Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale http://www.sisef.it/forest@/ Ultimi lavori pubblicati Copyright (c) 2004-2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved it http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss PHP 5.3.1 editorial.staff@sisef.org (Gabriele Bucci) editorial.staff@sisef.org (Gabriele Bucci) 60 Forest@ Web Site http://www.sisef.it/images/common/link_forest@.png http://www.sisef.it/iforest/ Comunicazioni Brevi: Incendi 2017: un’importante lezione http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0076-014 <p><b>Battipaglia G, Tognetti R, Valese E, Ascoli D, De Luca PF, Basile S, Ottaviano M, Mazzoleni S, Marchetti M, Esposito A</b></p><p><b>INCENDI 2017: UN’IMPORTANTE LEZIONE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest fires in 2017: a useful lesson. Forest fires, together with the decline of silviculture practice, are one of the most important natural disturbances affecting Mediterranean forests. The year 2017 is shaping up to be a record breaking fire season all around Southern Europe and especially in Italy for the sheer amount of hectares burned. Here we discuss about the importance of forest fire management, highlighting the role of prescribed burning and mechanical treatment (e.g., manual removal, thinning) in reducing the risk of high-intensity wildfires. We report on the successful applications of those fire management techniques on the pinewoods of Vesuvio National Park and Castel Fusano Natural Reserve. The information compiled in the present article aims to demonstrate the potential relevance and impact of forest resources management for fire hazard reduction and shows the necessity of strong interaction among not only the scientific community, but also forest managers, decision makers and the civic responsibility of society at large.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Fire, Forest Management, Silviculture, Prescribed Fire</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (4): 231-236 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0076-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0076-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0076-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Battipaglia G, Tognetti R, Valese E, Ascoli D, De Luca PF, Basile S, Ottaviano M, Mazzoleni S, Marchetti M, Esposito A Comunicazioni Brevi 2017-08-14 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0076-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: La meccanizzazione nella raccolta di impianti di arboricoltura da legno: produttività di lavoro e costi http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2389-014 <p><b>Verani S, Sperandio G, Civitarese V, Spinelli R</b></p><p><b>LA MECCANIZZAZIONE NELLA RACCOLTA DI IMPIANTI DI ARBORICOLTURA DA LEGNO: PRODUTTIVITÀ DI LAVORO E COSTI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Harvesting mechanization in plantations for wood production: working productivity and costs. Tree farming has developed rapidly since the early 1990s. Today, tree plantations play an important role in wood supply (including quality wood) and they can partly bridge the gap between national demand and supply which currently leads to substantial wood imports. The opportunity to start new local supply chains or improve the existing ones will have positive effects on the national economy. Against this background, the introduction of mechanized harvesting systems will result in a dramatic reduction of supply cost. This paper reports a full range of harvesting productivity and cost figures for the following plantation types: fast-growing conifers, high-value hardwoods (established following the ex-2080 EU grant scheme), eucalyptus and cottonwood. The purpose of this study is to provide essential information that may lead to the selection of the best technology option, adapted to the specific type of plantation and to the technology level of the harvesting contractor.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wood Arboriculture, Harvesting, Productivity, Costs, Mechanization</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (4): 237-246 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2389-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2389-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2389-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Verani S, Sperandio G, Civitarese V, Spinelli R Articoli Scientifici 2017-08-14 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2389-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Protocollo di simulazione, calibrazione e validazione del modello 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM: il caso studio del bacino altamente strumentato del Bonis in Calabria http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2368-014 <p><b>Collalti A, Biondo C, Buttafuoco G, Maesano M, Caloiero T, Lucà F, Pellicone G, Ricca N, Salvati R, Veltri A, Scarascia Mugnozza G, Matteucci G</b></p><p><b>PROTOCOLLO DI SIMULAZIONE, CALIBRAZIONE E VALIDAZIONE DEL MODELLO 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM: IL CASO STUDIO DEL BACINO ALTAMENTE STRUMENTATO DEL BONIS IN CALABRIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Simulation, calibration and validation protocols for the model 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM: a case study in the Bonis’ watershed (Calabria, Italy). At present, the climate changes issue is perhaps the greatest threat that is affecting people and the environment. Forest ecosystems have a key role in the mitigation of climate change. In this context, the prediction of the evolution and growth dynamics of the forests including carbon and water fluxes, and in relation to forest management has become a primary objective. The present study aims at defining a protocol for data collection and the workflow for using the 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM model in a small mountain watershed in the Calabria region. Within this work we synergistically integrate data coming from different methods (e.g., LiDAR, eddy covariance and sample area) to predict forest dynamics (growth, carbon and water fluxes). Carbon and water fluxes will be simulated considering also the effects of forest management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Model, Climate Change, Forest Management, Eddy Covariance, Lidar</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (4): 247-256 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2368-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2368-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2368-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Collalti A, Biondo C, Buttafuoco G, Maesano M, Caloiero T, Lucà F, Pellicone G, Ricca N, Salvati R, Veltri A, Scarascia Mugnozza G, Matteucci G Articoli Scientifici 2017-08-14 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2368-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Effetti a breve e medio termine di defogliazioni artificiali sull’accrescimento del pioppo euramericano (Populus × canadensis clone I-214) in piantagione in relazione all’intensità e all’epoca di defogliazione http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2417-014 <p><b>Allegro G</b></p><p><b>EFFETTI A BREVE E MEDIO TERMINE DI DEFOGLIAZIONI ARTIFICIALI SULL’ACCRESCIMENTO DEL PIOPPO EURAMERICANO (POPULUS × CANADENSIS CLONE I-214) IN PIANTAGIONE IN RELAZIONE ALL’INTENSITÀ E ALL’EPOCA DI DEFOGLIAZIONE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The impact of artificial defoliations on the growth of euramerican poplar (Populus × canadensis clone I-214) was investigated in three field assays. Young poplar trees (1st-3rd cultivation year) were subjected to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% defoliation either in the early or in the late growing season (or in both periods), and their growth was measured in the same year and during the following 2-3 years. Only trees treated to 75% and 100% defoliation exhibited a significant growth decrease compared to control trees: the diametric growth of early defoliated trees was reduced up to 20-40% in the year of defoliation, whereas trees defoliated at the same rates late in the season, or defoliated twice in a single year, suffered the heaviest damage, showing a growth loss up to 50% in the year following the defoliation events. In the latter cases, a delayed sprouting at spring and the death of branchlets were observed. A financial analysis showed that the economic damage caused by the highest defoliation rates, mainly when occurring late in the season, definitely exceeds the cost of treatments, thus suggesting the adoption of appropriate control strategies.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Poplar, Wood Plantation, Hybrid Clone, Artificial Defoliation, Plant Growth, Damage Treshold</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (4): 206-217 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2417-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2417-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2417-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Allegro G Articoli Scientifici 2017-08-01 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2417-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Stima dell’andamento della redditività delle piantagioni di pioppo alla luce delle politiche di settore http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2394-014 <p><b>Pra A, Pettenella D</b></p><p><b>STIMA DELL’ANDAMENTO DELLA REDDITIVITÀ DELLE PIANTAGIONI DI PIOPPO ALLA LUCE DELLE POLITICHE DI SETTORE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Estimating the profitability trends of poplar plantations under current sectorial public policies. Investments in poplar plantations in the Po valley (Northern Italy), the most important segment of timber production for the Italian forest-based sector, are undergoing a decline since more than two decades. The investment level is influenced by both economic variables directly related to the production, such as timber prices, management costs, and land costs, as well as external variables indirectly related to it, such as the opportunity cost of competitive agricultural productions, environmental restrictions, and the presence of subsidies. This paper presents the results of an analysis of trends in timber investment returns from poplar plantations in the Po Valley. In specific, we estimated how these returns have changed in the last 15 years (2001-2015) as a result of the evolution of the key variables of cost and timber price, and assuming a representative plantation management regime. The results show that, in the considered period, poplar timber investments have had a significant decline, with estimated Internal Rate of Returns dropped of 22.1%-44.2% from 2001 to 2015. In specific, the Internal Rates of Returns, when defined and in the base case scenario, ranged from values between 7.1% and 14.0% (2001) to 4.4%-11.0% (2015). Poplar plantations are offering interesting income opportunities only when average timber prices are high, while in all the other cases the investments are at the threshold of economic viability or even negative. The decreased profitability, together with the high variability of potential financial returns, are negatively influencing the attitude towards the investments in poplar plantations. These results are discussed in the light of the recent sectorial public policies. In particular, we focused on the Measures to support plantations of the regional Rural Development Plans, which often proved to be decisive for establishing new plantations and crucial in (de)stabilizing the sector. The lack of a strategic coordination among the northern Italian Regions and the discontinuity of subsidies schemes have contributed to the destabilization of the market.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Plantations, Poplar Cultivation, Financial Analysis, Forest Policy, Rural Development Plans</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (4): 218-230 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2394-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2394-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2394-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pra A, Pettenella D Articoli Scientifici 2017-08-01 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2394-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Gli incendi boschivi stanno cambiando: cambiamo le strategie per governarli http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2537-014 <p><b>Bovio G, Marchetti M, Tonarelli L, Salis M, Vacchiano G, Lovreglio R, Elia M, Fiorucci P, Ascoli D</b></p><p><b>GLI INCENDI BOSCHIVI STANNO CAMBIANDO: CAMBIAMO LE STRATEGIE PER GOVERNARLI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest fires in Italy are changing. More frequent heatwaves and drought increase the flammability of the vegetation; the abandonment of rural land produces 30.000 ha of newly afforested areas each year; and the wildland-urban interface is expanding with the sprawl of urbanized areas. However, forest fires are rarely understood and managed in their complexity. The public opinion is often misinformed on the causes and consequences of fires in the forest. Moreover, fire management relies almost exclusively on extinction and emergency response, resulting in high costs and limited efficacy versus extreme fire seasons. We advocate to increase the role and investments in wildfire prevention, which can be carried out by fuel-oriented silviculture, such as facilitating less flammable species or prescribed burning, in order to reduce the flammability of the vegetation and mitigate fire intensity in high-leverage areas. A centralized structure is necessary to implement such a strategy and coordinate the competences and actions of all local administrations and actors involved.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Wildfires, Forest Management, Climate Change</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (4): 202-205 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2537-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2537-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2537-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bovio G, Marchetti M, Tonarelli L, Salis M, Vacchiano G, Lovreglio R, Elia M, Fiorucci P, Ascoli D Commenti & Prospettive 2017-07-19 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2537-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: I Coleotteri Carabidi (Coleoptera, Carabidae) come indicatori di passati interventi selvicolturali in foreste vetuste del Parco Nazionale della Sila (Calabria, Italia) http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2351-014 <p><b>Mazzei A, Gangale C, Laurito M, Luzzi G, Menguzzato G, Pizzolotto R, Scalise C, Uzunov D, Brandmayr P</b></p><p><b>I COLEOTTERI CARABIDI (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE) COME INDICATORI DI PASSATI INTERVENTI SELVICOLTURALI IN FORESTE VETUSTE DEL PARCO NAZIONALE DELLA SILA (CALABRIA, ITALIA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Old-growth forests are terrestrial ecosystems with the highest level of biodiversity and the main environments for the study of conservation and dynamics of the forest system. In Mediterranean Europe, two millennia of human exploitation deeply altered the structural complexity of the native forests. Some animal groups, including insects, may be used as a proxy of such changes. In this paper we explored the possible effects of forest management on the functional diversity (species traits) of carabid beetle communities. Three old-growth forests of the Sila National Park were sampled by pitfall traps set up in pure beech, beech-silver fir and Calabrian black pine forests. In each forest, five managed vs. five unmanaged stands were considered. Managed sites were exploited until the sixties of the past century and then left unmanaged. More than 6000 carabid specimens belonging to 23 species were collected. The functional diversity in carabid groups is influenced by forest management especially in beech and beech-silver fir stands. Body size, specialized predators, endemic species and forest species were negatively affected by stand management. On the contrary, omnivorous ground beetles populations (or species) with a high dispersal power (macropterous) and large geographic distribution were positively influenced by stand management. In pine forests the old-growth community seems less sensitive to past management and more affected by soil evolution. Soil erosion and disturbance may reduce species diversity of ground beetles. Anyway, the composition of the carabid community shows that 50-60 years of forest restoration are enough for the reconstruction of a fairly diverse assemblage reflecting a “subclimax” situation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Functional Diversity, Species Traits, Forest Management, Old Growth Forests, Bio-indicators</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (3): 162-174 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2351-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2351-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2351-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Mazzei A, Gangale C, Laurito M, Luzzi G, Menguzzato G, Pizzolotto R, Scalise C, Uzunov D, Brandmayr P Articoli Scientifici 2017-05-15 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2351-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Modelli di stima del volume e delle fitomasse del soprassuolo arboreo delle principali formazioni forestali della Calabria mediante dati LiDAR http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2399-014 <p><b>Scrinzi G, Floris A, Clementel F, Bernardini V, Chianucci F, Greco S, Michelini T, Penasa A, Puletti N, Rizzo M, Turco R, Corona P</b></p><p><b>MODELLI DI STIMA DEL VOLUME E DELLE FITOMASSE DEL SOPRASSUOLO ARBOREO DELLE PRINCIPALI FORMAZIONI FORESTALI DELLA CALABRIA MEDIANTE DATI LIDAR</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Models of stand volume and biomass estimation based on LiDAR data for the main forest types in Calabria (southern Italy). The AlForLab project is part of the Cluster MEA (Materials Energy Environment) addressed to the Calabria Region. Estimating the main dendrometric variables of Calabrian forests using models based on publicly available remote sensed data is one of the main purposes of the project. This paper describes the procedures used to develop several thematic maps (raster and vector) of timber volume and phytomass to be used in planning and management activities at both regional and forest property scale, as well as for felling plans, logging projects etc. We used public LiDAR data at medium-low resolution (1.6 pts m-2), acquired on about 90% of Calabrian territory in the frame of a national remote sensing programme of the Italian Ministry of the Environment. Field data from the second National Forest Inventory (INFC 2005) on 311 sample points were used for model calibration, as well as new field data acquired specifically for AlForLab project on 143 angle count samples. A series of regression models to predict volume and its corresponding aboveground biomass (dry and fresh weight) were developed and digital maps at different spatial resolutions were produced, as well as their estimate uncertainties. These models and their mapping products are also an important part of the new-establishing forest Decision Support System CFOR. The adopted models, though based on the same mathematical equation, have specific coefficients for different species and groups of species, according to a forest type classification system compatible with the fourth level of Corine Land Cover. In this way it is possible to apply the models without accessing more detailed forest type maps. All estimation methods and procedures are consistent with national forest inventory models, and with the other new tools proposed by AlForLab project to estimate timber volume, such as the regional tariffs and the field sampling inventory procedures. R2 adjusted values (for models at the highest typological detail) are between 60% and 85%, whereas uncertainties of timber volume estimate (ESS%) range from 25% (for main forest species) up to 50% (for less spread forest types). All processing steps to produce digital maps were performed on open-source environment (R and QGIS).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: ALS, LiDAR, Timber Volume, Forest Biomass, Estimation Models, CHM, AlForLab</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (3): 175-187 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2399-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2399-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2399-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Scrinzi G, Floris A, Clementel F, Bernardini V, Chianucci F, Greco S, Michelini T, Penasa A, Puletti N, Rizzo M, Turco R, Corona P Articoli Scientifici 2017-05-15 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2399-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Individuazione e correzione di outlier nei dati raster LiDAR provenienti dal Geoportale Nazionale e produzione di un CHM idoneo alla stima delle provvigioni legnose della Calabria http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2328-014 <p><b>Floris A, Penasa A, Michelini T, Puletti N</b></p><p><b>INDIVIDUAZIONE E CORREZIONE DI OUTLIER NEI DATI RASTER LIDAR PROVENIENTI DAL GEOPORTALE NAZIONALE E PRODUZIONE DI UN CHM IDONEO ALLA STIMA DELLE PROVVIGIONI LEGNOSE DELLA CALABRIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Detection and correction of LiDAR raster data from the Italian national remote sensing programme and production of a suitable CHM to forest volume estimation in Calabria (southern Italy). The AlForLab project, a Public-Private Laboratory which is part of the Cluster MEA (Materials Energy Environment) addressed to the Calabria Region (southern Italy), has gained great benefit by using LiDAR data acquired in the frame of a national remote sensing programme of the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea. This kind of LiDAR data, distributed in raster format and publicly available for research and non-profit purposes, have proved to be a suitable tool to support forest management. Their usage, however, has required the recognition and correction of non-forest elements included in the Digital Surface Model (DSM), like electric powerlines, wind turbines, sub-vertical rocks and viaducts. Such outliers, if remaining into the Canopy height Model (CHM), can generate potential errors in application of LiDAR-based prediction models. This paper proposes some semi-automatic pre-processing procedures, directly applicable on raster data, in order to obtain a CHM without non-forest elements. The methods described here have been developed in open-source environment (R and QGIS). The correction procedures carried out were tested in three municipalities having forest area between 1700 and 5400 ha, and characterized by different types of outliers. The performances of the methods were evaluated by comparing the estimated forest volume obtained before and after their application. Although low total volume changes were observed on the entire study areas (about 0.5%, corresponding to 1500 to 7200 m3), more significant effects, tens to hundreds cubic meters per hectare of overestimation, can occur in stands or forest compartments with a high presence of outliers. In conclusion, the proposed methods have proved to be suitable to achieve a reliable CHM for forest applications.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Outlier, Timber Volume, Normalized DSM, Canopy Height Model</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (3): 188-201 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2328-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2328-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2328-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Floris A, Penasa A, Michelini T, Puletti N Articoli Scientifici 2017-05-15 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2328-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Eppur si muove! http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0077-014 <p><b>Corona P</b></p><p><b>EPPUR SI MUOVE!</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The forestry sector in Italy is significantly moving. Perhaps the speed is not the expected and the needed one, especially as regards the public services. On the other hand, although timeliness is an important factor, to establish and maintain political and programmatic targets coordinated on a national level are even more relevant. This editorial offers some evidences and thoughts on the subject.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forestry, Forest Sector, Forest Policy, Italy</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (2): 141-142 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0077-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0077-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0077-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Corona P Editoriali 2017-04-12 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0077-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Servizi ecosistemi delle foreste calabresi: la percezione degli stakeholders http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2219-014 <p><b>Pastorella F, Maesano M, Paletto A, Giacovelli G, Vivona S, Veltri A, Pellicone G, Matteucci G, Scarascia Mugnozza G</b></p><p><b>SERVIZI ECOSISTEMI DELLE FORESTE CALABRESI: LA PERCEZIONE DEGLI STAKEHOLDERS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the last decades, the ecological, economic and social analysis of benefits provided by ecosystem to society has coved a great importance in the scientific international literature. The main studies focuses on three aspects: ecosystem services potential supply, demand and use. The potential supply is defined as the ecosystem biophysical capacity to supply services, while the demand represents the amount of service desired by the society. The third aspect considers the current use of a ecosystem service in order to satisfy the social demand. This study focused on the evaluation of social demand on ecosystem services provided by forests at local level (Calabria region) under the project “ALForLab”. The main objective of the present study is to analyze the stakeholders’ opinions and preferences of forest sector in Calabria Region about relevance of forest ecosystem services and categories of ecosystem services. The study, conducted in four areas (Pollino, Sila, Catena Costiera and Serre Calabre), was structured in three steps: (i) identification and classification of stakeholders (stakeholder analysis); (ii) administration of a questionnaire to the previously identified stakeholders; (iii) statistical analysis of the data collected by questionnaire. Stakeholders’ opinions and preferences were analyzed in order to highlight the differences between study areas and groups of stakeholders. At the end of the stakeholder analysis, 320 stakeholders were identified and contacted, 71 of whom filled in the questionnaire (response rate of 22%). The results show that the two main categories of ecosystem services are the supporting services and regulating services. According to the stakeholders’ opinions the three most important forest ecosystem services are: biodiversity, landscape and hydrogeological protection. Landscape is particularly important because it is strictly linked to the cultural value and social identity of a territory. This survey show that the characteristics and peculiarities of each study area are the main factors that influence the stakeholders’ preferences on single elements of the landscape. In the study areas characterized by a high natural value (Pollino, Sila and Serre Calabre) the stakeholders consider the natural elements of the landscape (forests and water bodies) as the most important, while in the most urbanized study area (Catena Costiera) the anthropic and cultural elements have a key importance. Finally, the stakeholders consider the forest fires, the illegal cuttings and the forest management abandonment the three main important threat factors to forests functionality in Calabria.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Provisioning Services, Regulating Services, Cultural Services, Supporting Services, Stakeholders, Social Preferences, Calabria Region</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (2): 143-161 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2219-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2219-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2219-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pastorella F, Maesano M, Paletto A, Giacovelli G, Vivona S, Veltri A, Pellicone G, Matteucci G, Scarascia Mugnozza G Articoli Scientifici 2017-04-12 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2219-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Certificazione forestale in Calabria: attitudini, preferenze e disponibilità a pagare delle imprese di seconda trasformazione del legno http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2174-014 <p><b>Paletto A, Notaro S, Pastorella F, Giacovelli G, Giovannelli S, Turco R</b></p><p><b>CERTIFICAZIONE FORESTALE IN CALABRIA: ATTITUDINI, PREFERENZE E DISPONIBILITÀ A PAGARE DELLE IMPRESE DI SECONDA TRASFORMAZIONE DEL LEGNO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest certification was born in the early 90s of the twentieth century in order to protect tropical and sub-tropical forests against a progressive deforestation and degradation. Forest certification is a valuable instrument for environmental protection and a useful tool of green marketing for forest-wood chain enterprises. In the last decades, in developed countries there has been increased consumer awareness of environmental protection and environmentally friendly wood products. This consumers’ attitude is related to the consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price for environmentally friendly wood products. In the international literature, some studies have investigated the consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for several certified wood products with different prices, while few studies have analyzed the willingness to pay of manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain for certified wood products. In addition, in the international literature there is a knowledge gap concerning the manufactures or consumers’ willingness to pay for local wood products compared to equivalent products from other geographical areas. Starting from these considerations, the main aims of this study are: (1) to analyze the wood manufactures’ willingness to pay a premium price for certified wood products; (2) to investigate the wood manufactures’ attitudes and willingness to pay for regional/local wood products. The study was conducted as part of the “Ambi.Tec.Fil.Legno” project involving 127 manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain located in Calabria region. At the end of the questionnaire survey, the information provided by 40 manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain were processed and analyzed (response rate 31.5%). The results show that the main factors that influence the purchase decisions of enterprises are the trust in the seller and the durability of the product. Concerning the manufactures’ willingness to pay for certified wood products, 40% of sample of manufactures is willing to pay a premium price with a mean value of 1.55%. A similar percentage of wood manufactures and enterprises (40%) are willing to pay a premium price to purchase local wood material with a mean value equal to 3.25%. The results of this study can support the decision makers in the definition of new strategies to enhance the forest sector in Calabria highlighting the potential benefits of forest certification and use of local wood at regional level.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sustainable Forest Management, Willingness to Pay, Forest-wood Chain, Wood Manufactures And Enterprises, Calabria Region</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (2): 107-123 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2174-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2174-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2174-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Paletto A, Notaro S, Pastorella F, Giacovelli G, Giovannelli S, Turco R Articoli Scientifici 2017-04-03 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2174-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Valutazione economica delle tecnologie RFID e open source per la tracciabilità del legno in Calabria http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2267-014 <p><b>Sperandio G, Costa C, Figorilli S, Pallottino F, Scrinzi G, Colle G, Proto AR, Macrì G, Antonucci F, Menesatti P</b></p><p><b>VALUTAZIONE ECONOMICA DELLE TECNOLOGIE RFID E OPEN SOURCE PER LA TRACCIABILITÀ DEL LEGNO IN CALABRIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this work was to assess the economic sustainability of the implementation of a wood traceability system in Calabria based on RFID and open source technologies. We identified a break-even point in its implementation under different scenarios in order to highlight the economic sustainability limits, expressed in terms of m3 or tons of processed product. The results showed that the use of RFID technology along the supply chain could lead to an effective operational simplification and to a more efficient use of resources. Based on the average market prices for timber (80-120 € / m3), the implementation of RFID technology led to an increase in timber price by 8% under the worst scenarios. This suggests that the use of open source technologies for wood traceability is already feasible and economically sustainable, as 40% of private companies stated their willingness to pay a premium price (on average 3.25% higher) for purchasing certified local wood products in Calabria. Moreover, we expect a further reduction of tags and hardware costs in the next future, up to half the costs estimated in this work, thus making the application of such technology to timber traceability even more affordable.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Precision Forestry, Traceability, Tag, RFID, Open Source, Economic Sustainability</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (2): 124-134 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2267-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2267-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2267-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sperandio G, Costa C, Figorilli S, Pallottino F, Scrinzi G, Colle G, Proto AR, Macrì G, Antonucci F, Menesatti P Articoli Scientifici 2017-04-03 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2267-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: CFOR: un sistema di supporto alle decisioni per le foreste in Calabria http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2363-014 <p><b>Puletti N, Floris A, Scrinzi G, Chianucci F, Colle G, Michelini T, Pedot N, Penasa A, Scalercio S, Corona P</b></p><p><b>CFOR: UN SISTEMA DI SUPPORTO ALLE DECISIONI PER LE FORESTE IN CALABRIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this work, a spatial decision support system dedicated to forest management in Calabria (CFOR) is presented. The main aim of the tool is to assess wood production under various harvesting options. All functionalities have been developed by Python and R languages for QGIS. Main inputs are digital models, mainly derived from Lidar, and vector shapefiles.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: SDSS, Geographic Information Systems, Growing Stock, Aboveground Biomass, Forest Management</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (2): 135-140 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2363-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2363-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2363-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Puletti N, Floris A, Scrinzi G, Chianucci F, Colle G, Michelini T, Pedot N, Penasa A, Scalercio S, Corona P Articoli Scientifici 2017-04-03 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2363-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Sulla ricerca forestale nazionale, ovvero cominciamo dai risultati della VQR 2011-2014 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0078-014 <p><b>Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>SULLA RICERCA FORESTALE NAZIONALE, OVVERO COMINCIAMO DAI RISULTATI DELLA VQR 2011-2014</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Starting from the recent issue of the national research evaluation program 2011-2014, the paper discusses results and rankings for the forest sector, both for research institutes and universities in Italy. Having a general look to the different research groups operating in the country, and referring to the institutional situation, rapidly evolving for forests, forestry and wood chains, the most important challenges and aims of the future research topics to be discussed and carried forward are presented.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: ANVUR, Valutazione Qualità della Ricerca, Università ed Enti di Ricerca, AGR 05, AGR 06</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (2): 94-98 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0078-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0078-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0078-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M Editoriali 2017-03-28 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0078-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: L’assestamento forestale basato su servizi ecosistemici e pagamenti per servizi ecosistemici: considerazioni a valle del progetto LIFE+ Making Good Natura http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2235-014 <p><b>Gaglioppa P, Guadagno R, Marino D, Marucci A, Palmieri M, Pellegrino D, Schirpke U, Caracausi C</b></p><p><b>L’ASSESTAMENTO FORESTALE BASATO SU SERVIZI ECOSISTEMICI E PAGAMENTI PER SERVIZI ECOSISTEMICI: CONSIDERAZIONI A VALLE DEL PROGETTO LIFE+ MAKING GOOD NATURA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forests are important for timber production and provide a wide range of ecosystem services (ES), including water provision and regulation, carbon sequestration, erosion control, and recreational services. However, these services, which are crucial for human well-being, are not sufficiently recognised and rarely included into forest planning. The project LIFE+ Making Good Natura aims to develop innovative governance models for agro-forestry sites of the Natura 2000 network based on ES to achieve new possible mechanisms of (self)financing. This paper provides insights into the biophysical and monetary valuation of nine ES, which were quantified for selected Natura 2000 sites in different regions of Italy. Based on our results, Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) are discussed in relation to forest planning and management suggesting a new concept for the forest planning. Management plans should hence integrate different financial flows, not only wood or timber, but also different ES which provide more interesting income.