Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale Ultimi lavori pubblicati Copyright (c) 2004-2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved it PHP 7.3.1 60 Forest@ Web Site Commenti & Prospettive: Le foreste urbane ai tempi del COVID-19 ci proteggono dalle polveri sottili <p><b>Abstract</b>: In these days, the role that fine particles in urban areas could play in facilitating the pandemic spread of the COVID-19 virus is becoming increasingly important. It is also well known that exposure to air pollution and in particular to fine dust favors diseases involving the respiratory system. In this context of strong concern, we argue that urban forests can contribute to reduce the concentrations of particulates or in any increase their dispersion. Not all tree species have the same performance in removing particulates. In this short article, recent works are commented that classify urban forest species according to their ability to reduce particulate matter ambient concentrations, and we conclude highlighting the significant role that urban forests could play in improving air quality and human wellbeing in the future. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Urban Forests, Air pollution, Particulate matter, PM2.5, COVID-19 </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (3): 48-51 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3494-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Fares S, Sanesi G, Vacchiano G, Salbitano F, Marchetti M Commenti & Prospettive 2020-05-06 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Le prospettive della bioeconomia, tra strategie, Green Deal e Covid19 <p><b>Abstract</b>: The importance of a sustainable and circular bioeconomy in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has been recognized at various political levels. The EU Green Deal is one of the most transformative European political initiatives in recent decades. However, such a great vision and ambition can not be delivered without looking at the essence of the economic model we have created, without fundamentally rethinking the way we produce and consume. What is needed is a system change. We have to connect and implement transformative policies holistically to achieve the systemic change that is urgently needed. The bioeconomy, a circular economy based on renewable biological resources and sustainable biobased solutions, could certainly contribute. Three features could help to connect the dots in the Green Deal: bioeconomy is fundamental for inclusive prosperity and fair social transition; moving towards a carbon neutral EU requires moving towards fossil-free energy and fossil-free materials, to replace carbon intense products, such as nanocellulose, wood based textiles, wood engeenering; address the past failure of the economy to value nature and biodiversity. Biological diversity determines the capacity of biological resources to adapt and evolve in a changing environment and is a prerequisite for a long-term, sustainable and resilient bioeconomy. Therefore, bioeconomy is a great opportunity to modernize and make industries more circular: renewable biological resources, like forest resources, are, if managed sustainably at local and responsibly at global level, circular by nature and often easier to manufacture. The potential and crucial role of forests and forestry is not yet addressed enough at European level. Some good examples from member states and economic sectors should be adopted as the main way to promote sustainability at all levels, social, ecological, economic. The stewardship of forest ecosystem services such as biodiversity provision, hydrogeological protection and landscape conservation has increased. In addition to the main dramatic role for the conservation of biodiversity and the mitigation of climate crisis, forests could pave a strategic road to the creation of new green jobs, tackling the new direction that are requested after the current time of pandemic for rethinking our common future. Also in Italy, nowadays the conditions are ripe to plan for a responsible management of the natural capital in the country’s forests. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Bioeconomy, Forests, Strategies, Green Deal, Covid-19 </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (3): 52-55 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0059-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M, Palahí M Commenti & Prospettive 2020-05-06 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Il ricordo di un grande Maestro: Ezio Magini <p><b>Abstract</b>: He passed away twenty years ago, but the memory of Prof. Ezio Magini is alive in Italian forest scientists. He was a distinguished professor of Silviculture at the University of Florence, pionieer of quantitative Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding in Italy. Of high intellectual honesty and lovable personality, always willing to teach with patience to young people, he was a great example of methodological rigor, in terms of setting up clear hypotheses, sound experimental planning and data collection, in depth statistical analysis: a great guide for all of us. Thanks once again, Prof. Magini! </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Silviculture, Forest Genetics, Forest Tree Breeding, University of Florence, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (2): 42-47 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0060-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Giannini R Commenti & Prospettive 2020-04-29 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: “Fire Ecology Across Boundaries”: il Congresso Internazionale di Firenze dedicato agli incendi <p><b>Abstract</b>: The current operating model based only on the approach of fire suppression has generated what experts call the “fire-paradox”: the control of all wildfires in the seasons with mild weather generates a fuel load which increases the probability of catastrophic wildfires in the years with extreme climate. Even though the fire has been present on earth long before man, and for at least 440 million years it has been an essential component of many land ecosystems, today wildfires are a recurrent social emergency that modern human and financial resources cannot manage. The present challenges stress the need to enhance the debate on potential solutions according to fire ecology: efficient alternatives to the wildfire suppression at all cost, the use of more traditional landscape management for adaptation of ecosystems under a changing climate, the benefits of prescribing fire to maintain long-term ecosystem services and finally the need to establish a wildfire risk culture through transdisciplinary science and enhance effective societal engagement. The “Fire Ecology Across Boundaries” Congress to be held in Florence from 20 to 23 October 2020 ( will be the opportunity to discuss the ecology and management of fire together with top international experts. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Fire Ecology, Wildfire, Florence, Conference </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (2): 38-41 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3415-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> De Agostini N, Calvani G, Cacciatore I, Ascoli D, Tonarelli L, Prat-Guitart N, Marchi E Comunicazioni Brevi 2020-04-09 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Valutazione speditiva della potenzialità fitodepurativa di boschi ripariali <p><b>Abstract</b>: This technical note describes a quick methodology to classify the phytodepurative potential of riparian forest stands. Some municipalities located within landscapes characterized by both intensive agricultural and industrial activities in Central Italy are considered as test areas. Starting from the on-screen interpretation of high-resolution digital aerial orthophotos, supported by accurate ground surveys and GIS operations, it has been possible to map the riparian forest stands and classify each of them based on factors representing their phytodepurative potential. The proposed mapping process, feasible and easily replicable, provides a support tool for analysis and planning related to phytoremediation and/or to identify conservation and environmental management priorities and, depending on the goals of the phytoremediation objectives, to define where to locate eventual specific technical interventions. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Maps, Poplars, Riparian Forests, GIS, Cartography </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (2): 33-37 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3298-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Mattioli W, Chiarabaglio PM, Rosso L, Meloni R, Corona P Articoli Scientifici 2020-03-30 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti Tecnici: Aggiornamento sulla consistenza delle sugherete in Calabria <p><b>Abstract</b>: Cork oak forests (Quercus suber L.) are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the western Mediterranean Basin. The aim of this technical note is the presentation of the results of a recent survey carried out in the Calabria region (southern Italy) on the current distribution of cork oak forests. At present, there are few isolated forest stands, often small, on both coasts and in some inland areas of the region. In the past the cork oak forests in Calabria were much more widespread; however, the results here presented can support suitable conservation, management and, where possible, the economic valorization of the remaining cork oak stands. