iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Implications of ecotourism development in protected areas: a study from Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh

MP Rana (1)   , MSI Sohel (1), SA Mukul (2), MSH Chowdhury (3), S Akhter (1), Q Chowdhury (1), M Koike (3)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 23-29 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0520-003
Published: Jan 22, 2010 - Copyright © 2010 SISEF

Research Articles

This article is based on visitors profile study of protected area based tourist spots of Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary (RKWS), Bangladesh to ascertain the potential of ecotourism. Study findings shows that 69% male constitute the visitors group while the maximum number of visitors was found in the age of below 30 years. Most of the visitors were literate and among them 43% visitors were student. Most (53%) of visitors preferred to get recreation in holidays as they were employed. Visitors were highly preferred to come with friends group. About 92% respondents showed positive mind to come here in future while 89% respondents view that park has tourism potential. Most of the respondents reported the presence of wildlife (48%) most notable followed by plant diversity and tribal community as recreational. From χ2 test it is found that highly significance association present between tourism potentiality of the wildlife sanctuary and some demographic variable like income of tourists (χ2 = 49.138, p < 0.000), visiting pattern (χ2 = 19.344, p < 0.000), education of tourists (χ2 = 50.226, p < 0.000), travelling distance (Km - χ2 = 11.427, p < 0.022), duration of staying (χ2 = 12.867, p < 0.002), frequency of visit (χ2 = 8.456, p < 0.015), visiting time (χ2 = 6.530, p < 0.011), problem in the study area (χ2 = 14.962, p < 0.021), occupation of tourists (χ2 = 8.848, p < 0.031). If the problems addressed by the visitors were solved, RKWS would be a bright place of eco-tourism in Bangladesh.


Ecotourism, Protected area, Tourism potential, Visitors, Bangladesh

Authors’ address

MP Rana
MSI Sohel
S Akhter
Q Chowdhury
Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, School of Agriculture and Mineral Sciences, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet- 3114 (Bangladesh)
SA Mukul
Institutute of International Forestry and Forest Products, Dresden University of Technology, 01735 Tharandt (Germany)
MSH Chowdhury
M Koike
Forest Policy Laboratory, Department of Forest Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, 399-4598 Nagano-Ken (Japan)

Corresponding author


Rana MP, Sohel MSI, Mukul SA, Chowdhury MSH, Akhter S, Chowdhury Q, Koike M (2010). Implications of ecotourism development in protected areas: a study from Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh. iForest 3: 23-29. - doi: 10.3832/ifor0520-003

Academic Editor

Marco Borghetti

Paper history

Received: Aug 07, 2009
Accepted: Oct 28, 2009

First online: Jan 22, 2010
Publication Date: Jan 22, 2010
Publication Time: 2.87 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 37129
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 29608
Abstract Page Views: 1605
PDF Downloads: 5254
Citation/Reference Downloads: 74
XML Downloads: 588

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 5297
Overall contacts: 37129
Avg. contacts per week: 49.07

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Nov 2020)