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Planning, Forest Management Plan, Ecosystem Services, Natura 2000, Payments For Ecosystem Services</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (2): 99-106 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2235-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2235-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2235-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Gaglioppa P, Guadagno R, Marino D, Marucci A, Palmieri M, Pellegrino D, Schirpke U, Caracausi C Articoli Scientifici 2017-03-28 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2235-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Strategie di valorizzazione della filiera foresta-legno in Calabria: il punto di vista dei portatori d’interessi http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2277-013 <p><b>Paletto A, Giacovelli G, Matteucci G, Maesano M, Pastorella F, Turco R, Scarascia Mugnozza G</b></p><p><b>STRATEGIE DI VALORIZZAZIONE DELLA FILIERA FORESTA-LEGNO IN CALABRIA: IL PUNTO DI VISTA DEI PORTATORI D’INTERESSI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Strategies for the promotion of the forest-wood chain in Calabria (southern Italy): the stakeholders’ point of view. In Italy, the value of bioeconomy is 251 billion € and more than 1.7 million of workforce is employed in this sector. The forest-wood chain cover about 15% of total value of bioeconomy. The consultation draft of Italian Bioeconomy Strategy was presented on November 22, 2016. This document identifies three macro-sectors (agrifood, marine bioeconomy, forestry and biobased industry) with the respective objectives and priorities. In addition, some Italian regions are organizing to devise a regional strategy detailing the key points of the EU Bioeconomy Strategy and Italian Bioeconomy Strategy in accordance with local peculiarities. In order to develop a regional strategy for the forest sector it is important to investigate the social demands and needs involving the local stakeholders. The aim of the study is to investigate the stakeholders’ opinions of Calabria Region (Italy) about the priorities of forest-wood chain to include in the future regional bioeconomy strategy. The stakeholders’ opinions were collected through the face-to-face administration of a structured questionnaire to 99 local stakeholders. The respondents assessed the importance of a set of objectives aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain at local level (economic exploitation of wood products; diffusion of forest certification; orientation of production to market demand; coordination of forest-wood-energy chain’s actors; implementation of environmental and cultural forest values; improvement of the level of mechanization in wood processing; improvement of the efficiency of forestry workers). In addition, the respondents assessed the capacity of some specific activities to achieve the above mentioned objectives. The collected data were used to define two strategies aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain in Calabria Region. The results show that for the interviewed stakeholders the main three objectives are: the implementation of environmental and cultural forest values, the improvement of the efficiency of forestry workers, and the diffusion of forest certification. In addition, the stakeholders highlighted the importance of the activities of environmental education for the citizens and the professional training courses for the forest operators. Finally, the diffusion of forest certification is a key issue for the interviewed stakeholders. This issue can be achieved facilitating the access of the certified products to the market and creating a chain-of-custody system for the wood products.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bioeconomy, Public Participation, Consultation, Forest Certification, Environmental and Cultural Forest Values</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (1): 34-48 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2277-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2277-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2277-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Paletto A, Giacovelli G, Matteucci G, Maesano M, Pastorella F, Turco R, Scarascia Mugnozza G Articoli Scientifici 2017-02-27 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2277-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Quanto sono differenti i boschi di conifere? Confronto fra le comunità di Lepidotteri notturni di abetine e pinete in Calabria http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2241-013 <p><b>Infusino M, Scalercio S</b></p><p><b>QUANTO SONO DIFFERENTI I BOSCHI DI CONIFERE? CONFRONTO FRA LE COMUNITÀ DI LEPIDOTTERI NOTTURNI DI ABETINE E PINETE IN CALABRIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: How much different are conifer forests? Comparison of Lepidoptera community in silver fir and black pine stands in Calabria (southern Italy). The main coniferous forests of Calabria (Italy) are certainly the Calabrian black pine (Pinus nigra calabrica) forests of the Sila massif and the silver fir (Abies alba) forests of the Serre Vibonesi. Despite these woodlands are of great importance both economically and from a conservationist point of view, biodiversity of moth has been investigated in a non occasional way only for the Sila Calabrian black pine forests, while the silver fir woods of the Serre have been only recently the subject of studies. Apart from increasing the knowledge on the biodiversity of the nocturnal Lepidoptera hosted by Calabrian coniferous forests, the aim of this study was to compare the sampled communities to find out the main differences and their causes. The sampling was conducted in 9 sites for each forest type, distributed so as to cover the different development stages of ecological succession, from open areas to mature woodlands. A light trap was monthly placed at each site from May to November 2015, for a total of 126 nights/trap. The two communities showed low similarity indices (Classic Jaccard = 0.396; Sorensen Classic = 0.568), due both to the component trophically linked to the dominant forest species and to the component linked to the herbaceous layer. In fact, the dominant species in the Calabrian black pine wood and in the silver fir wood (Thera firmata and Macaria liturata, respectively) are absent or only occasionally present in the other forest type, and the community linked to the herbaceous layer is much better represented in the Calabrian black pine forest (29.7% of the total) than in the silver fir forest (14.9%). The arrangement of the Sila landscape, where Calabrian black pine forests alternate with pastures, shrubs and cultivated fields, seems to be the cause of the increased presence of species related to non-forest vegetation layer, while the micro-climatic conditions of the silver fir forest, more humid and temperate, favor the presence of a limited share of species trophically associated with herbaceous plants, which, however, have a high bio-geographical interest.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Lepidoptera, Biodiversity, Communities</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (1): 49-59 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2241-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2241-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2241-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Infusino M, Scalercio S Articoli Scientifici 2017-02-27 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2241-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: TaCAL: un sistema di tariffe del volume legnoso e delle fitomasse delle specie forestali della Calabria http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2278-013 <p><b>Scrinzi G, Clementel F, Floris A, Gasparini P</b></p><p><b>TACAL: UN SISTEMA DI TARIFFE DEL VOLUME LEGNOSO E DELLE FITOMASSE DELLE SPECIE FORESTALI DELLA CALABRIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the frame of the ALFORLAB project, a harmonised set of tree volume (and biomass) single entry tables (“tariffs”) was developed for the main 20 forest species of Calabria (Southern Italy), to outline the “coordinates” of volume expression for inventory purposes at both regional and forest planning level. The system, called TaCAL, was based on the double entry volume and biomass functions of the Italian National forest Inventory - INFC 2005 -, and was built studying the height/dbh relationships on 2300 trees measured during the INFC campaign in Calabria, on over 300 sampling plots randomly distributed. For each of the 20 species, or group of similar species, the tariff system is articulated into 9 h/d relationship curves, which are in turn related to corresponding single entry tables of tree volume (stem and branches with dbh above 5 cm), and respective biomass tables. According to INFC 2005 stereometric equations, TaCAL system is suitable for both high forests and coppices. TaCAL provides a uniform volume and biomass estimation system for all main forest species of Calabria as well as, under certain conditions, a unique criterion of expression of the site fertility. TaCAL tariff system has already been integrated into the construction of forecasting models of timber volume and biomass based on angle count samplings, at forest management scale. TaCAL has also provided the basis for ground truth volume estimates to develop forecast models through remote sensing LiDAR data. It must be emphasized that TaCAL represents the first case in Italy in which single tree data by INFC field surveys were used to carry out a comprehensive dendrometric system at a regional level.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Volume Tables, Tariff Systems, Biomass Tables, Forest Planning, Calabria</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (1): 60-74 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2278-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2278-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2278-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Scrinzi G, Clementel F, Floris A, Gasparini P Articoli Scientifici 2017-02-27 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2278-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Relazione fra diversità del paesaggio in ecosistemi forestali montani mediterranei e diversità dei Lepidotteri a differenti scale spaziali http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2296-014 <p><b>Greco S, Coluzzi R, Imbrenda V, Infusino M, Simoniello T, Scalercio S</b></p><p><b>RELAZIONE FRA DIVERSITÀ DEL PAESAGGIO IN ECOSISTEMI FORESTALI MONTANI MEDITERRANEI E DIVERSITÀ DEI LEPIDOTTERI A DIFFERENTI SCALE SPAZIALI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The diversity in composition of moth communities living forest habitats is strongly related to habitat characteristics, depending mainly on dominant forest type. The species in a community have different behaviors and are more or less influenced by the surrounding landscape diversity. The effects of landscape diversity on moth communities are significant when the appropriate spatial scale is considered, which depends on the ecological needs and dispersion abilities of species. In this study we assessed the relationships between landscape diversity at different spatial scales in four different forest Calabrian scenarios, identified by using the CORINE Land Cover, and moth diversity. Nocturnal Lepidoptera were sampled in beech, chestnut, Calabrian black pine and fir forests by using LED light traps. In each forest type 9 traps were positioned, in a total of 36 sample plots selected by the maturity of forest. The diversity of Lepidoptera communities was related to landscape diversity, considering each sample plots as the center of the surrounding landscape analyzed with different buffers (500m, 1000m, 2000m, 3000m, and 5000m). Diversity moth-landscape correlations were performed for: (i) all 36 sample plots; (ii) only broadleaves forest sites; (iii) only conifers forest sites; (iv) only forested plots; (v) only non-forested plots. Our results suggest that landscape composition in forest ecosystems, both at small and medium spatial scale, have a driving role in determining moth communities diversity, pointing out that the landscape structure is a parameter to taking in account for the sustainable management of forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Lepidoptera, Diversity, Landscape Ecology, CORINE Land Cover, Calabria</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (1): 75-83 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2296-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2296-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2296-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Greco S, Coluzzi R, Imbrenda V, Infusino M, Simoniello T, Scalercio S Articoli Scientifici 2017-02-27 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2296-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Indicatori ad ampia scala per il monitoraggio della diversità forestale per le principali formazioni boschive della Calabria http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2293-014 <p><b>Infusino M, Scalercio S, Corona P, Greco S, Puletti N, Chianucci F</b></p><p><b>INDICATORI AD AMPIA SCALA PER IL MONITORAGGIO DELLA DIVERSITÀ FORESTALE PER LE PRINCIPALI FORMAZIONI BOSCHIVE DELLA CALABRIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Recently, the Society’s perception of forest resources has gone through significant changes. Forest ecosystems play a multifunctional role and host an important portion of the whole biodiversity, particularly in the Mediterranean area. Remote sensing technologies provide a unique way to obtain spatially extensive information on forest ecosystems, but relatively few studies used such information to evaluate forest habitat and biotic diversity. In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensing to predict forest diversity by linking remotely sensed information with diversity metrics obtained from ground measurements of butterfly diversity. The field work was carried out in Calabria in four different forest types (beech, chestnut, black pine and silver fir forests). The sampling of Lepidoptera was carried out by LED light traps. We positioned 9 traps per forest type, for a total of 36 sites chosen to sample the different stages of forest succession in each forest type. Samples were carried out once a month from May to November 2015. Data from in situ butterfly measurements were compared with above ground forest biomass estimated from airborne LiDAR with NDVI estimated from Landsat 8. Results indicated that the Geometridae/Noctuideae ratio of lepidopteran communities was significantly correlated with the tree biomass, its distribution among tree size classes and the NDVI. The Geometridae/Noctuidae ratio, therefore, represents an index easy to calculate, which can be employed to integrate data acquired from remote sensing in order to obtain continuous spatial estimates of forest naturalness.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: LiDAR, Moths, Biodiversity, Bioindicators Taxa, Landsat, NDVI</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (1): 84-93 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2293-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2293-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2293-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Infusino M, Scalercio S, Corona P, Greco S, Puletti N, Chianucci F Articoli Scientifici 2017-02-27 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2293-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rassegne: Precision forestry: riferimenti concettuali, strumenti e prospettive di diffusione in Italia http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2285-014 <p><b>Corona P, Chianucci F, Quatrini V, Civitarese V, Clementel F, Costa C, Floris A, Menesatti P, Puletti N, Sperandio G, Verani S, Turco R, Bernardini V, Plutino M, Scrinzi G</b></p><p><b>PRECISION FORESTRY: RIFERIMENTI CONCETTUALI, STRUMENTI E PROSPETTIVE DI DIFFUSIONE IN ITALIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Precision forestry: concepts, tools and perspectives in Italy. Recent advancements in informatics and communication technologies have led to an increasing employment of analytical and communication tools in forestry, including data from satellite, airborne, unmanned aerial vehichles, global positioning systems, and many sensors, devices and other geospatial tools. Precision forestry enables highly repeatable measurements, actions and processes to manage and harvest forest stands, simultaneously allowing information linkages between production and wood supply chain, involving resource managers and environmental community; all these factors are contributing to the wider goal of sustainable forest management. In this report, we review the most recent advances in the precision forestry applications and tools, with particular reference on advanced forest inventory, decision support systems, precision forest harvesting, and wood traceability. We discuss the opportunities and challenges towards implementing precision forest practices in forest management and planning and forest industry in Italy.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Silviculture, Forestry-wood Chain, Forest Inventory, Precision Agriculture, Bio-economy, Digital Agriculture, ICT</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (1): 1-12 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2285-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2285-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2285-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Corona P, Chianucci F, Quatrini V, Civitarese V, Clementel F, Costa C, Floris A, Menesatti P, Puletti N, Sperandio G, Verani S, Turco R, Bernardini V, Plutino M, Scrinzi G Rassegne 2017-01-31 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2285-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Pubblica partecipazione nell’implementazione della rete Natura 2000 in Italia: le esperienze dei portatori d’interessi http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2131-014 <p><b>Paletto A, Graziani A, Brescancin F, De Meo I</b></p><p><b>PUBBLICA PARTECIPAZIONE NELL’IMPLEMENTAZIONE DELLA RETE NATURA 2000 IN ITALIA: LE ESPERIENZE DEI PORTATORI D’INTERESSI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Public participation in the implementation of the Natura 2000 network in Italy: the stakeholders’ experiences. Natura 2000 is an ecological network of protected areas identified by the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the Birds Directive (79/409/EC) - recently replaced by the Directive 2009/147/EC - in order to ensure the long-term protection of endangered species in their natural habitats in European Union (EU) territory. EU Member States are responsible for developing and implementing the procedures defined by Habitats Directive, but there are no specific recommendations about participation of stakeholders and local community in the decision-making process. Consequently, each country has adopted a different participatory strategy taking into account the principles of integration approach. The integration approach is based on combining human activities and nature conservation purposes in the same area or, at least, in areas in close proximity. In Italy, the implementation of Natura 2000 network was developed at local level (Regions and Autonomous Provinces) using different approaches and procedures. Starting from these considerations, the aim of the study was to analyse the stakeholders’ involvement process during the implementation of Habitats Directive in Italy and the management of Natura 2000 sites. This study was realized using three main criteria with the respective indicators: (1) inclusiveness of participatory process; (2) democracy of participatory process; (3) cooperation and conflicts during the implementation process of Natura 2000 network. The data were collected through the administration by email of a semi-structured questionnaire to 56 stakeholders divided in four main groups of interest (public administrations, universities and research centres, environmental associations, private organizations). The results of the survey show that the participatory process was characterized by a low level of inclusiveness despite the existence of some best practices at local level. In many cases, the decisions were taken by a low number of stakeholders - mostly public administrations - while the individuals of local community were only informed. Conversely, the results highlights as positive aspect the increasing level of trust among stakeholders after the Natura 2000 network implementation process.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Habitats Directive, Protected Areas, Nature Conservation, Participatory Process, Conflicts, Stakeholders</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (1): 13-27 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2131-014<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2131-014" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2131-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Paletto A, Graziani A, Brescancin F, De Meo I Articoli Scientifici 2017-01-31 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2131-014 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Acacia saligna: specie invasiva delle coste molisane http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2211-013 <p><b>Calabrese V, Frate L, Iannotta F, Prisco I, Stanisci A</b></p><p><b>ACACIA SALIGNA: SPECIE INVASIVA DELLE COSTE MOLISANE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy). We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262). In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM). Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*). The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Alien Species, Acacia Saligna, EC Priority Habitat, Nitrophilous Species, Molise</p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (1): 28-33 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2211-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2211-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2211-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Calabrese V, Frate L, Iannotta F, Prisco I, Stanisci A Articoli Scientifici 2017-01-31 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2211-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Chi guiderà la politica forestale nazionale? http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0079-013 <p><b>Borghetti M</b></p><p><b>CHI GUIDERÀ LA POLITICA FORESTALE NAZIONALE?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Some questions about who will lead the national forest policy.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Policy, Forest Management, Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 90 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0079-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0079-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0079-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2016-12-13 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0079-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: La percezione sociale del paesaggio forestale in Trentino-Alto Adige: casi di studio a confronto http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2119-013 <p><b>Pastorella F, Santoni S, Notaro S, Paletto A</b></p><p><b>LA PERCEZIONE SOCIALE DEL PAESAGGIO FORESTALE IN TRENTINO-ALTO ADIGE: CASI DI STUDIO A CONFRONTO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The landscape is the product of human activities and nature as developed during the centuries. However, the landscape has a symbolic value because it can be considered the identity and culture of a territory that includes the values and beliefs of local population. The Alpine landscape is a unicum in the world due to its geomorphologic, climatic and vegetation characteristics and socio-economic conditions of local population. Over the centuries the social perception of Alps has changed: in a first phase the Alps were considered “horrible and scary mountains”, later Alps were perceived as “beautiful and fascinating places”, and currently the Alpine mountains are considered a place of relaxation and recreation. The analysis of landscape perception aimed to investigate the visitors’ opinions about landscape is an important instrument to support the decision concerning the land planning and management. This study focuses on the analysis of the aesthetic perception of visitors on Alpine landscapes following two perspectives: a first overall perspective considering the landscape as a mosaic of different land uses and a second perspective of detail observing the individual components that characterize the forest landscape. The aim of the study is to identify the most appreciated elements of landscape from the aesthetic point of view and the influence of socio-demographic characteristics of respondents on individual perception. In order to investigate the perception about the Alpine landscapes 358 visitors of two sites of Trentino-Alto Adige (Val di Genova and Santa Maria lake) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results show that the most appreciated elements of the landscape by the visitors are water (lakes and rivers) and forests. These preferences are also conditioned by the site where the interviews were made. In addition, the results show that for the respondents of this survey the forest with the highest attractiveness is an uneven aged and mixed forest with randomly distributed trees, a canopy cover between 50% and 60% and without lying deadwood. Finally, this study shows the influence of socio-demographic characteristics of respondents (age, gender and origin) on individual preferences considering three types of perceptions: instinctive perception, affective perception and intellectual perception.