Systems 19: 30-47.
Hasenauer H (1994)
A single tree simulator for uneven-aged mixed species stands. In: “Mixed Stands: Research Plots, Measurements and Results, Models” (Pinto da Costa ME, Preuhsler T eds). Instituto superior de Agronomia, Universidad Técnica de Lisboa, Portugal, pp. 255-270.
Hasenauer H (2006)
Sustainable forest management: growth models for Europe. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hasenauer H, Mäkelä A (2005)
Modeling forest production: scientific tools, data needs and sources, validation and application. In: Proceedings of an International Conference. Vienna (Austria) April 19-21, 2004. Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
He (2008)
Forest landscape models: Definitions, characterization, and classification. Forest Ecology and Management 254: 484-498.
CrossRef | Gscholar
INFC (2005)
Inventario Nazionale delle Foreste e dei Serbatoi Forestali di Carbonio. Ministero delle Politiche Agricole Alimentari e Forestali, Ispettorato Generale - Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Roma, Italy. CRA - Unità di ricerca per il Monitoraggio e la Pianificazione forestale, Roma, Italy.
ISTAT (2000)
Censimento Generale dell’Agricoltura 2000. Web Site.
Online | Gscholar
ISTAT (2006)
Statistiche dell’Agricoltura. Collana annuari n. 49, IRoma, Italy.
Kimmins J (2008)
From science to stewardship: harnessing forest ecology in the service of society. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 1625-1635.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kimmins JP (1993)
Scientific foundations for the simulation of ecosystem function and management in FORCYTE-11. Northwest region. Information Report NOR-X-328, Forestry Canada, Edmonton, Canada.
Landsberg JJ, Waring RH (1997)
A generalised model of forest productivity using simplified concepts of radiation-use efficiency, carbon balance and partitioning. Forest Ecology and Management 95:209-228.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Laneve G, Cadau EG (2007)
Quality assessment of the fire hazard forecast based on a fire potential index for the Mediterranean area by using a MSG/SEVIRI based fire detection system. In: Proceedings of the “IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium”. Barcelona (Spain), 23-28 July 2007, pp. 2447-2450.
Leemans R, Prentice IC (1989)
FORSKA, a general forest succession model. Institute of Ecological Botany, Uppsala, Sweden.
LeMay V, Marshall P (2003)
Foreword. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33: vii-viii.
Liski J, Perruchoud P, Karjalainen K (2002)
Increasing carbon stocks in the forest soils of Western Europe. Forest Ecology and Management 169: 159-175.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Makela A, Landsberg J, Ek AR, Burk TE, Ter-Mikaelian M, Agren GI, Oliver CD, Puttonen P. (2010)
Process-based models for forest ecosystem management: current state of the art and challenges for practical implementation. Tree Physiology 20: 289-298.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Marletto V, Zinoni F, Filippi N, Angelelli AM Laruccia N, Lega P, Tonelli T (1993)
CRITERIA: an integrated geo-graphical system for soil water monitoring. In: Proceedings of the “IX Symposium on Pesticide Chemistry, Mobility and Degradation of Xenobiotics” (Del Re AAM, Capri E, Evans SP, Natali P, Trevisan MP eds). Piacenza (Italy) 12-13 october 1993, pp. 695-706.
Marziliano PA (2009)
Resampling procedures to validate dendro-auxometric regression models. Forest@ 6: 100-106.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Maselli F, Moriondo M, Chiesi M, Chirici G, Puletti N, Barbati A, Corona P (2009)
Evaluating the Effects of Environmental Changes on the Gross Primary Production of Italian Forests. Remote Sensing 1 (4): 1108-1124.
CrossRef | Gscholar
McMurtrie RE, Gholz HL, Linder S, Gower ST (1994)
Climatic factors controlling the productivity of pine stands: a model-based analysis. Ecological Bulletin 43: 173-188.
Online | Gscholar
MCPFE (2000)
General declarations and resolutions adopted at the Ministerial conference on the protection of forests in Europe. Strasbourg 1990, Helsinki 1993, Lisbon 1998. Liaison Unit, Ministerial conference on the protection of forests in Europe, Vienna, Austria.
Michener WK (2006)
Meta-information concepts for ecological data management. Ecological Informatics 1: 3-7.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Minunno F, Xenakis G, Percks M P, Mencuccini M (2010)
Calibration and validation of a simplified process-based model for the prediction of the carbon balance of Scottish Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 2411-2426.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mladenoff D, Baker W (1999)
Spatial modeling of forest landscape change: approaches and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Monserud RA (2003)
Evaluating forest models in a sustainable forest management context. Forest Biometry, Modelling and Information Sciences 1: 35-47.
Morani A (2009)
Optimizing tree planting in New York city. Tesi di laurea di secondo livello, Università della Tuscia, Facoltà di Agraria, Viterbo, Italy.
Munro D (1974)
Forest growth models: a prognosis. In: Proceedings of “Growth models for tree and stand simulation” (Fries J eds). Royal College of Forestry, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 7-21.
Nightingale JM, Hill MJ, Phinn SR, Davies ID, Held AA, Erskine PD (2008)
Use of 3-PG and 3-PGS to simulate forest growth dynamics of Australian tropical rainforests: I. Parameterisation and calibration for old-growth, regenerating and plantation forests. Forest Ecology and Management 254: 107-121.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nolé A, Law BE, Magnani F, Matteucci G, Ripullone F, Borghetti M (2009)
Application of the 3-PGs model to assess carbon accumulation in forest ecosystems at a regional level. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 3 (9): 1647-1661.
CrossRef | Gscholar
O’Neill RV, De Angelis DL, Waide JB, Allen TFH (1986)
Hierarchical concept of ecosystems. Monographs in Population Biology 23: 1-272.
Orazio C (2009)
FORMODEL: Register of model for forests. Web Site.
Online | Gscholar
Pacala SW, Canham CD, Silander J (1993)
Forest models defined by field measurements: I. The design of a northeastern forest simulator. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 1980-1988.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Palahí M (2008)
Forest models for research and decision support in sustainable forest management. WG1: Summary of the information from the country templates.
Online | Gscholar
Peng C (2000)
Growth and yield models for uneven-aged stands: past, present and future. Forest Ecology and Management 132: 259-279.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pickett STA, Kolasa J (1989)
Structure of theory in vegetation science. Plant Ecology 83: 7-15.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Porté A, Bartelink HH (2002)
Modelling mixed forest growth: a review of models for forest management. Ecological Modelling 150: 141-188.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Potter CS, Kloster S, Brooks V (1998)
Interannual variability in terrestrial net primary production: exploration of trends and controls on regiona scales. Ecosystems 2: 36-48.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pretzsch H (1999)
Modelling growth in pure and mixed stands: a historical overview. In: “Management of mixed-species forest: silviculture and economics” (Olsthoorn AFM, Bartelink HH, Gardiner JJ, Pretzsch H, Hekhuis HJ, Franc A, Wall S eds). Instituut voor Bos- en Natuuronderzoek DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 102-107.
Pretzsch H (2009)
Forest dynamics, growth, and yield: from measurement to model. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pretzsch H, Biber P, Dursky J, Gadow K, Hasenauer H, Kändler G, Kenk G, Kublin E, Nagel J, Pukkala T, Skovsgaard J, Sodtke R, Sterba H (2006)
Standardizing and categorizing tree growth models. In: “Sustainable Forest Management: growth models for Europe” (Hasenauer H ed). Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 39-57.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pretzsch H, Grote R, Reineking B, Rotzer T, Seifert S (2008)
Models for forest ecosystem management: a European perspective. Annals of Botany 101: 1065-1087.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pretzsch H, Kahn M (1996)
Wuchsmodelle für die Unterstützung der Wirtschaftsplanung im Forstbetrieb. Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift Der Wald 25: 1414-1419.
Price DT, Zimmermann NE, van der Meer PJ, Lexer MJ, Leadley P, Jorritsma ITM, Schaber H, Clark DF, Lasch P, McNulty S, Wu JG, Smith B (2001)
Regeneration in gap models: priority issues for studying forest responses to climate change. Climate Change 51:475-508.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Rennolls K, Ibrahim M, Smith P (2001)
A forest model archive. In: Proceedings of IUFRO 4.11 Conference on “Forest Biometry, Modelling and Information Sciences” (Rennols K eds). University of Greenwich (UK) June 2001, pp. 17.
Rennols K (2001)
Forest biometry, modelling and information science. In: Proceedings of a IUFRO 4.11 conference. University of Greenwich (UK) June 2001.
Online | Gscholar
Rigon R, Bertoldi G, Over TM (2006)
GEOtop: a distributed hydrological model with coupled water and energy budgets. Journal of Hydrometeorology 7: 371-388.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Robinson AP, Ek AR (2000)
The consequences of hierarchy for modeling in forest ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30: 1837-1846.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Running SW, Nemani RR, Heinsch FA, Zhao MS, Reeves M, Hashimoto H (2004)
A continuous satellite-derived measure of global terrestrial primary production. Bioscience 54:547-560.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Scarfò F, Mercurio R (2009)
Il calcolo dei crediti di carbonio: il modello CO2FIX v. 3.1 applicato ad una faggeta sotto Forest Management nel sud Italia. Forest@ 6: 215-228.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Scheller RM, Domingo JB, Sturtevant BR, Williams JS, Rudy A, Gustafson EJ, Mladenoff DJ (2007)
Design, development, and application of LANDIS-II, a spatial landscape simulation model with flexible temporal and spatial resolution. Ecological Modelling 201: 409-419.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Scotti R, Corona P, La Marca O, Marziliano PA, Tarchiani N, Tomaiuolo M (1995)
Growth model for italian douglas-fir plantations. In: “Recent advances in forest mensuration and growth and yield research”. Proceedings from 3 sessions of Subject Group S4.01 “Mensuration, Growth and Yield”, 20th World Congress of IUFRO (Skovsgaard JP, Burkhart HE eds). Tampere (Finland) 6-12 August 1995. Finnish Forest and Landscape Research Institute, Tampere, Finland, pp. 175-193.
Seidl R, Fernandes PM, Fonseca TF, Gillet F, Jönsson AM, Merganičová K, Netherer S, Arpaci A, Bontemps Bugmann H, González-Olabarria JR, Lasch P, Meredieu C, Moreira F, Schelhaas MJ, Mohren F (2011)
Modelling natural disturbances in forest ecosystems: a review. Ecological Modelling 222: 903-924.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Seidl R, Rammer W, Scheller RM, Spies TA (2012)
An individual-based process model to simulate landscape-scale forest ecosystem dynamics. Ecological Modelling 231: 87-100.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Shugart HH (1984)
A theory of forest dynamics: the ecological implications of forest succession models. Springer, New York, USA.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Shugart HH, Michaels PJ, Smith TM, Weinstein DA, Rastetter EB (1988)
Simulation Models of Forest Succession. In: “Scales and global change: spatial and temporal variability in biospheric and geospheric processes” (Rosswall T, Woodmansee RG, Risser PG eds). John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, USA, pp. 125-151.
Sims AW (2009)
Takseermudelite ja andmestike infosüsteem puistu kasvukäigu modelleerimiseks. Ph.D. thesis, Estonian University of life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, pp. 148.
Solomon AM, Shugart HH (1993)
Vegetation dynamics and global change. Springer, New York, USA.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Stage AR (1973)
Prognosis model for stand development. Research Paper INT-137, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, Ogden, UT, USA.
Taylor AR, Chen HYH, VanDamme L (2009)
A review of forest succession models and their suitability for forest management planning. Forest Science 55: 23-36.
Thornley J, Johnson I (2002)
Plant and crop modelling: a mathematical approach to plant and crop physiology. Blackburn Press, Caldwell, NJ, USA.
Vacchiano G, Motta R, Long JN, Shaw JD (2008)
A density management diagram for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L): a tool for assessing the forest’s protective effect. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 2542-2554.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Valentini R (2003)
Fluxes of carbon, water and energy of European forests. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Van Oijen M, Rougier J, Smith R (2005)
Bayesian calibration of process-based forest models: bridging the gap between models and data. Tree Physiology 25 (7): 915-927.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Vanclay J (1994)
Modelling forest growth and yield: applications to mixed tropical forests. CAB International, Wallingford, USA.
Vanclay JK, Skovsgaard JP (1997)
Evaluating forest growth models. Ecological Modelling 98: 1-12.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ventura F, Marletto V, Zinoni F (2001)
Un metodo per il calcolo dell’indice meteorologico del rischio di incendio forestale. Sherwood 68: 13-18.
Veroustraete F, Sabbe H, Eerens H (2002)
Estimation of carbon mass fluxes over Europe using the C-Fix model and Euroflux data. Remote Sensing of Environment 83:376-399.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Virgilietti P, Buongiorno J (1997)
Modeling forest growth with management data: a matrix approach for the Italian Alps. Silva Fennica 31: 27-42.
Voinov A, Jakeman A, Rizzoli A, Chen S (2008)
Environmental modelling, software and decision support: In: “State of the Art and New Perspective”. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK.
Von Gadow K, Hui G (2001)
Modelling forest development. Springer, New York, USA.
Waring RH, Running SW (1998)
Forest ecosystems - analysis at multiple scales. Academic Press, San Diego, USA.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Weisberg PJ, Bonavia F, Bugmann H (2005)
Modeling the interacting effects of browsing and shading on mountain forest tree regeneration (Picea abies). Ecological Modelling 185: 213-230.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wensel LC, Biging GS (1990)
Forest simulation systems. In: Proceedings of the IUFRO conference, Oakland (CA, USA) November 2-5, 1988. Bulletin no. 1927, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Oakland, CA, USA.
Wiens JA (1989)
Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional ecology 3: 385-397.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Xenakis G, Ray D, Mencuccini M (2008)
Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis from a coupled 3-PG and soil organic matter decomposition model. Ecological Modelling 219: 1-16.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Zaehle S, Dalmonech D (2011)
Carbon-nitrogen interactions on land at global scales: current understanding in modelling climate biosphere feedbacks. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3: 311-210.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info