Total number of cites (since 2010): 5
Average cites per year: 0.45


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Ahmed MR (1993)
Outdoor recreation potentials of foy’s lake area, Chittagong. Bangladesh Journal of Forest Science 22 (2): 30-36.
Ahmed MR, Rahman MM (1997)
Visitor’s participation in outdoor recreation activities Bhawal national park with respect to some socio economic variables. Bangladesh Journal of Forest Science 26 (1): 37-42.
Ali D (2008)
Present status and tourism potentiality of Sylhet forest division, Bangladesh. B.Sc. (Hons.) Project paper, Department of Forestry, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh, pp. 1- 55.
Borrie WT, McCool SF, Stankey GH (1998)
Protected area planning principles and strategies. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, UK.
Brockman FC, Merriam LC (1979)
Recreational use of wild lands. McGraw Hill, New York, USA, pp. 337.
Butler WR, Boyd WS (2000)
Tourism and national parks: a long but uneasy relationship. In: “Tourism and national parks: issues and implications” (Butler WR, Boyd WS eds). John Wiley & Sons Ltd., UK, pp. 70-75.
Ceballos-Lascurain H (1993)
Ecotourism as a worldwide phenomenon. In: “Ecotourism: a guide for planners and managers” (Lindberg K, Hawkins DE eds), Natraj Publishers, Dehradun, India, pp. 80-83.
Chape S, Blyth S, Fish L, Spalding M (2003)
United nations list of protected areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK, pp. 44.
Douglas WR (1982)
Forest recreation. Pergamon Press, New York, USA, pp. 354.
Drumm A, Moore A (2005)
Ecotourism development: a manual for conservation planners and managers. Volume I: An Introduction to Ecotourism Planning. The Nature Conservancy, Washington, DC, pp.31-42.
Fiallo EA, Jacabson SK (1995)
Local communities and protected areas: attitudes of rural residents towards conservation and Machalilla national park, Ecuador. Environmental Conservation 22 (3): 241-249.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ghimire BK, Pimbert MP (1997)
Social change and conservation: an overview of issues and concepts. In: “Social change and conservation” (Krishna PG, Michel PP eds). Earthscan Publications Limited, London, UK, pp. 1-45.
GOI (1994)
Government of India. National Tiger action plan. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi, India.
Goodwin H (1996)
In pursuit of ecotourism. Biodiversity & Conservation 5 (3): 277-292.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hales D (1989)
Changing concepts of national parks. In: “Conservation for the Twenty-First Century” (Western D, Pearl M eds). Oxford University Press, London, UK, pp. 139-144.
Hannah L (1992)
African people, African parks: an evaluation of development initiatives as a means of improving protected area conservation in Africa. USAID, Biodiversity Support Program, Conservation International, Washington, USA.
He G, Chen X, Liu W, Bearer S, Zhou S, Cheng LY, Zhang H, Ouyang Z, Liu J (2008)
Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of wolong nature reserve for giant Pandas in China. Environmental Management 42: 1017-1025.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ite UE (1996)
Community perceptions of the Cross River national park, Nigeria. Environmental Conservation 23 (4): 351-357.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Jashimuddin M, Alamgir M (2005)
Visitors of urban green space based recreation: a case study from Chittagong Metropolitan Area: the Chittagong University. Journal of Science 29 (2): 45-52.
Jashimuddin M, Alamgir M, Majumder R, Patwari MRA, Bhuiyan MAR (2004)
Potentials visitors of Mirpur zoological garden as an outdoor recreation area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 7(9): 1509-1512.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Landell-Mills N, Porras IT (2002)
Silver bullet or fools’ gold? A global review of markets for forest environmental services and their impact on the poor. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK, pp. 254.
Lindberg K, Enriquez J (1994)
An analysis of ecotourism’s economic contribution to conservation and development in Belize. WWF/Ministry of Tourism and Environment, Belize City, Belize, pp. 105.
Mehta JN, Kellert SR (1998)
Local attitudes towards community-based conservation policy and programmers in Nepal: a case study of the Makalu-Barun conservation area. Environmental Conservation 25 (4): 320-333.
CrossRef | Gscholar
NACOM (2003)
Site level appraisal for protected area co-management, Rema-Kalenga wildlife Sanctuary. Nature conservation management. International Resources Group, Dhaka press, Bangladesh.
Nath TK, Alauddin M (2006)
Sitakunda botanical garden and eco-park, Chittagong, Bangladesh: its impacts on rural community. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 2 (1): 1-11.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nishat A, Huq S, Imamul M, Barua S, Reza P, Ali AHM, Khan MAS (2002)
Bio-ecological zones of Bangladesh. IUCN, Bangladesh.
NSP (2006)
Protected areas of Bangladesh: A visitor’s guide. Nishorgo Support Project, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp. 41.
Okaka W (2007)
The role of media communications in developing tourism policy and cross cultural communication for peace, security for sustainable tourism industry in Africa. In: Proceedings of the 4<sup>th</sup> International Institute of Peace through Tourism (IIPT), African Conference on Peace through Tourism at Educators’ Forum, Kampala (Uganda) 19-22 May 2007.
Rao K (1996)
Management problems: people in protected areas. In: Proceedings of the “SAARC Workshop on Wildlife Management”. Dehradun, India.
Sekhar NU (2003)
Local people’s attitudes towards conservation and wildlife tourism around Sariska Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of Environmental Management 69: 339-347.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sharma R, DeCosse P, Khan M, Mazumder A (2005)
Co-Management of protected areas in South Asia with special reference to Bangladesh. Nishorgo Support Project, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp. 16.
Torkildsen G (1992)
Leisure and recreation management. E and FN Spon, London, UK, pp. 463.
Uddin MZ (2002)
Exploration, documentation and germplasm collection of plant genetic resources of Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary (Habigong) in Bangladesh, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Vantomme P, Markkula A, Leslie RN (2002)
Non-wood forest products in 15 countries of tropical Asia: a regional and national overview. FAO-RAP, Bangkok, Thailandia, pp. 15-24.
Walpole MJ, Goodwin HJ (2000)
Local economic impacts of dragon tourism in Indonesia. Annals of Tourism Research 27: 559-576.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Walpole MJ, Goodwin HJ, Ward KGR (2001)
Pricing policy for tourism in protected areas: lessons from Komodo National Park, Indonesia. Conservation Biology 15: 177-185.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wells M, Brandon K, Hannah L (1992)
People and Parks: linking protected area management with local communities. World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
Wenger KF (1984)
Forestry handbook. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
Western D, Wright M (1994)
Natural connections: perspectives in community-based conservation. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Williams PW (1992)
A local framework for ecotourism development. Western Wildlands 18 (3): 14-19.

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info