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Quercus suber, Forest Mapping, Forest Ecosystems, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (1): 30-32 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3293-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Ienco A, Bernardini V, Scalercio S, Turco R, Corona P Rapporti Tecnici 2020-02-01 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Le politiche climatiche ed ambientali hanno bisogno di informazione e comunicazione corretta. Quale è il ruolo del mondo scientifico? <p><b>Abstract</b>: A petition entitled “Italian forests: an invaluable environmental heritage under attack” was recently published on the web. The petition is a perfect example of how environmental communication and public awareness can be manipulated. And, even more seriously, how people claiming to be environmental experts, use the “environment” label to spread their messages and slogans without accurately checking their sources. It is nevertheless of high importance that people are able to express their opinion and ideas freely and this communication between politics, communities and the academic world contribute to our growth as a society. However, any discussions must be underpinned with accurate and precise information. Furthermore, it is the scientific community’s duty to check sources of information and contribute to the spread of accurate environmental communication. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Science Communication, Scientific Debate, Sustainable Forest Management, Climate-Smart Forestry, Public Engagement </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (1): 17-22 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3348-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R, Marchetti M, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2020-01-21 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: Conosci il mondo dei legni: nuovi strumenti di identificazione del legno per i professionisti del settore <p><b>Abstract</b>: Illegal logging and related illegal timber trade are currently recognized as one of the world’s most pressing environmental problems. In several timber-exporting countries most of the trees are illegally cut, resulting in significant losses of incomes and irreversible damage to forests. In the last years several laws and regulations have been introduced to tackle global illegal trade of wood, such as the 2008 amendment to the US Lacey act, or the European Timber Regulation (EUTR). Professionals of the timber sector are therefore more and more called to a better knowledge of the material they are dealing with, and the identification of the wood species is one of the crucial steps necessary to verify timber legality. In this paper we introduce some recently developed tools aimed at facilitating non-experts to effectively identify wood through macroscopic analysis and possibly find substitutes for woods of uncertain legality. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Macroscopic Wood Identification, Atlas, Identification Key, Software, CITES </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (1): 23-26 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3342-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Ruffinatto F, Castro G, Cremonini C, Crivellaro A, Urso T, Zanuttini R Comunicazioni Brevi 2020-01-21 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: “The answer, my friends… is written in the rings”: un ricordo di Fritz Hans Schweingruber (Fritz) <p><b>Abstract</b>: A short note in memoriam of Fritz Schweingruber (1936-2020), dendrochronologist and wood anatomist, deceased on January 7th. A shared remembrance, through a few stories and anecdotes, by three Italian forest scientists and their close encounters with Fritz. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Dendrocronologia, Anatomia del Legno, Fieldweek, Tree Rings </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (1): 27-29 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3357-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Urbinati C, Pividori M, Cherubini P Comunicazioni Brevi 2020-01-21 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Basilicata, terra di boschi e studi forestali <p><b>Abstract</b>: Basilicata, a land of forests and home to a Forest Sciences university program. We talk about the launch, in the eighties, of the higher education program in Forest Sciences at the University of Basilicata, in Southern Italy. Basilicata is a land of beautiful forests that have undergone great manipulation over time. We shortly describe their history in the last two centuries, and talk about some scholars who studied these forests in the postwar period until the early eighties. Afterwards, we recall the early years of Forest Sciences courses at the University of Basilicata. In a separate box, we deal with the possibility to restore the mixed silver fir/beech forest in the mountains of Basilicata: we address the ways in which silver fir natural regeneration can be promoted, where this species is still present; and the reasons and know-how for reintroducing it, where silver fir is no longer present. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  University, Potenza, Deforestation, Silver fir, Mixed forests, Restoration </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (1): 1-16 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0062-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M, Moretti N Commenti & Prospettive 2020-01-08 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: Note conclusive al XII congresso nazionale SISEF <p><b>Abstract</b>: The 12th national congress of the Italian Society of Silviculture and Forest Ecology (SISEF) has been held in Palermo from Novembre 12th to 14th, 2019; hereafter a short picture of congress subjects, participation and comments are reported. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  SISEF, Congresso, Partecipazione, Palermo </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (6): 86 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0063-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Maetzke FG, La Mela Veca DS, La Mantia T Comunicazioni Brevi 2019-12-21 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Il Decreto CLIMA: nuove opportunità per le aree forestali ad elevato valore naturalistico <p><b>Abstract</b>: The Decree on Climate 2019 represents an innovative and concrete framework for applying the international recommendations aimed at preventing and mitigating the effects of climate change. It focuses, in addition to many environment-related aspects, on the old-growth forests, recognizing them as forest ecosystems of high environmental value, defining their main ecological traits. According to this legislation, the extent of these forests in Italy is important, since many forest ecosystems have been left unmanaged from more than 60 years. Even if these stands are not always characterized by high level of naturalness, they are currently evolving towards more complex structures, due to the absence of human-related disturbance. Old-growth forests are unique ecosystems with a high structural complexity and peculiarities that are absent in managed forests. They are also an essential point of reference for sustainable forest management and environmental monitoring, in terms of conservation of biological diversity and ecological processes. For these reasons, they represent a unique benchmark for developing silvicultural models that incorporate knowledge of structural complexity (vertical and spatial) and developmental processes, duration of development and particularly the role of disturbances in creating structural legacies that become key elements of the post-disturbance stands. These forests, as the new Decrete underlines, must be protected, preserved and monitored in a long-term perspective, in order to safeguard their biodiversity, avoiding the structural simplification, which often characterizes the managed forests. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Old-growth Forests, Climate Change, Biodiversity Conservation, National Legislation, Long-term Forest Monitoring </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (6): 83-85 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0064-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Lombardi F, Tognetti R, Marchetti M Editoriali 2019-12-18 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: Sul XXV IUFRO World Congress “Forest Research and Cooperation for Sustainable Development” <p><b>Abstract</b>: L’America Latina per la prima volta ha ospitato il congresso mondiale della Unione Internazionale degli Istituti di Ricerca Forestale, il XXV IUFRO World Congress “Forest Research and Cooperation for Sustainable Development”, che si è svolto a Curitiba (Paranà, Brasile) dal 25 settembre al 5 ottobre 2019. Si presentano le principali statistiche in termini di partecipazione e organizzazione, con particolare riferimento al contributo della delegazione italiana, e si descrivono i principali temi affrontati nelle presentazioni di tutte le sessioni (plenarie, sub-plenarie, tecniche e poster). Questi diventano spunto per alcuni commenti e note rispetto a tematiche di primaria attualità, quali principalmente cambiamento climatico e deforestazione, e alla posizione che la IUFRO ricopre rispetto a questi temi </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  IUFRO, XXV World Congress, Word cloud, Presentations keywords </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (6): 79-82 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3281-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Mariotti B, Marchetti M Comunicazioni Brevi 2019-11-27 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Editoria scientifica, le ambiguità dell’open-access <p><b>Abstract</b>: Science must be open to all. This is the consideration behind the tendency of public research funding agencies (EU first of all) to “force” researchers to publish their results in open-access journals, or pay to ensure that articles are freely readable. Even the most remote researcher must be able to read a scientific article. Everything seems good, but is it really true? We see some side effects: (i) whoever reads no longer pays, but obviously someone has to pay, otherwise how publishing companies will survive? In fact, large groups are already organized, going towards open access fees, although more elegantly they speak of article processing charge (APC, mandatory); (ii) should this situation become general (all open-access journals with APC mandatory), researchers from a disadvantaged area could read, but they would have trouble publishing. It is true that journals could reduce or remove APCs in such cases, but these are always concessions to be negotiated on a case by case basis; (iii) as the most sensitive aspect: the balance of each journal will depend on how many APCs are collected, and editorial decisions are likely to be influenced by the ambition to increase journals’ budget; (iv) in the end, one may think that the tendency towards this kind of “open science” was appreciated by large publishing groups, which could see APC as a business richer than subscriptions. Some proposals in this regard: (i) if you have a good scientific “story” to tell, at present there is no need to resort to journals that apply APC mandatory, especially if managed by groups clearly oriented to business; rather, use your resources to buy free access to your work after acceptance; (ii) the funding agencies themselves could support free access to the most significant papers, after their publication, and scientific societies could play an important role in this respect; (iii) journals may require public data repository, and funding agencies may support open publications in these journals; to me, this seems one of the most important steps towards a truly open and increasingly credible science. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Scientific Publishing, Open-access Journals, Article Processing Charge, Public Data Repository </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (6): 77-78 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0065-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2019-11-24 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: “Decreto clima 2019”: quali risorse per le foreste e la selvicoltura nelle nostre città? <p><b>Abstract</b>: The Decree on Climate 2019 focuses on reforestation campaigns and silviculture actions applied to existing forests of Italian metropolitan cities, incurring a total expenditure of €30 million in the next two years. By supporting urban and peri-urban forestry programmes, the decree represents an innovative scheme within the framework of environmental legislation on climate actions. The decision appears strategic as it depicts new scenarios for the cities of tomorrow involving sequence design, implementation and management of urban forests as key components to challenge climate change effects on the urban environment. Italian research in the field of urban forestry and related issues is well prepared to tackle the challenge thanks to 25 years of experience in “planting, growing, and caring for” ideas, knowledge, and methods applied to the ecology and functioning of urban and peri-urban forests. This wealth of experience is at the service of the community and of stakeholders who will be directly or indirectly involved in the implementation of the Decree on Climate 2019. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Urban and Peri-urban Forests, Climate Change, Environmental Legislation, Green Infrastructure </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 74-76 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0067-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Salbitano F, Sanesi G Editoriali 2019-10-16 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Piantare alberi in Italia per il benessere del pianeta. Dove come e perché <p><b>Abstract</b>: The Laudato Si’ communities have put forward the proposal to plant 60 million trees in Italy to fight the climate crisis. The role of forests in mitigating climate change is scientifically unequivocal. However, a sound reforestation strategy must be consistent with the country’s environmental, forest and socio-economic context. Italian forests and the 12 billion trees they contain currently absorb 5-10% of the total country emissions; 60 million trees would result in an additional sequestration of 0.05% of the CO2 emitted annually. Furthermore, forested areas in Italy are rapidly increasing on rural and marginal sites. On the contrary, forests are disappearing in lowlands and urban centers. Cities and suburbs are the areas where new forests could play an important role in climate mitigation, contributing to the mitigation of heat waves and air pollution, and increasing the well-being of citizens. To be successful, interventions to mitigate the climate crisis cannot be exhausted within the forest sector. Forestry-related strategies must be diversified, and include reducing deforestation, planting new forests, increasing the efficacy of sustainable and adaptive forest management, and taking advantage of the substitution effects played by wood-based materials. New urban forests, if subject to scientifically based design and planning, are an important part of this strategy. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Climate Change Mitigation, Reforestation, Urban Forests, Sustainable and Adaptive Forest Strategies </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 59-65 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3260-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M, Motta R, Salbitano F, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2019-10-10 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti di Progetto: Linee guida per una gestione forestale compatibile con la conservazione dell’orso bruno marsicano <p><b>Abstract</b>: Forests provide a wide range of important ecosystem services and, among these benefits, biodiversity and wildlife habitat. Forest management (including no active control) deeply affects wildlife management, since it can alter habitat structure and productivity, speed-up evolution of ecosystems, and impact on wildlife ability to survive and reproduce. Unfortunately still very often, practitioners, forest planners and policy-makers fail to understand this opportunity. Forest management can maintain and enhance quality, quantity and availability of natural resources for wildlife, and therefore it is a valuable management tool long recognized in the wildlife practice. This is particularly true for species associated to forest ecosystems which are threatened or endangered, such as the Apennine brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus). Based on an extensive literature review on forest management-bear interactions, we report recommended management actions and associated working techniques, hereby illustrated and discussed in order to define a set of forest management guidelines meant to promote and encourage the adoption of adequate silviculture practices in Apennine forests, as well as to facilitate and support the range expansion of Apennine brown bear beyond its current core distribution. Our aim is also to present these guidelines to a wider scientific audience and decision-makers to foster their implementation into management practices, especially within protected areas. Finally, our ultimate goal is to fill the gap between disciplines such as silviculture and animal ecology, with the aim of stimulating the multidisciplinary approach requested not only for the conservation of the Apennine brown bear but for the integrated and enhanced management of wildlife in general. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Management, Forest Planning, Habitat, Wildlife Forestry, Ursus arctos marsicanus </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 66-73 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3194-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Rositi A, Console C, Di Santo D, Gentile C, Logiudice L, Posillico M, Sammarone L, Ciucci P Rapporti di Progetto 2019-10-10 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Informazione e disinformazione forestale al tempo del web: il caso dell’alluvione del Monte Amiata <p><b>Abstract</b>: A sever flood event hit Mt. Amiata region in July 2019. We know that trees can help to reduce or prevent flooding, but we also know that there are thresholds in this mitigation/prevention role and when these limits are exceeded we have to expect damages that cannot be avoided. Frequencies of extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and heat waves are increasing and expected to increase in the future. Researchers and managers have to dedicate time and effort to communicate better with stakeholders about the role of the forest and the forest management regarding these events and address the discussion on facts instead that on opinions. Facts are accurate statements while opinions are expressed statements that are believed to be true but may or may not be facts. The Amiata flood event is an example where the discussion spread in many media has been mainly based on opinions rather than facts. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Flooding, Mitigation/Prevention, Forest Management, Fake news </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 56-58 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0068-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R Editoriali 2019-09-04 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Riflessioni sulla viabilità forestale e opere connesse a supporto delle iniziative per la predisposizione dei decreti attuativi del Testo Unico in materia di Foreste e Filiere Forestali <p><b>Abstract</b>: The forest road network provides access to the forest area to facilitate the conservation, the management and the value of forest ecosystems. In the case of poor design as well as poor or absent maintenance, the forest road network can cause significant environmental impacts, which can result in erosion and sedimentation, landslides, effects on flora and fauna and landscape impacts. In order to avoid such impacts, the road network must be planned, built and maintained in a correct and adequate way according to the environment in which the same roads are inserted. As consequence, the present paper would like to propose some considerations about forest road functions, definitions as well as in term of standard design and planning to support the implementation of the operative guidelines of the recent consolidate law on forestry. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest roads, Forest management, Forest operations, Ecological impacts </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 49-55 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3175-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Grigolato S, Marchi E, Laschi A, Cavalli R Commenti & Prospettive 2019-09-02 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti Tecnici: Sull’utilizzo di micro-cariche di esplosivo per la fenditura di ceppaie fuori terra <p><b>Abstract</b>: In the restoration works after the VAIA storm, one problem concerns the removal of above ground stumps. Since any mechanical method will hardly provide positive results, one possibility, reported in this note, concerns the idea of using micro-size charges of explosive to split the above-ground tree stumps. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Stabilità dei versanti, Tempesta Vaia, Ripristino ambientale, Riodin </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 48 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0069-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Cavalli R Rapporti Tecnici 2019-08-31 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Confronto tra differenti schemi e densità d’impianto in piantagioni a prevalenza di rovere (Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebel.): un caso di studio in Umbria <p><b>Abstract</b>: The results of tree farming plantation, aged 20 years, characterized by three different planting designs are reported. The plantation designs differ in planting densities and by the presence/absence of N-fixing nurse trees and shrubs. The plantations intercropped with N-fixing trees and shrubs (B 33% and C 66%) showed superior increment in dbh and height. The plantation C characterized by valuable tree planted at definitive distances (8 m), lower tree density and higher percentage of N-fixing trees and shrubs (C) showed the best growth performance and no thinning need, but showed the worst stems quality. In plantation (C) the vigorous development of shrubs and brambles hindered the management, making the plantation not suitable for tourist and recreational activities, though more attractive for local wildlife. The plantation with high tree density characterized mainly by sessile oak (A) was more sensitive to insect attacks and needed to be early thinned, thus it is more suitable for tourist and recreational activities. The plantation B with high tree density and intercropped with N-fixing nurse shrubs showed higher growth, needed to be tinned and can be used for tourist and recreational activities too. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Sessile Oak, Nitrogen Fixing Species, Thinning, Planting Layout </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (4): 40-47 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3130-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Testaferri G, Bianchetto E, Bidini C, Terradura M, Pelleri F Articoli Scientifici 2019-07-17 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: La doppia faccia del vento, come Jekyll e Hyde <p><b>Abstract</b>: We talk shortly about negative and positive effects of the windstorm (Vaia) that swept the forests of the North-East in Italy last October. In addition to short-term economic and infrastructural damages, the most negative effect was on the local people, who feel the forest as their home, and see it as the result of hard work done by parents and grandparents. The positive effect is the wind opened the way to the natural regeneration and the formation of more stable forests. A piece of news spread by the media is denied: the famous forest of Paneveggio in the province of Trento, from which the resonant wood used for the violins is obtained, has not been destroyed by the storm. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Windstorm, Eastern Alps, Forest Recovery, Natural Regeneration </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (3): 37-39 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0070-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2019-06-21 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Il monitoraggio degli ecosistemi forestali per comprendere gli impatti dell’inquinamento atmosferico e le opportunità di mitigazione <p><b>Abstract</b>: Atmospheric pollution produced by anthropogenic activities has detrimental effects on humans but also on plants. When forests are affected by exposure to pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, particles (with size ≤ 10 µm), and ozone, they in turn act as sentinels towards pollutant emission and at the same time provide ecosystem services when they scavenge pollutants form the atmosphere. In order to move towards levels of air quality not giving rise to significant negative impacts and risks to human health and the environment, the revision of the National Emission Ceilings Directive (2016/2284/EU) sets limits on the amount of pollutants that can be emitted by each Member States per year. By recognizing the negative impacts of pollution on forest ecosystems, the Directive also invites member states to monitor the impacts of pollution on forest ecosystems encouraging the continuation of long-term monitoring networks such as the ICP-Forests network. We discuss here opportunities for Italy to attain the directive thanks to a revitalized activity based on existing monitoring networks and the synergies with other newly established monitoring programs. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Atmospheric Pollution, Forest Ecosystems, National Emission Ceilings Directive, Forest Monitoring, Ozone </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (3): 32-36 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3154-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Fares S, Paoletti E Commenti & Prospettive 2019-05-27 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Produzioni agricole e forestali per biomassa a impiego energetico <p><b>Abstract</b>: Global changes push to set up strategies able to mitigate and adapt agricultural and forest crops to environmental variability, and the sustainable intensification of production processes under agricultural and forestry systems is one of the approaches mainly supported. In Italy biomass and biogas are the renewable energy sources that have shown the greatest potential for growth in recent years. In this context, during the XV National Congress held in Bolzano in February 2018, the Italian Association of Agricultural Scientific Societies has promoted an analysis about potential and limits of the sustainable intensification of agricultural and forestry systems for bioenergy production. This document reports the outcome, in the form of a commented discussion on the main evidences and proposals from technical-scientific and operational points of view. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Energy, Renewable Energy Sources, Biomass, Agroforestry Systems, Forest-wood Supply Chain </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (2): 26-31 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3001-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Corona P, Tognetti R, Monti A, Nardi S, Faccoli M, Salvi S, Casini L, Pantaleo Marco A, Pergher G, Cavalli R, Corti G, Buzzini P, Terribile F, Motta R, Tonon G, Romano R, Plutino M, Paletto A, Sallustio L, Comino R, Garrone C, Martello G, Angelini P, Monarca D, Zimbalatti G Commenti & Prospettive 2019-03-14 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Agroselvicoltura ed intensificazione ecologica <p><b>Abstract</b>: The agricultural and forestry sectors are currently facing the dramatic trilemma of producing food, energy and wood for a growing world population, while preserving the environment at the same time. Agroforestry systems are able to address those issues by integrating crops and/or grazing animals with woody perennials on the same land unit, which results in ecological intensification of productivity and higher and synergic use efficiency of natural resources and cultural inputs. In Italy, there is a long tradition of agroforestry systems, but the modernization of agriculture and society has led to a great reduction in their adoption. Both the residual traditional agroforestry systems (about 1.4 million ha) and the modern ones currently studied, can contribute to food and wood security, while significantly maintaining the most relevant local and global ecosystem services (soil erosion, phytoremediation, biodiversity, carbon sequestration) in the current context of climate change. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Trees Outside Forest, Ecosystem Services, Plantation Forestry, Silvoarable Systems, Silvopastoral Systems </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (2): 10-15 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3053-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Paris P, Consalvo C, Rosati A, Mele M, Franca A, Camilli F, Marchetti M Commenti & Prospettive 2019-03-07 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Offerta e domanda di biomasse legnose ad uso energetico in provincia di Trento: un’indagine conoscitiva <p><b>Abstract</b>: In the last decades, the energy policy of European Union (EU) has fostered the use of biomass from forests and outside forests for energy purposes. Firstly, the Green Paper on renewable energies of the European Commission, then, the Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, the objectives of reducing the greenhouses gases (GHG) emissions and increasing the share of final consumption covered by renewable sources have been established. In this context, the present study investigated the flow of wood residues for energy use in the Trentino province - involving 82 wood processing enterprises (74% of total enterprises) and 22 biomass energy plants (85% of total biomass energy plants) - and quality of raw material used. The results show that in the Trentino province 100% of wood residues produced by wood processing enterprises are sold in the market (90.6%) or re-used within the enterprise (9.4%). Concerning the biomass sold on the market, 46% of wood biomass is marketed within the Trentino province, while 54% is marketed outside the province (Bolzano province, Veneto and Lombardy region). The biomass energy plants mainly use woodchips from forest and sawmills (86%), while sawdust and bark cover the remaining 10% and 4%, respectively. The biomass energy plants sample involved in the survey buys mainly raw material from traders (42.5%) followed by wood processing enterprises (34.3%) and forest enterprises (23.2%). Regarding the quality of wood biomass, only 54.5% of biomass energy plants sample checks the water content, while 41% buy certified woodchips. The results of this study highlight that forest-wood chain in the Trentino province is efficient in re-using wood residues produced in accordance with the principles of the circular bioeconomy, while there are still margins for improvement about the controls of the quality of raw materials used and to enhance of wood products of high added value (bio-textiles, bio-plastics). </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Circular Bioeconomy, Short Chain, Cascading Approach, First Wood Processing Enterprises, Biomass Energy Plants, Wood Residues, Trentino </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (2): 16-25 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3037-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Pieratti E, Bernardi S, Romagnoli M, Sartori O, Paletto A Articoli Scientifici 2019-03-07 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti Tecnici: Stima dei danni della tempesta “Vaia” alle foreste in Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: On October 29, 2019, the Vaia storm hits the North-Eastern regions of Italy by wind gusts exceeding 200 km h-1. The forests in these regions have been seriously damaged. This contribution illustrates the methodology adopted in the emergency phase to estimate forest damages caused by Vaia storm, both in terms of damaged forest areas and growing stock volume of fallen trees. 494 Municipalities registered forest damages caused by Vaia, destroyed or intensely damaged forest stands amounted to about 42.500 ha, spread in Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardy and, only marginally, Piedmont and Valle d’Aosta. The growing stock volume of fallen trees was about 8.5 millions m3. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Windstorms, North-Eastern Italy, Wind Damages, Forest Damage Inventory </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (1): 3-9 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3070-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Chirici G, Giannetti F, Travaglini D, Nocentini S, Francini S, D’Amico G, Calvo E, Fasolini D, Broll M, Maistrelli F, Tonner J, Pietrogiovanna M, Oberlechner K, Andriolo A, Comino R, Faidiga A, Pasutto I, Carraro G, Zen S, Contarin F, Alfonsi L, Wolynski A, Zanin M, Gagliano C, Tonolli S, Zoanetti R, Tonetti R, Cavalli R, Lingua E, Pirotti F, Grigolato S, Bellingeri D, Zini E, Gianelle D, Dalponte M, Pompei E, Stefani A, Motta R, Morresi D, Garbarino M, Alberti G, Valdevit F, Tomelleri E, Torresani M, Tonon G, Marchi M, Corona P, Marchetti M Rapporti Tecnici 2019-02-15 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Dopo la tempesta, i piani dell’uomo e la ricostituzione della foresta <p><b>Abstract</b>: On 29 October 2018, a violent windstorm swept across eastern Italian Alps: thousands hectares of forests were affected and millions of trees uprooted. We warn not be in a hurry to restore artificially the forest: windstorms are natural disturbances and we should rely mostly on natural regeneration for forest recovery. It may take quite a long time in some cases, but natural regeneration will ensure diverse, productive and more resilient forests. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Windstorm, Forest Recovery, Natural Regeneration, Forest Resilience </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (1): 1-2 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0071-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2019-01-28 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Gravi infestazioni di Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford, 1894) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in castagneti del Piemonte <p><b>Abstract</b>: In the Spring 2018 large infestations of the Asian ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus were observed in various chestnut plantations in province of Cuneo (NW Italy). Unexpected thermal increase recorded in April triggered massive colonization of young Euro-Japanese hybrids chestnuts planted in 2017. The attacks spread in a wide western territory of the Cuneo province (Valle Infernotto, Valle Varaita, Saluzzo plain, Valle Po), causing the death of about 25% of the trees growing in the plantations affected by the infestations. Prompt clearcut and destruction of the infested trees, and the laying of attractive traps is needed to contain the damage and reduce the pest population density. Continuous monitoring of the physiological conditions of young chestnut trees and of the pest population is required in order to prevent new outbreaks. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Asian Ambrosia Beetle, Castanea sativa Stands, Exotic Insect Pest, Chestnut Management, NW Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (6): 112-116 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2860-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Dutto M, Ferracini C, Faccoli M Articoli Scientifici 2018-12-03 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: La selvicoltura delle pinete artificiali di pino nero: analisi delle legislazioni regionali italiane <p><b>Abstract</b>: During the last century, afforestation programmes were planned in most of the Italian regions and black pine plantations have represented one of the main public policy effort in mountain areas. The afforestation tecniques has been generally similar throughout Italy, producing nowadays artificial back pine forests showing similar age and structures. Nevertheless, contrasting forestry legislations and decision making both theoretically and technically are adopted at regional scale specifically on black pine forest management. Because of these heterogeneity of laws and regulation, a reference knowledge base can standardise and harmonise the different terms and technical-management aspects often involved in the forestry sector. The aim of this work is to provide a legislative history concerning afforestation at the National level, with a synoptic framework of the current regional forest legislation on the treatment of black pine forests. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Black Pine, Silviculture, Forest Regulations, Forest Laws, High Forests </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (6): 99-111 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2985-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Cantiani P, Di Salvatore U, Romano R Commenti & Prospettive 2018-11-22 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Selvicoltura e schianti da vento. Il caso della “tempesta Vaia” <p><b>Abstract</b>: On October 29th, 2018, storm Vaia hit forests in north-eastern Italy, causing the loss of 8 million cubic meters of standing trees and, more importantly, the sudden reduction of forest-related ecosystem services. Such event is not unprecedented: a similar storm had occurred in the same regions in 1966. Every year, an average of two extratropical storms affects the European continent, where wind is the most important agent of forest damage, contributing to more than half of total forest losses (38 million cubic meters of downed wood per year). The probability of storm damage in forests depends on four drivers: weather, site conditions, topography, and tree and stand characteristics. However peak wind speed is the dominant factor: over certain gust velocities, trees are broken or uprooted regardless of their characteristics - such velocities were certainly met by the Vaia event. In this case it may be impossible to avoid or mitigate wind damages. Nonetheless, management options to enhance the long-term forest resistance and resilience always exist. In this perspective, the storm Vaia (after the emergency management) and its consequences could be considered as a key lesson to be learned and as an important opportunity to enhance the resilience of Italian forest stands. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Silviculture, Windthrows, Forest Structure, Natural Disturbances, Restoration </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (6): 94-98 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2990-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R, Ascoli D, Corona P, Marchetti M, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2018-11-13 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Il nuovo regolamento comunitario LULUCF: sfide e opportunità per il settore forestale italiano <p><b>Abstract</b>: The entry into force of the new Italian national forest law was followed by the recent approval of the new European regulation 2018/841 on the inclusion of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from land use, land use change and forest (the so called LULUCF sector) into the 2030 climate and energy reduction targets. While the national forest law has been extensively debated, the EU regulation has not received, at least in Italy, a due attention by the forest sector. Since the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, the accounting and reporting of GHG for the forestry sector has been strongly debated and constrained by a series of technical issues, such as the quantification of the actual contribution of anthropogenic activities to GHG removals. The new LULUCF regulation seeks to overcome these limits by proposing a novel approach for accounting GHG emissions and removals in the forestry sector for the period 2020-2030. Moreover, emissions in the forest sector become more comparable to those in other sectors. The most innovative aspects refer to the so-called Forest Reference Level (FRL), and to the inclusion of accounting procedures also for Harvested Wood Products. The FRL is an estimate of the expected GHG emissions and removals in managed forest lands, against which the future GHG emissions and removals will be calculated. Despite originally based on policy assumptions (e.g., expected harvest), the new FRL is based on estimating the theoretical development of forests resulting from the continuation of the management practices as observed in the reference period 2000-2009. Thus, the FRL incorporates the age-structure dynamics of forest stands, and allows for increasing removals in aging forests. In this way, any impact of changes in forest management on GHG emissions will be considered, as in other sectors. Considering that Member States have the responsibility to account for GHG emissions and removals for the LULUCF sector, the implementation of the new LULUCF regulation, and the inherent calculation of the FRL represent both a challenge (for defining past and future management practices and harvest) and an opportunity (for enhancing the forestry-wood and energy chain) for the forestry sector in Italy. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forests, Paris Agreement, European Union, LULUCF, Reference Level, Forest Management </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (5): 87-93 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2886-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Pilli R, Vizzarri M, Fiorese G, Grassi G Commenti & Prospettive 2018-09-27 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Perizia di stima del valore di macchiatico: caratteri, contenuti ed autovalidazione <p><b>Abstract</b>: La perizia di stima da sempre ha quale obiettivo prioritario quello di informare il committente del valore di un bene. Rispetto al passato, questo elaborato oggi deve conformarsi agli standard della due diligence. In particolare, è richiesto che esso fornisca informazioni aggiuntive circa i caratteri del bene in stima e degli altri aspetti ad esso correlati. Inoltre, l’estensore è sollecitato ad avere la consapevolezza che la perizia deve comunicare a terzi, che non hanno competenze specifiche, aspetti sostanziali e tecnici. Il presente studio è stato sviluppato in riferimento alla perizia di determinazione del valore del soprassuolo da abbattere. Dopo aver brevemente introdotto gli aspetti teorici di base, è stato effettuata l’analisi di un campione di 22 perizie. Tre sono gli aspetti principali sotto esame: gli aspetti formali, il processo estimativo e la capacità di comunicazione dell’elaborato. Dall’analisi sono emersi molti aspetti critici, alcuni dei quali possono essere spiegati dall’istituzionalizzazione del processo del valore di macchiatico da parte del Corpo Forestale dello Stato, oggi non più operativo. Nelle conclusioni si evidenziano i punti critici delle perizie esaminate e vengono proposti alcuni suggerimenti per l’estimatore forestale al fine di produrre un report coerente con gli standard propri della due diligence. Inoltre, si propone l’uso delle matrici utilizzate nel presente studio come strumenti per la validazione di parte seconda della perizia. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Generi di perizia, Criterio di stima, Procedimento di stima, Validazione, Analisi del processo estimativo, Analisi della capacità comunicativa </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (4): 75-86 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2764-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Benedetti G, Carbone F Articoli Scientifici 2018-08-11 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Territorio, bioeconomia e gestione degli incendi: una sfida da raccogliere al più presto <p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest fires are increasing in all developed temperate countries and especially in Southern Europe. An unprecedented forest transition is more and more due to land abandonment on one side and, on the other side, to the lack of awareness in urban culture about ecological processes and dynamics. Wildland Urban Interfaces are growing and could represent potential traps in terms of security for people especially where fuel is not monitored and assessed, urban areas are not planned at all and landscape is not properly managed in an integrated way. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Fire Planning and Forest Policies, Megafires, Deep Causes and Increase of Fire Passage Severity, Territorial Factors and Socioeconomics </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (4): 71-74 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0072-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M, Ascoli D Editoriali 2018-08-03 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: Analisi storica della produzione scientifica dei settori scientifico-disciplinari AGR05 e AGR06 <p><b>Abstract</b>: On the occasion of the reorganization of disciplinary fields (DF) which is under implementation by the MIUR (Italian Ministry for Research and Education), the scientific production of the Italian forest research in two characterizing disciplines (AGR05 Forest management and Silviculture, and AGR06 Wood technology and Forest Operation) has been qualitatively investigated over the period 2005-2017. Using a text mining software, 2.112 scientific articles indexed in the SCOPUS database were analyzed and the evolution over time of the Italian forest research in the above disciplines was examined. The results indicate that ecosystem functions and services have pushed forest research to overcome the aspects linked to wood production (which still remains an important competence of the two DFs), to tackle topics aiming to understand the functioning and functionality of forest ecosystems, provide tools for monitoring forest dynamics and highlight the contribution of forests and urban green areas in contrasting climate change in terms of adaptation and mitigation. As regards the AGR06 sector, studies on forest operations have been mainly focused on issues related to the forest-energy supply chain, while for wood technology the enhancement of structural uses, the modified wood, and the conservation of Wooden Cultural Heritage have emerged. Therefore, the reorganization of disciplinary fields must certainly take into account the traditional Italian forestry thinking and the aspects related to planning, management and close-to-nature forestry, but also the evolution of forestry research in the past 15 years, which led to an intense scientific activity and production, must be considered. In defining the new declarations, it will therefore be appropriate firstly to consider the peculiarity in the area of Agricultural Science, and then the specificity of skills and research that each one of the two sectors carries forward both jointly and separately, thus ensuring to both sectors an adequate representation in autonomous profiles and domains. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forestry, Wood, Scientometrics, SCOPUS </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (3): 65-70 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2861-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Fioravanti M, Giannetti F, Spinelli S, Marchetti M Comunicazioni Brevi 2018-06-04 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: L’equilibrio della natura non esiste (e non è mai esistito!) <p><b>Abstract</b>: For decades ecologists and natural resource managers have operated on the assumption that the normal condition of nature, if not disturbed by humans, is a state of equilibrium called homeostasis. This paradigm led to the doctrine, popular especially among conservationists, that nature knows best and that human intervention is bad by definition. In the last decades new evidences have led ecologists and natural resource managers to abandon such concept or consider it as irrelevant. The new paradigm is that ecosystems are constantly changing and the main engine of this change are natural disturbances (e.g., fire, wind, insect outbreaks, etc.). The biological diversity is dependent on natural disturbance, thus natural resource conservation and management must take into account the fundamental role of these events. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Dynamics, Natural Disturbances, Homeostasis, Forest Management </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (3): 56-58 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2839-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R Commenti & Prospettive 2018-05-08 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Analisi spaziale dell’incendio del Morrone nel Parco Nazionale della Majella mediante l’utilizzo di immagini satellitari <p><b>Abstract</b>: In the last decades, wildfires have considerably changed in their frequency, extension, intensity and this is mainly due to climate change and human activities. The year 2017 was particularly significant for the amount of hectares burned in Southern Europe and especially in Italy. Remote sensing has been used to map and monitor wildfires around the world. In the last years, the advent of monitoring programs such as Copernicus (handled by the European Commission in partnership with the European Space Agency) offers a unique opportunity to monitor several land features, including wildfires. The aim of this paper is to map the 2017 fire occurred on the Morrone Mountain, in the Majella National Park. We used pre and post Sentinel 2-A data to map burned areas and to define severity classes. We also quantified burned areas in terms of land cover categories and Natura 2000 habitat types. The analysis showed that the burned area is 2184 ha, of which 84% (1837 ha) is within the Majella National Park limits (4% of the entire Park area). Most of the burned area is occupied by shrubs and grasslands, most of which are Natura 2000 habitats. Other burned areas are coniferous plantations and beech forests. The Sentinel 2-A imagery offers consistent, reproducible and unbiased recordings of fire features, an useful tool in remote and mountainous areas such as the Majella National Park. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Wildfires, Sentinel 2-A, Natura 2000, Remote Sensing </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (3): 59-64 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2775-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Frate L, Fabrizio M, Ciaschetti G, Spera M Articoli Scientifici 2018-05-08 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Le foreste e il sistema foresta-legno in Italia: verso una nuova strategia per rispondere alle sfide interne e globali <p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest cover in Italy has increased three-fold in slightly more than a century. In 2018 the area covered by forest will be, for the first time since long, larger than that covered by active cultivation. In the same time, the stewardship of forest ecosystem services such as biodiversity provision, hydrogeological protection, and landscape conservation has increased. More than 27% of Italian forests are included in protected areas; 86% of forests is subject to limitation of use connected to soil protection and water cycle regulation, and 100% is under the landscape conservation law. Italy is also home of one of the largest economies of wood transformation, but 80% of the raw material is imported, which implies several environmental, socio-economic, and ethical issues, both domestically and abroad. The conditions are ripe to plan for a responsible management of the natural capital in the country’s forests. A forest management that is active, shared, and conscious of domestic and global implications will be the best chance to maintain and improve the ecosystem services provided by forests in Italy. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Cover, Forest Ecosystem Services, Natural Capital, Wood Harvesting </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (3): 41-50 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2796-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M, Motta R, Pettenella D, Sallustio L, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2018-05-03 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: La gestione forestale sostenibile non può prescindere dalla conoscenza ecologica e conservazionistica attuale <p><b>Abstract</b>: In this note, the new Italian law for active forestry is discussed in relation to sustainable forest management criteria. In particular, we discuss how the law has serious flaws concerning the aim of “Maintenance, conservation and appropriate enhancement of biological diversity in forest ecosystems”. We ask for an inclusion of conservation biology principles following the “Half of the Earth Paradigm” stated by Edward Wilson to ensure forest biodiversity conservation for future generation. A sustainable forest policy should also consider adequate criteria for the preservation of existing old growth forests and the rewilding of remote or strategic environments at regional level through the ecological planning of strict reserves in the different ecoregions. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Sustainable Forest Management, Forest Europe, Conservation Biology, Biodiversity, Naturalness, Rewilding </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (3): 51-55 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2782-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Chiarucci A, Piovesan G Commenti & Prospettive 2018-05-03 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Selvicoltura nei cedui italiani: le normative sono allineate alle attuali condizioni? <p><b>Abstract</b>: Coppice silviculture: are laws and regulations in line with current conditions in Italy? Despite a less intensive management in the recent decades, coppices still cover a large part of Italian woodlands. Currently, they are characterized by relatively large wood volumes, especially with respect of those stands classified as “aged”. The current European and national strategies to reduce the use of fossil fuels and the related increasing demand of renewable bio-energy sources are giving a new boost to the coppice system, so that the need for an improved management of these stands is emerging. Under this perspective, this note highlights the opportunity for an overall revision of current forest laws and regulations at regional level in Italy, in order to embed recent scientific achievements and harmonize some aspects such as definitions, rotation, conversion to high stands, standards, cut size and administrative procedures. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Management, Silviculture, Forest Laws, Forest Regulations </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (2): 20-28 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2772-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Cutini A, Mattioli W, Roggero F, Fabbio G, Romano R, Quatrini V, Corona P Commenti & Prospettive 2018-04-30 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Percezione sociale delle gestione forestale: il caso della foresta peri-urbana di Monte Morello in provincia di Firenze <p><b>Abstract</b>: Urban and peri-urban forests play a relevant role for the urban population providing recreational and relaxing opportunities, improving air and water quality, and maintaining local biodiversity. In the last century, anthropic pressure and social requests on urban and peri-urban forests was drastically increased. In this context, surveys aimed to investigate the opinions and preferences of residents and visitors about urban and peri-urban forests are relevant in order to supply useful information to the local managers. The aim of the present study is to investigate social preferences for aesthetic and functional characteristics of the Monte Morello peri-urban forest in Tuscany after two different silvicultural treatments (traditional thinning and selective thinning). In order to collect the social preferences a semi-structured questionnaire was administered in spring-summer 2016 to 201 visitors of the Monte Morello peri-urban forest. The results of the survey show that the respondents prefer mixed forests with a horizontal and vertical differentiated stand structure. The respondents prefer three benefits (ecosystem services) provided by the Monte Morello forest: recreational opportunities, carbon dioxide sequestration and biodiversity conservation. In addition, the results show that respondents prefer from the aesthetic point of view the peri-urban forest of Monte Morello after the selective thinning. Conversely, the scenario status quo is the least appreciated due to the high amount of deadwood. The results of the present study provide quali-quantitative information useful for the decision makers (forest planners and managers) in order to define forest management strategies to enhance a peri-urban forest from the recreational point of view and to increase the site attractiveness. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Peri-urban Forests, Ecosystem Services, Tourism-recreation Function, Visitors, Questionnaire Survey, Tuscany Region </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (2): 29-39 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2769-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Paletto A, De Meo I, Cantiani P, Guerrini S, Lagomarsino A Articoli Scientifici 2018-04-30 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Ricordando Bernardo Hellrigl <p><b>Abstract</b>: (n/a) </p><p><b>Keywords</b>: (n/a) </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (2): 40 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0073-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Del Favero R, Colpi C Editoriali 2018-04-30 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Il nuovo Codice Forestale Nazionale, un testo di legge molto incoraggiante <p><b>Abstract</b>: (n/a) </p><p><b>Keywords</b>: (n/a) </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (1): 18-19 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0074-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M Editoriali 2018-01-29 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Ma l’ISTAT sa che in Italia esistono boschi e foreste? <p><b>Abstract</b>: Taking into account the last National Report of ISTAT (The Italian National Institute of Statistics), the present paper deals with the astonishing fact that forest chain has not been considered nor cited. The importance of woods and timber is highlighted, in connection with the great range of ecosystem services forests are providing to the entire society. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  The Italian National Institute of Statistics, Forest Inventory, Forest Chain, Fires </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (1): 1-2 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0075-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M, Pettenella D Editoriali 2018-01-23 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti Tecnici: ll fitonimo zappino, etimologia e diffusione. Il caso dell’eteronimo di Fontegreca (CE) <p><b>Abstract</b>: The plant name “zappino” most certainly comes from Latin, from Sap(p)inus = zappino, which is cited by many classic Latin authors such as Pliny, Virgil, Vitruvius, etc. The first vernacular attestations date back to the year 978. Just like the Romans gave sap(p)inus various meanings (pine tree, pine or spruce trunk, pine cone), today the name zappino is given to many different species: Aleppo pine tree, black pine, larch pine, cluster pine, local pine, spruce, larch. The word zappino has also been included in local toponomastics in areas with abundant resinous species; the toponym has been preserved until modern times, also in districts where the species no longer exist and local people have long since lost the memory of them. The attribution of zappino to the Fontegreca (Caserta, southern Italy) cypress tree does not appear to be sufficiently documented and semantically correct. It is likely that the word origin (with various contaminations) is an animal name, deriving from a Balcanic dialect (=billy goat, kid, goat, plots of land or mountains, streams or road networks), associated with the presence of little goats that have nothing to do with the cypress tree; a similar etymology could be applied to toponyms of sites where pine trees or spruce trees have never existed. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Fontegreca, Cypress, Zappino, Etymology, Zooname </p><p><i>Forest@ 15 (1): 3-17 (2018) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2408-015<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Fiorucci E Rapporti Tecnici 2018-01-23 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rassegne: Il ceduo oggi: quale gestione oltre le definizioni? <p><b>Abstract</b>: The economical-social change, the competitiveness and “modernity” of fossil fuels, their prompt diffusion are the concurrent factors that heavily reduced the use of coppice firewood and charcoal since the fifties of the last century. Therefore, a shift took place in the last 60 years from the homogeneous area made of intensively managed, young stands to the more and more differentiated standing crops, as for structural features, growing stocks and growth dynamics, even though all of them originated from a common matrix. Nowadays, the former coppice area includes stands managed under lengthened rotations, outgrown coppices, the coppice conversion into high forest. The 2005 National Forest Inventory reported that 87% of standing crops was included in the age-classes 20-40 and over 40 years, with variable percentages according to tree species, from beech up to thermophilous oaks. Here, the basis of historical judgment on the coppice system, the reasons underlying the outgrown coppice establishment, the current standards of cultivation under even doubled rotations, are critically analyzed. The current demand to reduce the use of fossil fuels by renewable bio-energy sources and to face up the effects of climate change (unpredictability, rainfall reduction, higher air temperature, prolonged droughts, water stress, fire risk) give a new boost to the coppice system. Main goals today are to: (i) optimize the capacity of firewood production to reduce the heavy deficit at the country level; (ii) make the best use of the regeneration ability inherent to the system against the more sensitive regeneration from seed in the changing environment. The positive growth trend, the maintenance of resprouting ability as well as of vital stools density in the outgrown coppice area, address to a sustainable increase of rotations up to the age of 50 years, as already highlighted by a few regional regulations. It would allow the recovery of a current volume increment of 1-1.5 M m3 to internal firewood production. Unsuitable stand locations or bio-ecological conditions as well as stands already under conversion into high forest are obviously excluded. The approach to coppice system maintenance within the variable territorial context, the possible innovation and the definition of flexible silvicultural models are then outlined. The useful updating and harmonization of forest regulations are finally recalled. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Outgrown Coppice, Silviculture, Dynamics, Innovation, Cultivation Models </p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (5): 257-274 (2017) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2562-014<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Fabbio G, Cutini A Rassegne 2017-10-30 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rassegne: I principali insetti parassiti della pioppicoltura italiana: aggiornamenti e prospettive <p><b>Abstract</b>: The main insect pests affecting poplar plantations in Italy: updates and perspectives. An update of the main insect pests causing significant damage to poplar plantations in Italy is here provided. The recent introduction of a few highly dangerous invasive alien pests as well as the increasing importance of secondary pests infesting poplar trees physiologically stressed by climate change are discussed. A short comment about induced damage and possible control strategies is provided for each pest. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Poplar Plantations, Insect Pests, Alien Pests, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (5): 275-284 (2017) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2625-014<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Allegro G Rassegne 2017-10-30 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Approcci selvicolturali innovativi a sostegno della gestione forestale sostenibile in Calabria <p><b>Abstract</b>: We propose several guidelines for sustainable forest management of the main regional forest types based on literature review on silviculture and forest management and taking into account the results from surveys carried out in four test sites located in Calabria (Southern Italy) within the framework of ALForLAB project. The four test sites cover 16% of regional forested area, which included ten of the main silvicultural types. Results highlighted a high variability in stand structure of high forests, while coppice woods were characterised by low structural variablity. The different silvicultural treatments proposed for high forests focused on the maintenance of stand structure complexity where it is already high, and to enhance it where the past management options simplified stand structure. The proposed silvicultural treatments for conifer plantations aimed at progressive renaturalisation. In the regional context coppice management, especially simple coppice with standards, still maintains an important role for fuelwood and charcoal production, poles and posts (chestnut coppice) production, and more recently for forest biomass for energy use. Coppice management, with exception for beech stands and stands within protected areas, can still be maintained with the adoption of suitable tending and thinnings interventions and rotation periods. The management guidelines here proposed for both high forests and coppices represent an important tool for sustainable forest management in Calabria. In addition, they can be an useful and complementary tool for spatial decision support system aimed to Precision Forestry issues. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Silviculture, High Forests, Coppice, Plantations, Wood, Forest Biomass, Precision Forestry, ALForLAB </p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (5): 285-313 (2017) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2544-014<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Iovino F, Nicolaci A, Menguzzato G, Marziliano P, Bernardini V, Castaldi C, Quatrini V, Cutini A Articoli Scientifici 2017-10-30 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Gestione sostenibile dei boschi e stima delle biomasse potenzialmente utilizzabili in Calabria: applicazione ad un’area di studio <p><b>Abstract</b>: Based on LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data, estimates of volume and biomass potentially available from coppice and high forest stands under different silvicultural options were estimated in a case study located in the Pollino National Park (Calabria - Southern Italy) within the framework of the ALForLAB project. Estimates of volume and biomass potentially available were elaborated separately for the main silvicultural types: beech, Calabrian pine and Mediterranean pines high forest stands on one hand, and for traditional coppices, outgrown coppice and coppice in conversion to high forest on the other. The estimates were performed taking into duly account both of the forest regional law and the restrictions due to the protected area (Natural Park). The overall standing volume ranged from 4.8 up to 7.7 M m3, while the volume potentially available ranged from 3.7 up to 6 M m3. Estimates of mass potentially available under the the adoption of different silvicultural system and options, in a sustainable forest management context, and according to the main stand structure types were analysed and discussed. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Stand Structure, Sustainable Forest Management, Silvicultural Systems, Lidar, Forest Biomass, ALForLAB </p><p><i>Forest@ 14 (5): 314-333 (2017) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor2598-014<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Iovino F, Cruscomagno F, Nicolaci A, Cutini A, Menguzzato G Articoli Scientifici 2017-10-30 Copyright (c) 2020, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved