Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale Ultimi lavori pubblicati Copyright (c) 2004-2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved it PHP 5.3.1 (Gabriele Bucci) (Gabriele Bucci) 60 Forest@ Web Site Articoli Scientifici: Mitigazione del pericolo incendi nelle aree di interfaccia urbano/foresta: un esempio di selvicoltura preventiva in Sardegna <p><b>Lovreglio R, Danna E, Mou G</b></p><p><b>MITIGAZIONE DEL PERICOLO INCENDI NELLE AREE DI INTERFACCIA URBANO/FORESTA: UN ESEMPIO DI SELVICOLTURA PREVENTIVA IN SARDEGNA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Wildfires at the wildland/urban interface (WUI) areas have recently taken on alarming dimensions, and most of the catastrophic wildfires in recent years are of this type (Greece 2003 and 2007, Italy, 2007; Australia, 2009; Spain 2003, 2007, 2012). Contrastingly to forest stands, where fuel has to be managed also taking into consideration stand conservation and improvement purposes, in WUI fuel management has the imperative goal of the protection of property and people. The present paper deals with the implementation of a methodology for assessing fire hazard in a WUI area in Sardinia, and assess the most appropriate prevention silvicultural practices to be applied to mitigate the hazard (i.e., the probability of fire occurrence and the difficulty to extinguish it, based on the current vegetation characteristics). We applied a method aimed at defining a “danger value” for each fuel model found in the study area, and derived the silvicultural practices to be applied for the reduction of fuel and the associated risk. The effects of silvicultural prevention were assessed for each fuel model in the study area in terms of flame length and fire intensity for the pre-, during and post phases.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Preventive Sylviculture, Conversion, Hazard, Intensity, Flame Length</p><p><i>Forest@ 0 (0): 156-167 ()</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1187-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Lovreglio R, Danna E, Mou G Articoli Scientifici 2014-07-10 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Verso una stima della mortalità individuale e degli incrementi netti dei boschi italiani. Quale margine di sostenibilità per la gestione forestale in Italia? <p><b>Magnani F, Raddi S</b></p><p><b>VERSO UNA STIMA DELLA MORTALITÀ INDIVIDUALE E DEGLI INCREMENTI NETTI DEI BOSCHI ITALIANI. QUALE MARGINE DI SOSTENIBILITÀ PER LA GESTIONE FORESTALE IN ITALIA?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Towards an assessment of tree mortality and net annual increments in Italian forests. Which sustainability for the Italian forestry? Sustainable forest management requires that fellings do not exceed increments in the medium term, once natural mortality is taken into account. Here we propose an assessment of the relevance of tree mortality in stands not regularly thinned, as prevailing in Italian forests. The amount of small-scale mortality losses is often neglected and cannot be directly estimated from available inventory data. From literature sources and using two alternative approaches, mortality losses could amount to 31.1-36.2% of gross annual increments. Fellings would therefore remove 57.7-62.6% of net annual increments of Italian forests, well above what often reported and not far away from the EU15 average. This new estimate confirms the overall sustainability of Italian forestry on a national level, but highlights the need for careful planning in the future use of forest biomass, a strategic renewable resource.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest, Natural Mortality, Fellings, Sustainable Forest Management, Forest Inventory</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (3): 138-148 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1235-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Magnani F, Raddi S Articoli Scientifici 2014-06-17 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Osservazioni su alcune incertezze e incongruenze nella terminologia dendrometrica <p><b>De Mas G, Hellrigl B</b></p><p><b>OSSERVAZIONI SU ALCUNE INCERTEZZE E INCONGRUENZE NELLA TERMINOLOGIA DENDROMETRICA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the italian forestry literature, the adjective “cormometric” combined with the noun volume or its equivalent, is used with three different meanings which are respectively linked to the stem, to the trunk or large timber. To find the origins and also the reasons for these different meanings of the term, we need to go back in history. The first definition is by Alfonso Di Berenger first director of the Vallombrosa Forest, the first seat of higher Forestry education in Italy between 1869 and 1951. He defined cormometric the volume of the “legname sociale” (industrial timber), or the trunk. Follows the definition of Vittorio Perona that, in the wake of the German concept of Derbholz, considers cormometric volume as including also portions of branches above seven centimeters. Giuseppe Di Tella, Professor of forest mensurations and forest management in Florence between 1916 and 1937 is the author of a large general volume table for fir where the cormometric volume is defined as the “stem including the top”, but also, following the doctrine, as a measure expressing the volume of the part of the stem that can provide wood for building or industry. Subsequently, with the definitions of the Professors Generoso Patrone and Guglielmo Giordano confirming the doctrinal meaning of Di Tella, the sense of the term remains unchanged. In 1986 Hellrigl called cormometric mass, the aboveground woody tree mass limited to trunk and limbs to be determined; however, this definition did not find any application. Alternative definitions by Roberto Del Favero and Orazio La Marca consider cormometric volume including top and cormometric volume excluding top. In the forest literature, instead, there were more changes in 2007, when the Forestry Research Portal published a notation regarding cubing of forest stands, stating “in the cubing of forest stands, woody volume estimated for conifers is, in general, cormometric (i.e., volume of the stem including bark)” which gave rise to the present note. Alongside, and again in connection with the meaning of the term cormometric, certain combinations of terminology reported in two multilingual glossaries of IUFRO are highlighted.