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cultural Landscape, Forest Multifunctionality, Visitors, Recreational Forest Function, Italian Alps</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 73-89 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2119-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2119-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2119-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pastorella F, Santoni S, Notaro S, Paletto A Articoli Scientifici 2016-12-03 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2119-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Nota a chiarimento dell’Editoriale “Habitat reali o virtuali?” di C. Urbinati e G. Iorio http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2276-013 <p><b>Cutini M, Carli E, Console C, Frattaroli AR, Venanzoni R, Viciani D, Zitti S, Gigante D</b></p><p><b>NOTA A CHIARIMENTO DELL’EDITORIALE “HABITAT REALI O VIRTUALI?” DI C. URBINATI E G. IORIO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The authors wish to clarify some misrepresenting remarks arising from the reading of the Manual of the Dir. 92/43/EEC Ann. I habitats monitoring (Angelini et al. 2016) published in the editorial notes of Forest@ (October 2016). Some aspects of the habitat monitoring protocol for the habitat type 9210* “Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex” are here discussed. The reported comments are intended to provide a useful contribution towards a clarification of any content that, for obvious reasons of brevity, may have been explained in a non-exhaustive way.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: 9210*, Beech Forests, Dir. 92/43/CEE, Habitat, Monitoring, Vegetation</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 62-65 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2276-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2276-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2276-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cutini M, Carli E, Console C, Frattaroli AR, Venanzoni R, Viciani D, Zitti S, Gigante D Commenti & Prospettive 2016-12-01 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2276-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Il Manuale per il Monitoraggio degli Habitat di interesse comunitario: una risposta a C. Urbinati e G. Iorio http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2289-013 <p><b>Angelini P, Casella L, Genovesi P, Chiarucci A</b></p><p><b>IL MANUALE PER IL MONITORAGGIO DEGLI HABITAT DI INTERESSE COMUNITARIO: UNA RISPOSTA A C. URBINATI E G. IORIO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This is a reply to the paper “Actual or virtual habitats? Commentary to «Manual for monitoring species and habitats of EC interest (Directive 92/43/CEE) in Italy: habitats»”. We used some additional information to clarify keypoints raised in the paper.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chiarimenti, Dir. 92/43/CEE, Tipi Di Habitat, Monitoraggio</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 66-68 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2289-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2289-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2289-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Angelini P, Casella L, Genovesi P, Chiarucci A Commenti & Prospettive 2016-12-01 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2289-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Ancora su monitoraggio degli Habitat forestali: replica alle note di chiarimento di Cutini et al. 2016 e Angelini et al. 2016 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0080-013 <p><b>Urbinati C, Iorio G</b></p><p><b>ANCORA SU MONITORAGGIO DEGLI HABITAT FORESTALI: REPLICA ALLE NOTE DI CHIARIMENTO DI CUTINI ET AL. 2016 E ANGELINI ET AL. 2016</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: More on monitoring forest habitats: reply to Cutini et al. 2016 e Angelini et al. 2016. The authors reply to the clarification notes by Angelini et al. (2016a) and by Cutini et al. (2016) concerning the “Manuals for monitoring species and habitats of EC interest (Directive 92/43/CEE) in Italy: habitats” (Angelini et al. 2016b). They discuss about the role of ecosystem monitoring, the inclusive/exclusive feature of the 9210* habitat, the lack of information on forest spatial and chronological structure. The authors conclude fostering a synergic approach between vegetation and forest science experts in order to provide new and more advanced tools for monitoring, analysis, conservation and management of forest ecosystems in a changing environment.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Apennine Beech Forests, Monitoring, Forest Structure, Habitat Conservation, Global Change</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 69-72 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0080-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0080-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0080-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Urbinati C, Iorio G Commenti & Prospettive 2016-12-01 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0080-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Habitat reali o virtuali? Commenti a “Manuali per il monitoraggio di specie e habitat di interesse comunitario (Direttiva 92/43/CEE) in Italia: habitat” http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0081-013 <p><b>Urbinati C, Iorio G</b></p><p><b>HABITAT REALI O VIRTUALI? COMMENTI A “MANUALI PER IL MONITORAGGIO DI SPECIE E HABITAT DI INTERESSE COMUNITARIO (DIRETTIVA 92/43/CEE) IN ITALIA: HABITAT”</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This is a letter sent recently to the authors of the “Manuals for monitoring species and habitats of EC interest (Directive 92/43/CEE) in Italy: habitats”. Critical comments are raised about the description of Apennine beech forests with Taxus baccata and Ilex aquifolium (Habitat 9210*) and the methods proposed for forest measurement and sampling. The described scenario about this forest habitat is considered unrealistic.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Habitats, Apennine beech forests, Conservation, Forest management</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 59-61 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0081-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0081-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0081-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Urbinati C, Iorio G Editoriali 2016-10-26 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0081-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Cancri e deperimenti causati da Neofusicoccum parvum su rimboschimenti di Acacia melanoxylon in Italia http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2041-013 <p><b>Sidoti A</b></p><p><b>CANCRI E DEPERIMENTI CAUSATI DA NEOFUSICOCCUM PARVUM SU RIMBOSCHIMENTI DI ACACIA MELANOXYLON IN ITALIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the spring of 2012, in reforested areas of Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy) a severe dieback of Acacia melanoxylon R. Brown was observed. The main symptoms on both young and adults plants consisted of elongated cankers on the trunks and epicormic shoots, wilt of the canopy and dieback interested mostly aged trees. The woody tissues showed browning beyond the cankers. Sapwood and heartwood appeared decayed with a brown to gray-greenish discoloration. One fungal species was consistently isolated from infected woody tissues, which was morphologically attributed to Neofusiccocum sp. The sequencing of the ITS regions of a representative isolate allowed to identify (99% similarity) the species Neofusiccocum parvum (Pennycook & Samuels) Crous, Slippers and Phillips, teleomorph Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels. The pathogenicity tests have reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in the field. N. parvum is the aetiologic agent of mortality of australian blackwood observed in Sicily and to our knowledge this is the first report of this fungus on Acacia melanoxylon. It is a generalist pathogen, cosmopolitan, present in many temperate areas, Mediterranean and subtropical. The older Peloritani Mountains populations of australian blackwood seem particularly susceptible to the pathogen, the latter favored by the lack of silvicultural interventions that generate interspecific and intraspecific competition, as well as the increase and spread of the fungus. To minimize the consequential damage is necessary to adopt sanitation measures that would lower the fungal inoculum and program substitutions of this exotic species with others that have multiple functions suited to environments (e.g., Chestnut) or encouraging the establishment and development of native species, such as the holm oak and shrub.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Australian Blackwood, Cankers, Botryosphaeriaceae, Italy, Sapwood</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 41-46 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2041-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2041-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2041-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sidoti A Articoli Scientifici 2016-10-14 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2041-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Suggerimenti per una eucalitticoltura clonale sostenibile nelle aree a clima mediterraneo dell’Italia centro-meridionale http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2059-013 <p><b>Mughini G</b></p><p><b>SUGGERIMENTI PER UNA EUCALITTICOLTURA CLONALE SOSTENIBILE NELLE AREE A CLIMA MEDITERRANEO DELL’ITALIA CENTRO-MERIDIONALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The cultivation of eucalyptus clones in areas of central-southern Italy with a Mediterranean climate has become necessary in order to meet, albeit in part, the strong domestic demand of woody biomass for energy use (wood chips, firewood, charcoal, pellets). In the last ten years, in fact, Italy has become one of the world’s largest importers of woody biomass for energy use. In our country the eucalyptus can be grown following the principles and methods of planted forest systems. The aim of the present paper is to point out the main problems that this culture can face in the national pedoclimatic context, together with their possible solution. Among the possible solutions, the most sustainable are suggested, which may contribute to both economic and energy savings for the culture and for other human activities. These solutions, widely used in various contexts, are briefly described, and references to the literature of the sector are provided for a deeper insight.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Eucalyptus, Planted Forest, Biomass, Clone, Sustainability</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 47-58 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2059-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2059-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2059-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Mughini G Articoli Scientifici 2016-10-14 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor2059-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: La questione delle Aree Interne, sfida e opportunità per il Paese e per il settore forestale http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0082-013 <p><b>Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>LA QUESTIONE DELLE AREE INTERNE, SFIDA E OPPORTUNITÀ PER IL PAESE E PER IL SETTORE FORESTALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Starting from the current evolution of the national legislation in the matter of socioeconomic development of inner and remote areas in Italy, a strict correlation with the forest and forestry sector is pinpoint and described. In the last decades forest geography has more and more become a mountain geography, where mountains are the main part of the country and are mainly affected by abandonment of rural areas. Despite the great potential for the invoked European new bioeconomy wave, forest area, the biggest green infrastructure in Italy, has its major role in the conservation purposes, well calibrated and actually effective. Room for other ecosystem services, starting from a responsible and well balanced process of wood mobilization and other regulating functions, are discussed, such as the importance and the high opportunity for halting demographic decline and pushing internal socioeconomic energies.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Socioeconomic Development, Inner and Remote Areas, Forestry Sector, Ecosystem Services, Bioeconomy</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 35-40 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0082-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0082-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0082-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M Editoriali 2016-06-13 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0082-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: I dati dell’Inventario Forestale Nazionale Italiano sono on-line e disponibili in modalità open-access http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0083-013 <p><b>Borghetti M, Chirici G</b></p><p><b>I DATI DELL’INVENTARIO FORESTALE NAZIONALE ITALIANO SONO ON-LINE E DISPONIBILI IN MODALITÀ OPEN-ACCESS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Raw data from the Italian National Forest Inventory are on-line and publicly available. The National Forest Service in cooperation with the Forestry Research Centre (CREA) of the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forests released the raw data from the National Inventory of Forests and forest Carbon pools - INFC2005 project, the second Italian national forest inventory. Data are available together with metadata information at http://www.inventarioforestale.org/. Users, after registration, can download data from 230.874 living tree stems, 16.472 dead tree stems, 31.083 stumps, from a total of 7.272 field plots (for 1.384 of them additional data on fine woody debris and soil carbon pools are also available).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: National Forest Inventory, INFC, Italy, Open Access, Italian Forest Service</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 33-34 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0083-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0083-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0083-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M, Chirici G Editoriali 2016-05-11 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0083-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Pensiero forestale http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0084-013 <p><b>Corona P</b></p><p><b>PENSIERO FORESTALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This note emphasizes the importance of appreciating the conceptual paths and theories that have historically characterized forestry development. A recent monograph on the history of forest thinking presents the theoretical evolution of silvicultural science, with particular attention to epistemological and ethical implications: the main lines of research progress are stressed by analysing the various schools of thought in this field. The reading of the monograph strengthens the evidence that always behind the facts, there are the ideas.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Silviculture, Forest History, Epistemology, Ethics</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 31-32 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0084-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0084-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0084-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Corona P Commenti & Prospettive 2016-05-10 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0084-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: La carabidofauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae) del “Bosco Palli”, una cerreta relitta del Basso Monferrato (Piemonte, Italia) http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1929-013 <p><b>Allegro G, Chiarabaglio PM</b></p><p><b>LA CARABIDOFAUNA (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE) DEL “BOSCO PALLI”, UNA CERRETA RELITTA DEL BASSO MONFERRATO (PIEMONTE, ITALIA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The Carabid fauna of “Bosco Palli”, a relict Turkey oak wood in the hilly area of Basso Monferrato, is described. This wood covers an area of about 50 hectares divided in two separate core areas and is almost entirely surrounded by agricultural crops. A total of 25 Carabid species were recorded, of which only 11 are present in the central core areas and 23 in the peripheral ecotone areas. There are only very few species with strict forest attitude, but a prosperous population of Carabus italicus was recorded, located in a peripheral portion of the forest on moist and swampy soil. The poorness of this fauna and the scarcity of specialized forest species may be a consequence of the limited area of the wood, its fragmentation, the total isolation in an agricultural context and the repeated coppicing carried out up to about half of the past century.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ground Beetles, Bioindicators, Relict Forests, Turkey Oak Woods, Monferrato Hills</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 8-17 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1929-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1929-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1929-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Allegro G, Chiarabaglio PM Articoli Scientifici 2016-04-04 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1929-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rassegne: Determinanti, attitudini e disponibilità alla produzione di beni e di servizi da parte dei proprietari forestali privati: una rassegna della letteratura internazionale http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1751-013 <p><b>Mozzato D, Gatto P</b></p><p><b>DETERMINANTI, ATTITUDINI E DISPONIBILITÀ ALLA PRODUZIONE DI BENI E DI SERVIZI DA PARTE DEI PROPRIETARI FORESTALI PRIVATI: UNA RASSEGNA DELLA LETTERATURA INTERNAZIONALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Determinants, attitudes and willingness of private forest owners to produce goods and services: a review of the international literature. There is an information gap in the Italian literature with regards to private forest ownership, while several analysis are available on the characteristics and the management systems of public forest ownership. To address this gap, this paper presents the characteristics of private forest owners and their evolution in time by reviewing the international literature in the last three decades. The examined studies are reported according to four perspectives: (i) the available classifications and/or typologies of private forest owners; (ii) the determinants of different forest owners’ behaviors, especially in relation to their objectives; (iii) the attitudes of forest owners and the motivations behind their management decisions; (iv) the valuation of the willingness to accept monetary compensations in return for the provision of ecosystem services. The results show a very complex picture, varying both in space and time. However, some recurring features can be identified: (i) not only are forest owners motivated by timber production goals, but also by other reasons, often very diversified and detached from market considerations; (ii) a “multi-functional” forest owner is by no means less active, but, conversely, is more active than a forest owner whose sole objective is timber production; (iii) in general, the active owner is a farmer whose family has owned the forest for many generations (and in this case he/she is more market-oriented), or is a new entry in the forestry sector; (iv) the “passive” owner is usually elderly, non-farmer and resides far from the property. In addition, the “absent” owner is a common problem to several of the examined geographical contexts. Although the results of the review cannot be transferred as such, they represent a useful starting point for similar analyses in the Italian context. Examining the determinants and attitudes of private forest owners in Italy would indeed prove interesting, given that private forest ownership in Italy represents a relevant share of total forest area and that the implementation of new policy tools such as payments for ecosystem services requires active participation by all key actors, including forest owners.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Private Forest Ownership, Forest Owners, Attitudes, Forest Owners’, Typologies, Ecosystem Services</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 18-30 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1751-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1751-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1751-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Mozzato D, Gatto P Rassegne 2016-04-04 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1751-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Imprese forestali “estere”: possibili mutamenti e alterazioni del mercato dei prodotti legnosi http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0085-013 <p><b>Andreatta G</b></p><p><b>IMPRESE FORESTALI “ESTERE”: POSSIBILI MUTAMENTI E ALTERAZIONI DEL MERCATO DEI PRODOTTI LEGNOSI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent years, a major change has been taking place in forestry companies involved in coppice logging in the province of Forlì-Cesena (northern Apennines, Italy). Entrepreneurs of foreign origin who live and work in Italy, though having the legal head office and the tax domicile in a different EU country (particularly Romania), entered the local market of coppice logging. Such “foreign” companies may benefit of significant tax advantages at different stages (stand purchase, forest exploitation, sale of wood products), creating serious difficulties to the national forestry companies and representing a possible nuisance to the local market of wood products. Possible actions aimed at contrasting such situation are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Imprese Forestali Estere, Vantaggi Fiscali, Criticità per le Imprese Forestali Nazionali</p><p><i>Forest@ 13 (1): 1-7 (2016)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0085-013<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0085-013" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0085-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Andreatta G Commenti & Prospettive 2016-01-23 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0085-013 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Lectio Magistralis del Prof. Orazio Ciancio in occasione del suo ottantesimo compleanno http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0086-012 <p><b>Iovino F</b></p><p><b>LECTIO MAGISTRALIS DEL PROF. ORAZIO CIANCIO IN OCCASIONE DEL SUO OTTANTESIMO COMPLEANNO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: On december 3, 2015 the 80th birthday of Prof. Orazio Ciancio has been celebrated at the Italian Academy of Forest Sciences in Florence (Italy) by a meeting organized by the proponents of the “Manifesto of the systemic silviculture”. In this context, Prof. Ciancio has given his lectio magistralis focused on the culture of complexity, the systemic concept, the reference scientific paradigma, the relationship between science and humanism and those among culture, aethics and arts.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Selvicoltura Sistemica, Silvosistemica, Rapporto Bosco-uomo, Gestione Forestale</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 50-51 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0086-012<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0086-012" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0086-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Iovino F Commenti & Prospettive 2015-12-30 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0086-012 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Il “new deal” degli Inventari Forestali Nazionali è finalmente arrivato? http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1915-012 <p><b>Chirici G</b></p><p><b>IL “NEW DEAL” DEGLI INVENTARI FORESTALI NAZIONALI È FINALMENTE ARRIVATO?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper briefly describes the recent initiatives of Spain and France that made raw data from their National Forestry Inventory available both online and via open-access databases. As part of the implementation of the European PSI-Directive on the re-use of Public Administration data and the realization of the Statute of Digital Administration by the Agency for Digital Italy (AGID), a similar implementation by the Italian Forest Service is expected through the on-line and open access publication of all georeferenced data related to the phase III of the 2015 Italian Inventory of Forests and Carbon Reservoirs.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: National Forest Inventory, Georeferenced Data, PSI Directive, Open Access</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 47-49 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1915-012<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1915-012" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1915-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Chirici G Commenti & Prospettive 2015-11-25 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1915-012 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Il 10° Congresso Nazionale SISEF: “Sostenere il pianeta, boschi per la vita” http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0087-012 <p><b>Ciancio O</b></p><p><b>IL 10° CONGRESSO NAZIONALE SISEF: “SOSTENERE IL PIANETA, BOSCHI PER LA VITA”</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: After greeting the Congress participants on behalf of the Italian Academy of Forest Sciences and having recalled its role in promoting debate and innovation in the forestry sector, some brief thoughts on research in silviculture are presented. The Final motion of the Round table “The forest and man”, held in Florence in 1995, stated that “The forest is a complex biological system which has a fundamental role in maintaining life on our planet. Like all living systems, the forest has intrinsic value, it is a subject of rights which must be preserved and protected”. In the last decades a new forestry culture has developed which is based on three “E”s: Ecology, Economy and Ethics. Silviculture is a biological science and its vitality depends on its history and its ability to confront, not only on technical bases but also in scientific terms, the challenges coming from constant change. It is concluded that radical innovation is an asset of young people. They are the ones in charge of future scientific development. For this reason they must be educated to creativity and cultural independence. They must be aware of the importance of their work, which should be based on intense study and a search for excellence, even if this brings no immediate acknowledgement. If young researchers follow these rules, nothing will be precluded and success will finally arrive.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: SISEF National Congress, Ecology, Economy, Ethics</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 45-46 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0087-012<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0087-012" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0087-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ciancio O Commenti & Prospettive 2015-10-24 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0087-012 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Laudato si’ (senza bosco, né pane né fuoco) http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0088-012 <p><b>Corona P</b></p><p><b>LAUDATO SI’ (SENZA BOSCO, NÉ PANE NÉ FUOCO)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Laudato si’ (without forest, neither bread nor fire). The encyclical letter Laudato si’ of the Holy Father Francis on care for our common home, our planet, is considered. The approach to complex socioecological systems is stressed. In this same perspective, the tenth congress of the Italian Society of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, to be held in Firenze (Italy) next September 15th to 18th, aims to highlight the role of forests and forestry in supporting the life on the planet. Forestry can be one of the most dynamic sectors of the “green economy”. The ethical norm of respect for the intrinsic value of the ecosystem is just brought about by concern, closeness and familiarity between man and forest and, on the contrary, it may be hampered by aprioristic resource immobilization.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Encyclical Letter, Forestry, Land Ethic, Tenth Congress of The Italian Society of Silviculture and Forest Ecology</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 41-42 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0088-012<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0088-012" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0088-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Corona P Editoriali 2015-08-25 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0088-012 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Limitare la diffusione di Xylella fastidiosa e recuperare le piante infette con le buone pratiche agricole http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0089-012 <p><b>Xiloyannis C, Palese AM, Lardo E, Sofo A</b></p><p><b>LIMITARE LA DIFFUSIONE DI XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA E RECUPERARE LE PIANTE INFETTE CON LE BUONE PRATICHE AGRICOLE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: (not available)</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Xylella fastidiosa, Olivo, Pratiche Agricole, Ripristino della Fertilità</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 43-44 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0089-012<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0089-012" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0089-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Xiloyannis C, Palese AM, Lardo E, Sofo A Commenti & Prospettive 2015-08-25 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor0089-012 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Aspetti biologici, ecologici e genetici di popolamenti di frassino ossifillo (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) dell’Italia nord-orientale http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1628-012 <p><b>Belletti P, Camerano P, Ferrazzini D, Fiorentin R, Cego Pernigotto F</b></p><p><b>ASPETTI BIOLOGICI, ECOLOGICI E GENETICI DI POPOLAMENTI DI FRASSINO OSSIFILLO (FRAXINUS ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL) DELL’ITALIA NORD-ORIENTALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Narrow leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) is an important forest tree belonging to peculiar and threatened ecosystems, where it forms mixed populations with other deciduous trees. Its range partly overlaps with that of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and interspecific cross is possible. These habitats are of the utmost importance due to their high level of biodiversity, but highly threatened by human activities. Since climate change is expected to favor the diffusion of narrow leaved ash, a study was carried out with the aim of enhancing our knowledge of the biological, ecological and genetic aspects of this species. Twelve populations of narrow leaved ash from north-eastern Italy were sampled and their genetic variability was analyzed by means of six molecular markers (nuclear microsatellites), of which 4 gave consistent and repeatable results. Overall, 113 alleles were observed, of which 38 were present in only one population (private alleles). Consistent levels of genetic variability was found (mean number of alleles per locus = 7.08, effective number of alleles per locus = 4.37, expected heterozygosity = 0.613), though lower than those reported in the literature. Fixation index was very close to zero, indicating a good agreement with Hardy-Weinberg’s expectations. The genetic differentiation among populations was significant (both GST e FST as high as 0.102), although it was not possible to correlate the distribution of genetic variability with ecological or geographical factors. Genetic pools of F. excelsior and F. angustifolia were distinct, though several individuals showed intermediate genetic characteristics, especially in the population from Grotta di Farra where both species are present and many individuals showed intermediate morphological features. The presence of individuals possibly originated by interspecific cross should be taken into account in the case of seed collection. Our results may contribute to a rationale management of genetic resources of narrow leaved ash, also considering the current legislation on forest reproductive material.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Narrow Leaved Ash, nSSR Markers, Genetic Variability, Genetic Differentiation, Interspecific Hybridization, Regions of Provenance, Seed Stands</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 25-40 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1628-012<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1628-012" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1628-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Belletti P, Camerano P, Ferrazzini D, Fiorentin R, Cego Pernigotto F Articoli Scientifici 2015-08-08 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1628-012 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: SWOT-AHP come strumento inclusivo di analisi della filiera foresta-legno-energia: il caso di studio della Val Sarentino (Alto Adige) http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1536-012 <p><b>Nikodinoska N, Mattivi M, Notaro S, Paletto A, Sparapani G</b></p><p><b>SWOT-AHP COME STRUMENTO INCLUSIVO DI ANALISI DELLA FILIERA FORESTA-LEGNO-ENERGIA: IL CASO DI STUDIO DELLA VAL SARENTINO (ALTO ADIGE)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the last years, the use of forest biomass for energy purpose is steadily increasing to tackle energy security issues and to mitigate climate change by stabilizing greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. In Italy, the new National Energy Strategy established that the renewable energy must cover 20% of gross energy demand by 2020. In order to achieve this objective the forest biomass could be of fundamental importance. In this context of increasing extraction of wood residues from forests, it is relevant to analyse two key aspects: (1) the involvement of stakeholders in the strategy for the valorization of forest-wood-energy chain at local level; and (2) the potential impacts of increased forest biomass extraction on environment. This paper analyses these two aspects through the stakeholders’ opinions in a case study in the Alto Adige (Sarentino valley). Stakeholders’ opinions concerning the analysis of SWOT categories (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) of the bioenergy supply chain were investigated using the SWOT-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) approach. The results show that the local stakeholders emphasize some strengths (e.g., additional income over time for private forest owners) and opportunities (e.g., development of shared forest management strategies among small forest owners) of forest-wood-energy chain, and consider less relevant the weaknesses and threats. The results concerning one of most important potential threats - impacts on environment - show that all groups of stakeholders (public administrations, associations and NGO, research bodies and universities, and actors of rural sector) consider positive the impacts of increased forest biomass extraction on recreational activities and negative on other three ecosystem services (carbon sequestration, hydrogeological protection, and biodiversity).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest-wood-energy Chain, Forest Biomass, Stakeholders, SWOT Analysis, AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process), Val Sarentino (Alto Adige</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 1-15 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1536-012<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1536-012" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1536-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Nikodinoska N, Mattivi M, Notaro S, Paletto A, Sparapani G Articoli Scientifici 2015-06-20 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1536-012 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Analisi dell’infestazione di Ips typographus nella foresta dell’Alta Val Parma e strategie per la ricomposizione del bosco http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1539-012 <p><b>Vignali G, Barbarotti S, Piovani P, Maresi G, Salvadori C</b></p><p><b>ANALISI DELL’INFESTAZIONE DI IPS TYPOGRAPHUS NELLA FORESTA DELL’ALTA VAL PARMA E STRATEGIE PER LA RICOMPOSIZIONE DEL BOSCO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Analysis of the bark beetle outbreak in the forest “Alta Val Parma” (Corniglio, Parma, Italy) and strategies for its regeneration. Norway spruce plantations located in the Foresta Demaniale Alta Val Parma (Corniglio, province of Parma - Italy) experienced since 2004 a massive outbreak of Norway spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus). This outbreak has been triggered by the exceptionally warm and dry summer of 2003. In the following years bark beetle attacks repeated and spread, raising concern about the future of this kind of stands. A survey program has been carried out to help local administration to chose the correct managements strategies. Monitoring of Ips typographus population, carried out between 2007 and 2013, confirmed the presence of two generations per year, with values above the risk threshold in 2007 and just below though very high in 2011. In the affected area, six survey plots have been realized to test different management options with the aim of favoring a fast regeneration of the forest cover. The tested options showed the great difficulty in the establishment of natural generation either for the lack of mother plants in such pure stands or for competition with tall grasses. Sowing brought no significative results, while direct plantation of indigenous broadleaves was more effective, with almost half of the individuals still alive after three years. Our results confirm the great difficulty to rebuild the forest cover after strong ecological disturbances in these artificial forests. Hybrid management strategies and ad hoc silvicultural choices seem to be the only way to manage such kind of situations in a National park, where the priority is biodiversity conservation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bark Beetle, Norway Spruce, Disturbance, Natural Regeneration, Management Choices</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 16-24 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1539-012<br/><a href="http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1539-012" target="_blank">http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1539-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vignali G, Barbarotti S, Piovani P, Maresi G, Salvadori C Articoli Scientifici 2015-06-20 http://www.sisef.it/forest@/contents/?id=efor1539-012 Copyright (c) 2017, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved