iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


First results of a nation-wide systematic forest condition survey in Turkey

D Tolunay (1), B Karabiyik (2)   , A Temerit (3)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 145-149 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0567-004
Published: Jun 01, 2011 - Copyright © 2011 SISEF

Research Articles

Collection/Special Issue: IUFRO RG 7.01 2010 - Antalya (Turkey)
Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change
Guest Editors: Elena Paoletti, Yusuf Serengil

Monitoring of forest condition in Turkey started in 2006 when a 16x16 km grid of Level I plots was established. In 2007, the first 48 Pinus brutia plots were surveyed for crown condition. In 2008 and 2009, the plots were 398 and 563, respectively. In 2007, the mean defoliation for P. brutia was 13.0 %. In 2008-2009, the mean defoliation was 19.5-19.8 % and 27.0-23.0 % for coniferous and broadleaved species, respectively. Defoliation was higher than 25 % on 24.6-18.7 % of the monitored trees. The species with the highest defoliation were Carpinus betulus and Juniperus foetidissima in 2008, and Quercus pubescens and Juniperus communis in 2009. The slight improvement in forest health in 2009 may be attributed to better weather conditions than in 2008 (higher precipitation). The forests along the Black Sea coast of Thrace showed the highest defoliation in both 2008 and 2009. This may be due to transboundary air pollution from Istanbul, where sources of sulphate and nitrate pollution occur. Elevated defoliation rates were also observed in the Black Sea region; they were most probably caused by biotic factors in plots subject to industrial pollution.


Forest monitoring, ICP forests, Air pollution, Health status, Defoliation, Turkey

Authors’ address

D Tolunay
Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Soil Science and Ecology Department, 34473 Bahceköy, Istanbul (Turkey)
B Karabiyik
General Directorate of Forestry, Department of Forest Management and Planning, Gazi Tesisleri 7 nolu Bina 06560 Bestepe, Ankara (Turkey)
A Temerit
General Directorate of Forestry, Department of Forest Management and Planning, Gazi Tesisleri 7 nolu Bina 06560 Bestepe, Ankara (Turkey)

Corresponding author

B Karabiyik


Tolunay D, Karabiyik B, Temerit A (2011). First results of a nation-wide systematic forest condition survey in Turkey. iForest 4: 145-149. - doi: 10.3832/ifor0567-004

Paper history

Received: Jun 10, 2010
Accepted: Oct 15, 2010

First online: Jun 01, 2011
Publication Date: Jun 01, 2011
Publication Time: 7.63 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 29580
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 23726
Abstract Page Views: 1426
PDF Downloads: 3238
Citation/Reference Downloads: 19
XML Downloads: 1171

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 4743
Overall contacts: 29580
Avg. contacts per week: 43.66

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

Total number of cites (since 2011): 2
Average cites per year: 0.20


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Akkoyunlu BO, Tayanç M (2003)
Analyses of wet and bulk deposition in four different regions of Istanbul, Turkey. Atmospheric Environment 37: 3571-3579.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Avci S (2005)
Türkiye’ de termik santraller ve çevresel etkileri. Istanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi. Cografya Bölümü Dergisi 13: 1-26.
Badea O, Tanase M, Georgeta J, Anisoara L, Peiov A, Uhlirova H, Pajtik J, Wawrzoniak J, Shparyk Y (2004)
Forest health status in the Carpathian Mountains over the period 1997-2001. Environmental Pollution 130: 93-98.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Barrett M (2004)
Atmospheric emissions from large point sources in Europe. The Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, Sweden, pp. 50.
Fischer R, Lorenz M, Köhl M, Becher G, Granke O, Bobrinsky A, Braslavskaya T, de Vries W, Dobbertin M, Kraft P, Laubhann D, Lukina N, Nagel HD, Reinds GJ, Sterba H, Solberg S, Stofer S, Seidling W (2009)
The condition of forests in Europe 2009 Executive Report. UNECE / EC, Geneva, Brussels, pp. 12.
Fischer R, Lorenz M, Mues V, Iost S, Granke O, Becher G, van Dobben H, Reinds GJ, de Vries W (2010)
Forest condition in Europe. 2010 Technical Report of ICP Forests, pp. 178.
GDF (2010)
General directorate of forestry, web page of Turkish forest ecosystems monitoring programme.
Online | Gscholar
Gülsoy G, Tayanç M, Ertürk F (1999)
Chemical analyses of the major ions in the precipitation of Istanbul, Turkey. Environmental Pollution 105: 273-280.
CrossRef | Gscholar
IPCC (2007)
Climate change 2007: synthesis report. Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (Pachauri RK, Reisinger A eds). IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 104.
Irmak A, Hus S (1951)
Murgul bakir fabrikasinin ormanlara yapacagi zararlar ve orman idaresince alinmasi lazim gelen tedbirler hakkinda teklif. I.U. Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 1: 44-48.
Karakas A, Zengin M, Sarigül M, Özay FS, Uluer K (2007)
Bati karadeniz ve marmara bölgesinde hava kirliliginden (SO2) kaynaklanan orman zararlarinin belirlenmesi. kavak ve hizli gelisen orman agaclari arastirma enstitüsü, Teknik Bülten, No. 206, Izmit, Turkey.
Koray ES, Güner ST, Cömez A, Çelik N, Karatas R, Karakas A (2007)
Eskisehir, sakarya, bilecik, bolu yörelerinde hava kirliliginin ormanlar Üzerine etkisinin belirlenmesi, Cevre ve orman bakanligi arastirma projesi, Proje Nu ESK-02.8302/2002-2007.
Okay C, Akkoyunlu BO, Tayanc M (2002)
Composition of wet deposition in Kaynarca, Turkey. Environmental Pollution 118: 401-410.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Say N (2006)
Lignite-fired thermal power plants and SO2 pollution in Turkey. Energy Policy 34: 2690-2701.
CrossRef | Gscholar
TSMS (2010)
2009 Yili iklim verilerinin degerlendirmesi [Turkish state meteorological service]
Online | Gscholar
Tuncel G (2003)
Türkiye’ de asit yagmurlari. In: III. “Atmosfer bilimleri sempozyumu bildiri kitabi”, pp. 1-16.
UNECE (2004)
Manual on methodologies and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessments, monitoring and analysis of effects of air pollution on forests. Programme Co-ordinating Center, UN/ECE, Hamburg, Germany and Geneva, Switzerland.

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info