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Stem Volume, Derbholz, Cormometric Volume</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (3): 149-155 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1208-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> De Mas G, Hellrigl B Commenti & Prospettive 2014-06-17 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Analisi percettiva della Gestione Forestale Sostenibile (GFS) attraverso l’impiego delle mappe cognitive <p><b>Paletto A, De Meo I, Di Salvatore U, Ferretti F</b></p><p><b>ANALISI PERCETTIVA DELLA GESTIONE FORESTALE SOSTENIBILE (GFS) ATTRAVERSO L’IMPIEGO DELLE MAPPE COGNITIVE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Perceptive analysis of the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) through the cognitive maps. SFM is the current paradigm in forest management. This paradigm has mixed the principles of multifunctionality with the concept of sustainable development. Despite the association between SFM and public participation, the sustainable management of forest resource can be achieved from the technical point of view both with a top-down approach, where a low number of social actors are involved in the decision making process, and a bottom-up approach, where the number of social actors and interests is broad. Following this second approach, a preliminary stage is the construction of the scenario perceived (mapping of stakeholders and analysis of the hierarchy of preferences and interests). This analysis, achieved through the construction of individual and collective cognitive maps, improves the cognitive framework and supports the facilitator in the decision making process. The cognitive maps of the stakeholders are the starting point of the participatory forest management. The paper focuses on the implementation of a method, based on the cognitive maps, aimed to identify and analyse the perception and the hierarchy of interests of the stakeholders with respect to the SFM. The method was tested in a case study characterized by rural vocation where the primary sector has a key role from both social and economic point of views (Alto Matese, Molise Region).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), Social Perception, Stakeholders, Cognitive Maps, Matese</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (3): 125-137 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1245-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Paletto A, De Meo I, Di Salvatore U, Ferretti F Articoli Scientifici 2014-06-10 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Impatto degli ungulati selvatici sui boschi cedui della Val di Bisenzio (Prato) <p><b>Bianchi L, Bartoli L, Paci M, Pozzi D</b></p><p><b>IMPATTO DEGLI UNGULATI SELVATICI SUI BOSCHI CEDUI DELLA VAL DI BISENZIO (PRATO)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Similar to other Apennine areas, a considerable increase of wild ungulate density has been observed in the past decades in the Bisenzio valley (province of Prato), leading to a strong impact on coppice regeneration. In some felling areas, the prolonged browsing on young suckers turned the stumps into low and dense bushes, thus threatening the survival of the forest stand and triggering a loss of environmental stability. The aim of this work was to study the impact of deer on sprout regeneration after cutting in mixed coppices felled in the period 2007-2010 and characterized by the dominance of chestnut, hornbeam, Turkey oak, and beech. Some 36 plots were established in four municipal districts of the Prato province (Cantagallo, Vernio, Montemurlo, Vaiano). Damage and browsing intensity on each stump were evaluated using an index that allowed the comparison among different areas and fores stand types. Regardless of the species, over 90% of the sprouts revealed a very strong damage, whereas only 6% did not exhibit any damage. A significant difference in the sprout height was detected between browsed and non-browsed areas. Despite a high incidence of damage in all the studied areas, chestnut showed a greater resilience against browsing. In summary, overgrazing by wild game may determine severe contraints to the evolutionary dynamics of forest stands, frustrating the effects of silvicultural practices. The possible benefits of the implementation of a large-scale integrated wildlife plan, including hunting and forest-evironmental management are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Coppice, Wild Ungulate Damage, Forest Dynamics, Silviculture, Sustainable Management</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (3): 116-124 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1259-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Bianchi L, Bartoli L, Paci M, Pozzi D Articoli Scientifici 2014-06-09 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: Primi dati su fenologia e distribuzione in Italia di Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), la cimicetta della bronzatura dell’eucalipto <p><b>Sasso R, Mughini G, Laudonia S</b></p><p><b>PRIMI DATI SU FENOLOGIA E DISTRIBUZIONE IN ITALIA DI THAUMASTOCORIS PEREGRINUS CARPINTERO AND DELLAPÉ (HETEROPTERA: THAUMASTOCORIDAE), LA CIMICETTA DELLA BRONZATURA DELL’EUCALIPTO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Phenology and distribution of Italian populations of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae). Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapè (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) was detected for the first time in Italy in September 2011, on several Eucalyptus species and hybrids. This pest, native of Australia, was the first species of the family Thaumastocoridae found in Europe. In this paper we report data on its current distribution in Italy, where the species is present in Lazio, Campania and Tuscany. Phenological studies allowed to detect the presence of eggs, preimaginal stages and peaks of the flight of the adults. No diapausing stage were detected.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bronze Bug, Eucalyptus spp., Invasive Species, Biology, Natural Enemies</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (3): 105-115 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1184-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Sasso R, Mughini G, Laudonia S Comunicazioni Brevi 2014-06-06 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Comparazione delle definizioni di bosco efficaci sul territorio nazionale attraverso l’analisi di dominanza <p><b>Carbone F</b></p><p><b>COMPARAZIONE DELLE DEFINIZIONI DI BOSCO EFFICACI SUL TERRITORIO NAZIONALE ATTRAVERSO L’ANALISI DI DOMINANZA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Comparison of forest definitions at the national level using dominance analysis. Despite Italian forests are subject of protection since long time, the first forest definition legally binding has been enacted only in 2001. However, thanks to the action of international, national and regional institutions, 25 forest definitions are effective today on the Italian territory. All definitions of forest are fully described and their qualification analyzed using four definition types: legislation, policies, technical and allocative. Only those that are included in the first three types were subjected to dominance analysis. Macro-criteria, criteria and sub-criteria have been defined to build an absolute valuation matrix. Concordance, discordance and dominance analysis have been cattied out after normaliztion. Forest definitions have been subdivided into two groups: dominant and dominated. The first group includes all regional definitions due to the details of their content, while the second group includes definition adopted by international and national institutions. Three aspects have been emphasized in the conclusion: (a) all definitions, except that adopted by the Lombardy Region, are based on the “forest land” and not on the “forest”; (b) most definitions do not include the multifunctional nature of the forest thus neglecting one of the most relevant forest profiles; (c) the first part of all definition is devoted to technical details as if the main motivation for their elaboration were the quantification of the forest area.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Definitions, Typologies of Forest Definitions, Evaluation Matrix, Ranking of Forest Definitions</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 86-101 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1055-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Carbone F Articoli Scientifici 2014-04-29 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Stato ed evoluzione temporale della composizione chimica delle deposizioni atmosferiche nelle aree forestali della rete CONECOFOR <p><b>Marchetto A, Arisci S, Tartari GA, Balestrini R, Tait D</b></p><p><b>STATO ED EVOLUZIONE TEMPORALE DELLA COMPOSIZIONE CHIMICA DELLE DEPOSIZIONI ATMOSFERICHE NELLE AREE FORESTALI DELLA RETE CONECOFOR</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network. Since 1997, atmospheric deposition was sampled and analyzed in the permanent plots of the Italian network for the evaluation of forest health (CONECOFOR), under the coordination of the Italian Forest Service. This paper presents the results of the activity carried out in 2009, when the EU-funded LIFE+ “FutMon” project allowed to extend the sampling network to 22 sites. Long-term trends will also be evaluated for the sampling sites with the longest time series. The sampling of open field bulk deposition was performed in a clearance close to the CONECOFOR permanent plots, while throughfall deposition and stemflow (in beech stand, only) were sampled in the plot. Deposition samples were collected weekly and sent to the laboratories, where they were analyzed for pH, conductivity, major ions, and total carbon and nitrogen. Most measured variables showed a strong geographical gradient. For example, nitrogen deposition was relatively high in the Po plain (where the emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are the highest) and surrounding hills, reaching 10-20 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the open field and 13-25 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the throughfall. Sulphate deposition also showed a marked geographical gradient. Deposition of marine aerosol also had an important impact on the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition in Italy, together with the episodic deposition of Saharan dust, which showed a marked gradient, with highest values in the southernmost plots. Trend analysis was carried out on 10 sites running since the beginning of the program. A general negative trend in sulphate concentration was detected, paralleled in most plots by a positive trend in deposition pH, in good agreement with the strong reduction in the emission of sulphur dioxide recorded in the last decades. Nitrogen concentration also showed a significant decrease in some plots. The total deposition of nitrogen exceeded critical loads in seven permanent plots.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forests, Atmospheric Deposition, Nitrogen, Trend, Sulphate</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 72-85 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1003-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Marchetto A, Arisci S, Tartari GA, Balestrini R, Tait D Articoli Scientifici 2014-04-22 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Recensioni: Un bel libro di zoologia forestale <p><b>Fanti P</b></p><p><b>UN BEL LIBRO DI ZOOLOGIA FORESTALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: (n/a)</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: (n/a)</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 102-103 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0092-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Fanti P Recensioni 2014-04-22 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Futmon-mobile: una piattaforma informatica di mobile GIS e web-database per i rilievi fito-sanitari nel progetto FutMon <p><b>Colle G, Floris A, Scrinzi G, Clementel F</b></p><p><b>FUTMON-MOBILE: UNA PIATTAFORMA INFORMATICA DI MOBILE GIS E WEB-DATABASE PER I RILIEVI FITO-SANITARI NEL PROGETTO FUTMON</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Futmon-mobile: a mobile-GIS and web-database platform to assist phyto-patological survey of the Futmon project. The ICP-Forest ConEcoFor project has involved for more than a decade several Italian Forest Service teams in the phyto-patological monitoring of forests. The high number of survey plots, the multitude of data to be acquired and the yearly repetition of the ConEcoFor survey brought to the decision to manage the complete monitoring data-flow thorough a computer-based information system. The aim of this sub-task of the FutMon LIFE+07 project has been to optimize the survey management, the data-flow execution and the data control and analysis through the development of specific software applications. This work describes the Futmon-Mobile GIS software developed to assist the field survey of phyto-patological forest data and the Futmon-WebDB web-database developed to acquire the data from the field crews, to aggregate all the plots data and to perform the pre-processing for data submission to the european ICP-Forest database. This paper refers also on the experiences and evaluations about the introduction of the developed software in the survey protocol and some perspectives related to its possible evolution.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Monitoring, Phyto-patological Monitoring, Mobile-GIS, Web-database, GPS, Futmon, ICP-Forest</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 45-51 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1023-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Colle G, Floris A, Scrinzi G, Clementel F Articoli Scientifici 2014-04-18 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Dinamiche evolutive in boschi cedui di betulla (Betula aetnensis Rafin) nel Monte Etna (Sicilia) <p><b>Bagnato S, La Piana V, Mercurio R, Merlino A, Scarfò F, Sciascia N, Solano F, Spampinato G</b></p><p><b>DINAMICHE EVOLUTIVE IN BOSCHI CEDUI DI BETULLA (BETULA AETNENSIS RAFIN) NEL MONTE ETNA (SICILIA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin) coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily). The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin) following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily). We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks) or mixed ones (with birch); pure birch stands (typical) that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations) could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Betula Aetnensis, Mount Etna, Vegetation Dynamics, Coppice Selection System, Forest Restoration</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 52-65 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1191-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Bagnato S, La Piana V, Mercurio R, Merlino A, Scarfò F, Sciascia N, Solano F, Spampinato G Articoli Scientifici 2014-04-18 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti Tecnici: La realizzazione della carta delle formazioni naturali e semi-naturali e della carta forestale su basi tipologiche della regione Lazio <p><b>Chirici G, Fattori C, Cutolo N, Tufano M, Corona P, Barbati A, Blasi C, Copiz R, Rossi L, Biscontini D, Ribera A, Morgante L, Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>LA REALIZZAZIONE DELLA CARTA DELLE FORMAZIONI NATURALI E SEMI-NATURALI E DELLA CARTA FORESTALE SU BASI TIPOLOGICHE DELLA REGIONE LAZIO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Map of the natural and semi-natural environments and forest types map for the Latium region (Italy). The paper presents the main methodological aspects and the most important results achieved in the implementation of the “Map of natural and semi-natural environments” and of the “Forest types map” in Lazio region at a scale of 1:10.000. The project was carried out for the Agenzia dei Parchi and for the Area Foreste of Regione Lazio through a collaboration between e-GEOS , the University of Rome "La Sapienza", the University of Tuscia and Forestlab Centre , a spin- off of the University of Molise . The project is based on the integrated use of high-resolution satellite imagery and ADS40 false-color infrared digital orthophotos and led to the creation of two maps geometrically and thematically consistent with each other. The “Map of natural and semi-natural environments” is integrated with the pre-existing land use map of the Lazio region deepening the thematic detail up to the 6th Corine level. The “Forest types map” is based on a typological system organized in 17 categories and 36 forest types .</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Map, Land Use Map, Lazio Region, ADS40, Segmentation</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 65-71 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1204-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Chirici G, Fattori C, Cutolo N, Tufano M, Corona P, Barbati A, Blasi C, Copiz R, Rossi L, Biscontini D, Ribera A, Morgante L, Marchetti M Rapporti Tecnici 2014-04-18 Copyright (c) 2014, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved