Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale Ultimi lavori pubblicati Copyright (c) 2004-2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved it PHP 5.3.1 (Gabriele Bucci) (Gabriele Bucci) 60 Forest@ Web Site Editoriali: La questione delle Aree Interne, sfida e opportunità per il Paese e per il settore forestale <p><b>Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>LA QUESTIONE DELLE AREE INTERNE, SFIDA E OPPORTUNITÀ PER IL PAESE E PER IL SETTORE FORESTALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Starting from the current evolution of the national legislation in the matter of socioeconomic development of inner and remote areas in Italy, a strict correlation with the forest and forestry sector is pinpoint and described. In the last decades forest geography has more and more become a mountain geography, where mountains are the main part of the country and are mainly affected by abandonment of rural areas. Despite the great potential for the invoked European new bioeconomy wave, forest area, the biggest green infrastructure in Italy, has its major role in the conservation purposes, well calibrated and actually effective. Room for other ecosystem services, starting from a responsible and well balanced process of wood mobilization and other regulating functions, are discussed, such as the importance and the high opportunity for halting demographic decline and pushing internal socioeconomic energies.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Socioeconomic Development, Inner and Remote Areas, Forestry Sector, Ecosystem Services, Bioeconomy</p><p><i>Forest@ 0 (0): 35-39 ()</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0082-013<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M Editoriali 2016-06-13 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: I dati dell’Inventario Forestale Nazionale Italiano sono on-line e disponibili in modalità open-access <p><b>Borghetti M, Chirici G</b></p><p><b>I DATI DELL’INVENTARIO FORESTALE NAZIONALE ITALIANO SONO ON-LINE E DISPONIBILI IN MODALITÀ OPEN-ACCESS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Raw data from the Italian National Forest Inventory are on-line and publicly available. The National Forest Service in cooperation with the Forestry Research Centre (CREA) of the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forests released the raw data from the National Inventory of Forests and forest Carbon pools - INFC2005 project, the second Italian national forest inventory. Data are available together with metadata information at Users, after registration, can download data from 230.874 living tree stems, 16.472 dead tree stems, 31.083 stumps, from a total of 7.272 field plots (for 1.384 of them additional data on fine woody debris and soil carbon pools are also available).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: National Forest Inventory, INFC, Italy, Open Access, Italian Forest Service</p><p><i>Forest@ 0 (0): 33-34 ()</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0083-013<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M, Chirici G Editoriali 2016-05-11 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Pensiero forestale <p><b>Corona P</b></p><p><b>PENSIERO FORESTALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This note emphasizes the importance of appreciating the conceptual paths and theories that have historically characterized forestry development. A recent monograph on the history of forest thinking presents the theoretical evolution of silvicultural science, with particular attention to epistemological and ethical implications: the main lines of research progress are stressed by analysing the various schools of thought in this field. The reading of the monograph strengthens the evidence that always behind the facts, there are the ideas.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Silviculture, Forest History, Epistemology, Ethics</p><p><i>Forest@ 0 (0): 31-32 ()</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0084-013<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Corona P Commenti & Prospettive 2016-05-10 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: La carabidofauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae) del “Bosco Palli”, una cerreta relitta del Basso Monferrato (Piemonte, Italia) <p><b>Allegro G, Chiarabaglio PM</b></p><p><b>LA CARABIDOFAUNA (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE) DEL “BOSCO PALLI”, UNA CERRETA RELITTA DEL BASSO MONFERRATO (PIEMONTE, ITALIA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The Carabid fauna of “Bosco Palli”, a relict Turkey oak wood in the hilly area of Basso Monferrato, is described. This wood covers an area of about 50 hectares divided in two separate core areas and is almost entirely surrounded by agricultural crops. A total of 25 Carabid species were recorded, of which only 11 are present in the central core areas and 23 in the peripheral ecotone areas. There are only very few species with strict forest attitude, but a prosperous population of Carabus italicus was recorded, located in a peripheral portion of the forest on moist and swampy soil. The poorness of this fauna and the scarcity of specialized forest species may be a consequence of the limited area of the wood, its fragmentation, the total isolation in an agricultural context and the repeated coppicing carried out up to about half of the past century.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ground Beetles, Bioindicators, Relict Forests, Turkey Oak Woods, Monferrato Hills</p><p><i>Forest@ 0 (0): 8-17 ()</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1929-013<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Allegro G, Chiarabaglio PM Articoli Scientifici 2016-04-04 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rassegne: Determinanti, attitudini e disponibilità alla produzione di beni e di servizi da parte dei proprietari forestali privati: una rassegna della letteratura internazionale <p><b>Mozzato D, Gatto P</b></p><p><b>DETERMINANTI, ATTITUDINI E DISPONIBILITÀ ALLA PRODUZIONE DI BENI E DI SERVIZI DA PARTE DEI PROPRIETARI FORESTALI PRIVATI: UNA RASSEGNA DELLA LETTERATURA INTERNAZIONALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Determinants, attitudes and willingness of private forest owners to produce goods and services: a review of the international literature. There is an information gap in the Italian literature with regards to private forest ownership, while several analysis are available on the characteristics and the management systems of public forest ownership. To address this gap, this paper presents the characteristics of private forest owners and their evolution in time by reviewing the international literature in the last three decades. The examined studies are reported according to four perspectives: (i) the available classifications and/or typologies of private forest owners; (ii) the determinants of different forest owners’ behaviors, especially in relation to their objectives; (iii) the attitudes of forest owners and the motivations behind their management decisions; (iv) the valuation of the willingness to accept monetary compensations in return for the provision of ecosystem services. The results show a very complex picture, varying both in space and time. However, some recurring features can be identified: (i) not only are forest owners motivated by timber production goals, but also by other reasons, often very diversified and detached from market considerations; (ii) a “multi-functional” forest owner is by no means less active, but, conversely, is more active than a forest owner whose sole objective is timber production; (iii) in general, the active owner is a farmer whose family has owned the forest for many generations (and in this case he/she is more market-oriented), or is a new entry in the forestry sector; (iv) the “passive” owner is usually elderly, non-farmer and resides far from the property. In addition, the “absent” owner is a common problem to several of the examined geographical contexts. Although the results of the review cannot be transferred as such, they represent a useful starting point for similar analyses in the Italian context. Examining the determinants and attitudes of private forest owners in Italy would indeed prove interesting, given that private forest ownership in Italy represents a relevant share of total forest area and that the implementation of new policy tools such as payments for ecosystem services requires active participation by all key actors, including forest owners.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Private Forest Ownership, Forest Owners, Attitudes, Forest Owners’, Typologies, Ecosystem Services</p><p><i>Forest@ 0 (0): 18-30 ()</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1751-013<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Mozzato D, Gatto P Rassegne 2016-04-04 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Imprese forestali “estere”: possibili mutamenti e alterazioni del mercato dei prodotti legnosi <p><b>Andreatta G</b></p><p><b>IMPRESE FORESTALI “ESTERE”: POSSIBILI MUTAMENTI E ALTERAZIONI DEL MERCATO DEI PRODOTTI LEGNOSI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent years, a major change has been taking place in forestry companies involved in coppice logging in the province of Forlì-Cesena (northern Apennines, Italy). Entrepreneurs of foreign origin who live and work in Italy, though having the legal head office and the tax domicile in a different EU country (particularly Romania), entered the local market of coppice logging. Such “foreign” companies may benefit of significant tax advantages at different stages (stand purchase, forest exploitation, sale of wood products), creating serious difficulties to the national forestry companies and representing a possible nuisance to the local market of wood products. Possible actions aimed at contrasting such situation are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Imprese Forestali Estere, Vantaggi Fiscali, Criticità per le Imprese Forestali Nazionali</p><p><i>Forest@ 0 (0): 1-7 ()</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0085-013<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Andreatta G Commenti & Prospettive 2016-01-23 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Lectio Magistralis del Prof. Orazio Ciancio in occasione del suo ottantesimo compleanno <p><b>Iovino F</b></p><p><b>LECTIO MAGISTRALIS DEL PROF. ORAZIO CIANCIO IN OCCASIONE DEL SUO OTTANTESIMO COMPLEANNO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: On december 3, 2015 the 80th birthday of Prof. Orazio Ciancio has been celebrated at the Italian Academy of Forest Sciences in Florence (Italy) by a meeting organized by the proponents of the “Manifesto of the systemic silviculture”. In this context, Prof. Ciancio has given his lectio magistralis focused on the culture of complexity, the systemic concept, the reference scientific paradigma, the relationship between science and humanism and those among culture, aethics and arts.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Selvicoltura Sistemica, Silvosistemica, Rapporto Bosco-uomo, Gestione Forestale</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 50-51 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0086-012<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Iovino F Commenti & Prospettive 2015-12-30 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Il “new deal” degli Inventari Forestali Nazionali è finalmente arrivato? <p><b>Chirici G</b></p><p><b>IL “NEW DEAL” DEGLI INVENTARI FORESTALI NAZIONALI È FINALMENTE ARRIVATO?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper briefly describes the recent initiatives of Spain and France that made raw data from their National Forestry Inventory available both online and via open-access databases. As part of the implementation of the European PSI-Directive on the re-use of Public Administration data and the realization of the Statute of Digital Administration by the Agency for Digital Italy (AGID), a similar implementation by the Italian Forest Service is expected through the on-line and open access publication of all georeferenced data related to the phase III of the 2015 Italian Inventory of Forests and Carbon Reservoirs.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: National Forest Inventory, Georeferenced Data, PSI Directive, Open Access</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 47-49 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1915-012<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Chirici G Commenti & Prospettive 2015-11-25 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Il 10° Congresso Nazionale SISEF: “Sostenere il pianeta, boschi per la vita” <p><b>Ciancio O</b></p><p><b>IL 10° CONGRESSO NAZIONALE SISEF: “SOSTENERE IL PIANETA, BOSCHI PER LA VITA”</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: After greeting the Congress participants on behalf of the Italian Academy of Forest Sciences and having recalled its role in promoting debate and innovation in the forestry sector, some brief thoughts on research in silviculture are presented. The Final motion of the Round table “The forest and man”, held in Florence in 1995, stated that “The forest is a complex biological system which has a fundamental role in maintaining life on our planet. Like all living systems, the forest has intrinsic value, it is a subject of rights which must be preserved and protected”. In the last decades a new forestry culture has developed which is based on three “E”s: Ecology, Economy and Ethics. Silviculture is a biological science and its vitality depends on its history and its ability to confront, not only on technical bases but also in scientific terms, the challenges coming from constant change. It is concluded that radical innovation is an asset of young people. They are the ones in charge of future scientific development. For this reason they must be educated to creativity and cultural independence. They must be aware of the importance of their work, which should be based on intense study and a search for excellence, even if this brings no immediate acknowledgement. If young researchers follow these rules, nothing will be precluded and success will finally arrive.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: SISEF National Congress, Ecology, Economy, Ethics</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 45-46 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0087-012<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Ciancio O Commenti & Prospettive 2015-10-24 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Laudato si’ (senza bosco, né pane né fuoco) <p><b>Corona P</b></p><p><b>LAUDATO SI’ (SENZA BOSCO, NÉ PANE NÉ FUOCO)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Laudato si’ (without forest, neither bread nor fire). The encyclical letter Laudato si’ of the Holy Father Francis on care for our common home, our planet, is considered. The approach to complex socioecological systems is stressed. In this same perspective, the tenth congress of the Italian Society of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, to be held in Firenze (Italy) next September 15th to 18th, aims to highlight the role of forests and forestry in supporting the life on the planet. Forestry can be one of the most dynamic sectors of the “green economy”. The ethical norm of respect for the intrinsic value of the ecosystem is just brought about by concern, closeness and familiarity between man and forest and, on the contrary, it may be hampered by aprioristic resource immobilization.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Encyclical Letter, Forestry, Land Ethic, Tenth Congress of The Italian Society of Silviculture and Forest Ecology</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 41-42 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0088-012<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Corona P Editoriali 2015-08-25 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Limitare la diffusione di Xylella fastidiosa e recuperare le piante infette con le buone pratiche agricole <p><b>Xiloyannis C, Palese AM, Lardo E, Sofo A</b></p><p><b>LIMITARE LA DIFFUSIONE DI XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA E RECUPERARE LE PIANTE INFETTE CON LE BUONE PRATICHE AGRICOLE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: (not available)</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Xylella fastidiosa, Olivo, Pratiche Agricole, Ripristino della Fertilità</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 43-44 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0089-012<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Xiloyannis C, Palese AM, Lardo E, Sofo A Commenti & Prospettive 2015-08-25 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Aspetti biologici, ecologici e genetici di popolamenti di frassino ossifillo (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) dell’Italia nord-orientale <p><b>Belletti P, Camerano P, Ferrazzini D, Fiorentin R, Cego Pernigotto F</b></p><p><b>ASPETTI BIOLOGICI, ECOLOGICI E GENETICI DI POPOLAMENTI DI FRASSINO OSSIFILLO (FRAXINUS ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL) DELL’ITALIA NORD-ORIENTALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Narrow leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) is an important forest tree belonging to peculiar and threatened ecosystems, where it forms mixed populations with other deciduous trees. Its range partly overlaps with that of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and interspecific cross is possible. These habitats are of the utmost importance due to their high level of biodiversity, but highly threatened by human activities. Since climate change is expected to favor the diffusion of narrow leaved ash, a study was carried out with the aim of enhancing our knowledge of the biological, ecological and genetic aspects of this species. Twelve populations of narrow leaved ash from north-eastern Italy were sampled and their genetic variability was analyzed by means of six molecular markers (nuclear microsatellites), of which 4 gave consistent and repeatable results. Overall, 113 alleles were observed, of which 38 were present in only one population (private alleles). Consistent levels of genetic variability was found (mean number of alleles per locus = 7.08, effective number of alleles per locus = 4.37, expected heterozygosity = 0.613), though lower than those reported in the literature. Fixation index was very close to zero, indicating a good agreement with Hardy-Weinberg’s expectations. The genetic differentiation among populations was significant (both GST e FST as high as 0.102), although it was not possible to correlate the distribution of genetic variability with ecological or geographical factors. Genetic pools of F. excelsior and F. angustifolia were distinct, though several individuals showed intermediate genetic characteristics, especially in the population from Grotta di Farra where both species are present and many individuals showed intermediate morphological features. The presence of individuals possibly originated by interspecific cross should be taken into account in the case of seed collection. Our results may contribute to a rationale management of genetic resources of narrow leaved ash, also considering the current legislation on forest reproductive material.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Narrow Leaved Ash, nSSR Markers, Genetic Variability, Genetic Differentiation, Interspecific Hybridization, Regions of Provenance, Seed Stands</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 25-40 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1628-012<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Belletti P, Camerano P, Ferrazzini D, Fiorentin R, Cego Pernigotto F Articoli Scientifici 2015-08-08 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: SWOT-AHP come strumento inclusivo di analisi della filiera foresta-legno-energia: il caso di studio della Val Sarentino (Alto Adige) <p><b>Nikodinoska N, Mattivi M, Notaro S, Paletto A, Sparapani G</b></p><p><b>SWOT-AHP COME STRUMENTO INCLUSIVO DI ANALISI DELLA FILIERA FORESTA-LEGNO-ENERGIA: IL CASO DI STUDIO DELLA VAL SARENTINO (ALTO ADIGE)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the last years, the use of forest biomass for energy purpose is steadily increasing to tackle energy security issues and to mitigate climate change by stabilizing greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. In Italy, the new National Energy Strategy established that the renewable energy must cover 20% of gross energy demand by 2020. In order to achieve this objective the forest biomass could be of fundamental importance. In this context of increasing extraction of wood residues from forests, it is relevant to analyse two key aspects: (1) the involvement of stakeholders in the strategy for the valorization of forest-wood-energy chain at local level; and (2) the potential impacts of increased forest biomass extraction on environment. This paper analyses these two aspects through the stakeholders’ opinions in a case study in the Alto Adige (Sarentino valley). Stakeholders’ opinions concerning the analysis of SWOT categories (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) of the bioenergy supply chain were investigated using the SWOT-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) approach. The results show that the local stakeholders emphasize some strengths (e.g., additional income over time for private forest owners) and opportunities (e.g., development of shared forest management strategies among small forest owners) of forest-wood-energy chain, and consider less relevant the weaknesses and threats. The results concerning one of most important potential threats - impacts on environment - show that all groups of stakeholders (public administrations, associations and NGO, research bodies and universities, and actors of rural sector) consider positive the impacts of increased forest biomass extraction on recreational activities and negative on other three ecosystem services (carbon sequestration, hydrogeological protection, and biodiversity).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest-wood-energy Chain, Forest Biomass, Stakeholders, SWOT Analysis, AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process), Val Sarentino (Alto Adige</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 1-15 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1536-012<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Nikodinoska N, Mattivi M, Notaro S, Paletto A, Sparapani G Articoli Scientifici 2015-06-20 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Analisi dell’infestazione di Ips typographus nella foresta dell’Alta Val Parma e strategie per la ricomposizione del bosco <p><b>Vignali G, Barbarotti S, Piovani P, Maresi G, Salvadori C</b></p><p><b>ANALISI DELL’INFESTAZIONE DI IPS TYPOGRAPHUS NELLA FORESTA DELL’ALTA VAL PARMA E STRATEGIE PER LA RICOMPOSIZIONE DEL BOSCO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Analysis of the bark beetle outbreak in the forest “Alta Val Parma” (Corniglio, Parma, Italy) and strategies for its regeneration. Norway spruce plantations located in the Foresta Demaniale Alta Val Parma (Corniglio, province of Parma - Italy) experienced since 2004 a massive outbreak of Norway spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus). This outbreak has been triggered by the exceptionally warm and dry summer of 2003. In the following years bark beetle attacks repeated and spread, raising concern about the future of this kind of stands. A survey program has been carried out to help local administration to chose the correct managements strategies. Monitoring of Ips typographus population, carried out between 2007 and 2013, confirmed the presence of two generations per year, with values above the risk threshold in 2007 and just below though very high in 2011. In the affected area, six survey plots have been realized to test different management options with the aim of favoring a fast regeneration of the forest cover. The tested options showed the great difficulty in the establishment of natural generation either for the lack of mother plants in such pure stands or for competition with tall grasses. Sowing brought no significative results, while direct plantation of indigenous broadleaves was more effective, with almost half of the individuals still alive after three years. Our results confirm the great difficulty to rebuild the forest cover after strong ecological disturbances in these artificial forests. Hybrid management strategies and ad hoc silvicultural choices seem to be the only way to manage such kind of situations in a National park, where the priority is biodiversity conservation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bark Beetle, Norway Spruce, Disturbance, Natural Regeneration, Management Choices</p><p><i>Forest@ 12 (1): 16-24 (2015)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1539-012<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Vignali G, Barbarotti S, Piovani P, Maresi G, Salvadori C Articoli Scientifici 2015-06-20 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Necrosi corticali da Brenneria nigrifluens e altri batteri su noce in impianti piemontesi: studio dell’evoluzione della malattia in campo e caratterizzazione di isolati con rep-PCR <p><b>Giorcelli A, Gennaro M</b></p><p><b>NECROSI CORTICALI DA BRENNERIA NIGRIFLUENS E ALTRI BATTERI SU NOCE IN IMPIANTI PIEMONTESI: STUDIO DELL’EVOLUZIONE DELLA MALATTIA IN CAMPO E CARATTERIZZAZIONE DI ISOLATI CON REP-PCR</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Owing to its increasing incidence, a study was performed on walnut bacterial bark canker by Brenneria nigrifluens, a disease native to California but spreading over Europe since about twenty years. B. nigrifluens may compromise wood quality and, in some cases, impair plant survival due to extensive cankers and bark necroses. Bacterial isolates obtained from bark tissue fragments, typed by rep-PCR analysis after multiplication on proper selective growing media, confirmed the diagnosis of the causal agent, despite the presence of other bacterial species. B. nigrifluens was detected in 28% of common walnut arboricultural stands located in Piedmont plains and hills, especially those located in the Vercelli province and in some areas of the Alessandria province. Based on the results of the cluster analysis carried out on PCR amplicons, none of the other bacterial isolates showed any genotypic similarity with the related B. rubrifaciens, the agent of the deep bark canker of walnut, which has not been detected in Europe yet. The application of the three rep-PCR variants, including BOX-PCR applied for the first time to B. nigrifluens, gave similar results, but with different cluster structures. In two pilot plantations, trees already presenting necroses did not necessarily develop new necroses or enlarge the pre-existing cankers in the following years. The disease apparently does not spread according to a climate factor, whereas it may be affected by plant genotype that possibly promotes the transition of B. nigrifluens, probably already present in tissues in an asymptomatic endophytic phase, to the pathogenic phase.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: English Walnut, Brenneria nigrifluens, Shallow Bark Canker, Rep-PCR, Wood Arboriculture</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (4): 180-188 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1335-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Giorcelli A, Gennaro M Articoli Scientifici 2014-11-20 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Germinazione dei semi e sopravvivenza dei semenzali di leccio (Quercus ilex L.) in interventi finalizzati alla rinaturalizzazione delle pinete di pino d’Aleppo (Pinus halepensis Mill.) dell’isola di Pianosa (Arcipelago Toscano, LI): risultati preliminari <p><b>Giunti M, Foggi B</b></p><p><b>GERMINAZIONE DEI SEMI E SOPRAVVIVENZA DEI SEMENZALI DI LECCIO (QUERCUS ILEX L.) IN INTERVENTI FINALIZZATI ALLA RINATURALIZZAZIONE DELLE PINETE DI PINO D’ALEPPO (PINUS HALEPENSIS MILL.) DELL’ISOLA DI PIANOSA (ARCIPELAGO TOSCANO, LI): RISULTATI PRELIMINARI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Interventions aimed at promoting Quercus ilex spread in the Island of Pianosa (Tuscan Archipelago National Park) have been carried out within LIFE Nature Project “Tuscan Islands: new actions for sea birds and habitats”. In Pinus halepensis stands from afforestation, 810 acorns have been sown in 9 areas under the pine canopy with different presence of Mediterranean scrub. Germination and seedlings survival, five years after sowing, have been very satisfactory only in areas with a dense shrub layer.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis, Renaturalization, Germination, Tuscan Archipelago</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (4): 168-179 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1053-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Giunti M, Foggi B Articoli Scientifici 2014-09-16 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Un ricordo del Professor Antonio Moroni <p><b>Menozzi P</b></p><p><b>UN RICORDO DEL PROFESSOR ANTONIO MORONI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Antonio Moroni, 89, Emeritus Professor in the University of Parma, died on August 18th. He had a major role in shaping the last 60 years of Italian research in Environmental Science and was very active in establishing the conceptual basis for Environmental Management in Italy. A Catholic priest, he had a natural gift for communicating a positive approach to life.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ecology, Environmental Sciences, Obituary</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (4): 189-190 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0090-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Menozzi P Editoriali 2014-09-11 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Recensioni: Un libro “dalla parte del fuoco” <p><b>Lovreglio R</b></p><p><b>UN LIBRO “DALLA PARTE DEL FUOCO”</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Le Edizioni Il Maestrale ha pubblicato il libro di Giuseppe Delogu “Dalla parte del fuoco. Ovvero il paradosso di Bambi” che tratta di diversi aspetti del problema partendo dall’ancora e attuale equivoco della differenza tra fuoco e incendio.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Fire, Piroclimax, Fireprone</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (4): 191-192 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0091-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Lovreglio R Recensioni 2014-08-31 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Mitigazione del pericolo incendi nelle aree di interfaccia urbano/foresta: un esempio di selvicoltura preventiva in Sardegna <p><b>Lovreglio R, Danna E, Mou G</b></p><p><b>MITIGAZIONE DEL PERICOLO INCENDI NELLE AREE DI INTERFACCIA URBANO/FORESTA: UN ESEMPIO DI SELVICOLTURA PREVENTIVA IN SARDEGNA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Wildfires at the wildland/urban interface (WUI) areas have recently taken on alarming dimensions, and most of the catastrophic wildfires in recent years are of this type (Greece 2003 and 2007, Italy, 2007; Australia, 2009; Spain 2003, 2007, 2012). Contrastingly to forest stands, where fuel has to be managed also taking into consideration stand conservation and improvement purposes, in WUI fuel management has the imperative goal of the protection of property and people. The present paper deals with the implementation of a methodology for assessing fire hazard in a WUI area in Sardinia, and assess the most appropriate prevention silvicultural practices to be applied to mitigate the hazard (i.e., the probability of fire occurrence and the difficulty to extinguish it, based on the current vegetation characteristics). We applied a method aimed at defining a “danger value” for each fuel model found in the study area, and derived the silvicultural practices to be applied for the reduction of fuel and the associated risk. The effects of silvicultural prevention were assessed for each fuel model in the study area in terms of flame length and fire intensity for the pre-, during and post phases.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Preventive Sylviculture, Conversion, Hazard, Intensity, Flame Length</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (4): 156-167 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1187-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Lovreglio R, Danna E, Mou G Articoli Scientifici 2014-07-10 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Verso una stima della mortalità individuale e degli incrementi netti dei boschi italiani. Quale margine di sostenibilità per la gestione forestale in Italia? <p><b>Magnani F, Raddi S</b></p><p><b>VERSO UNA STIMA DELLA MORTALITÀ INDIVIDUALE E DEGLI INCREMENTI NETTI DEI BOSCHI ITALIANI. QUALE MARGINE DI SOSTENIBILITÀ PER LA GESTIONE FORESTALE IN ITALIA?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Towards an assessment of tree mortality and net annual increments in Italian forests. Which sustainability for the Italian forestry? Sustainable forest management requires that fellings do not exceed increments in the medium term, once natural mortality is taken into account. Here we propose an assessment of the relevance of tree mortality in stands not regularly thinned, as prevailing in Italian forests. The amount of small-scale mortality losses is often neglected and cannot be directly estimated from available inventory data. From literature sources and using two alternative approaches, mortality losses could amount to 31.1-36.2% of gross annual increments. Fellings would therefore remove 57.7-62.6% of net annual increments of Italian forests, well above what often reported and not far away from the EU15 average. This new estimate confirms the overall sustainability of Italian forestry on a national level, but highlights the need for careful planning in the future use of forest biomass, a strategic renewable resource.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest, Natural Mortality, Fellings, Sustainable Forest Management, Forest Inventory</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (3): 138-148 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1235-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Magnani F, Raddi S Articoli Scientifici 2014-06-17 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Osservazioni su alcune incertezze e incongruenze nella terminologia dendrometrica <p><b>De Mas G, Hellrigl B</b></p><p><b>OSSERVAZIONI SU ALCUNE INCERTEZZE E INCONGRUENZE NELLA TERMINOLOGIA DENDROMETRICA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the italian forestry literature, the adjective “cormometric” combined with the noun volume or its equivalent, is used with three different meanings which are respectively linked to the stem, to the trunk or large timber. To find the origins and also the reasons for these different meanings of the term, we need to go back in history. The first definition is by Alfonso Di Berenger first director of the Vallombrosa Forest, the first seat of higher Forestry education in Italy between 1869 and 1951. He defined cormometric the volume of the “legname sociale” (industrial timber), or the trunk. Follows the definition of Vittorio Perona that, in the wake of the German concept of Derbholz, considers cormometric volume as including also portions of branches above seven centimeters. Giuseppe Di Tella, Professor of forest mensurations and forest management in Florence between 1916 and 1937 is the author of a large general volume table for fir where the cormometric volume is defined as the “stem including the top”, but also, following the doctrine, as a measure expressing the volume of the part of the stem that can provide wood for building or industry. Subsequently, with the definitions of the Professors Generoso Patrone and Guglielmo Giordano confirming the doctrinal meaning of Di Tella, the sense of the term remains unchanged. In 1986 Hellrigl called cormometric mass, the aboveground woody tree mass limited to trunk and limbs to be determined; however, this definition did not find any application. Alternative definitions by Roberto Del Favero and Orazio La Marca consider cormometric volume including top and cormometric volume excluding top. In the forest literature, instead, there were more changes in 2007, when the Forestry Research Portal published a notation regarding cubing of forest stands, stating “in the cubing of forest stands, woody volume estimated for conifers is, in general, cormometric (i.e., volume of the stem including bark)” which gave rise to the present note. Alongside, and again in connection with the meaning of the term cormometric, certain combinations of terminology reported in two multilingual glossaries of IUFRO are highlighted.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Stem Volume, Derbholz, Cormometric Volume</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (3): 149-155 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1208-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> De Mas G, Hellrigl B Commenti & Prospettive 2014-06-17 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Analisi percettiva della Gestione Forestale Sostenibile (GFS) attraverso l’impiego delle mappe cognitive <p><b>Paletto A, De Meo I, Di Salvatore U, Ferretti F</b></p><p><b>ANALISI PERCETTIVA DELLA GESTIONE FORESTALE SOSTENIBILE (GFS) ATTRAVERSO L’IMPIEGO DELLE MAPPE COGNITIVE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Perceptive analysis of the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) through the cognitive maps. SFM is the current paradigm in forest management. This paradigm has mixed the principles of multifunctionality with the concept of sustainable development. Despite the association between SFM and public participation, the sustainable management of forest resource can be achieved from the technical point of view both with a top-down approach, where a low number of social actors are involved in the decision making process, and a bottom-up approach, where the number of social actors and interests is broad. Following this second approach, a preliminary stage is the construction of the scenario perceived (mapping of stakeholders and analysis of the hierarchy of preferences and interests). This analysis, achieved through the construction of individual and collective cognitive maps, improves the cognitive framework and supports the facilitator in the decision making process. The cognitive maps of the stakeholders are the starting point of the participatory forest management. The paper focuses on the implementation of a method, based on the cognitive maps, aimed to identify and analyse the perception and the hierarchy of interests of the stakeholders with respect to the SFM. The method was tested in a case study characterized by rural vocation where the primary sector has a key role from both social and economic point of views (Alto Matese, Molise Region).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), Social Perception, Stakeholders, Cognitive Maps, Matese</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (3): 125-137 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1245-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Paletto A, De Meo I, Di Salvatore U, Ferretti F Articoli Scientifici 2014-06-10 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Impatto degli ungulati selvatici sui boschi cedui della Val di Bisenzio (Prato) <p><b>Bianchi L, Bartoli L, Paci M, Pozzi D</b></p><p><b>IMPATTO DEGLI UNGULATI SELVATICI SUI BOSCHI CEDUI DELLA VAL DI BISENZIO (PRATO)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Similar to other Apennine areas, a considerable increase of wild ungulate density has been observed in the past decades in the Bisenzio valley (province of Prato), leading to a strong impact on coppice regeneration. In some felling areas, the prolonged browsing on young suckers turned the stumps into low and dense bushes, thus threatening the survival of the forest stand and triggering a loss of environmental stability. The aim of this work was to study the impact of deer on sprout regeneration after cutting in mixed coppices felled in the period 2007-2010 and characterized by the dominance of chestnut, hornbeam, Turkey oak, and beech. Some 36 plots were established in four municipal districts of the Prato province (Cantagallo, Vernio, Montemurlo, Vaiano). Damage and browsing intensity on each stump were evaluated using an index that allowed the comparison among different areas and fores stand types. Regardless of the species, over 90% of the sprouts revealed a very strong damage, whereas only 6% did not exhibit any damage. A significant difference in the sprout height was detected between browsed and non-browsed areas. Despite a high incidence of damage in all the studied areas, chestnut showed a greater resilience against browsing. In summary, overgrazing by wild game may determine severe contraints to the evolutionary dynamics of forest stands, frustrating the effects of silvicultural practices. The possible benefits of the implementation of a large-scale integrated wildlife plan, including hunting and forest-evironmental management are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Coppice, Wild Ungulate Damage, Forest Dynamics, Silviculture, Sustainable Management</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (3): 116-124 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1259-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Bianchi L, Bartoli L, Paci M, Pozzi D Articoli Scientifici 2014-06-09 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: Primi dati su fenologia e distribuzione in Italia di Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), la cimicetta della bronzatura dell’eucalipto <p><b>Sasso R, Mughini G, Laudonia S</b></p><p><b>PRIMI DATI SU FENOLOGIA E DISTRIBUZIONE IN ITALIA DI THAUMASTOCORIS PEREGRINUS CARPINTERO AND DELLAPÉ (HETEROPTERA: THAUMASTOCORIDAE), LA CIMICETTA DELLA BRONZATURA DELL’EUCALIPTO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Phenology and distribution of Italian populations of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae). Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapè (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) was detected for the first time in Italy in September 2011, on several Eucalyptus species and hybrids. This pest, native of Australia, was the first species of the family Thaumastocoridae found in Europe. In this paper we report data on its current distribution in Italy, where the species is present in Lazio, Campania and Tuscany. Phenological studies allowed to detect the presence of eggs, preimaginal stages and peaks of the flight of the adults. No diapausing stage were detected.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bronze Bug, Eucalyptus spp., Invasive Species, Biology, Natural Enemies</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (3): 105-115 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1184-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Sasso R, Mughini G, Laudonia S Comunicazioni Brevi 2014-06-06 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Comparazione delle definizioni di bosco efficaci sul territorio nazionale attraverso l’analisi di dominanza <p><b>Carbone F</b></p><p><b>COMPARAZIONE DELLE DEFINIZIONI DI BOSCO EFFICACI SUL TERRITORIO NAZIONALE ATTRAVERSO L’ANALISI DI DOMINANZA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Comparison of forest definitions at the national level using dominance analysis. Despite Italian forests are subject of protection since long time, the first forest definition legally binding has been enacted only in 2001. However, thanks to the action of international, national and regional institutions, 25 forest definitions are effective today on the Italian territory. All definitions of forest are fully described and their qualification analyzed using four definition types: legislation, policies, technical and allocative. Only those that are included in the first three types were subjected to dominance analysis. Macro-criteria, criteria and sub-criteria have been defined to build an absolute valuation matrix. Concordance, discordance and dominance analysis have been cattied out after normaliztion. Forest definitions have been subdivided into two groups: dominant and dominated. The first group includes all regional definitions due to the details of their content, while the second group includes definition adopted by international and national institutions. Three aspects have been emphasized in the conclusion: (a) all definitions, except that adopted by the Lombardy Region, are based on the “forest land” and not on the “forest”; (b) most definitions do not include the multifunctional nature of the forest thus neglecting one of the most relevant forest profiles; (c) the first part of all definition is devoted to technical details as if the main motivation for their elaboration were the quantification of the forest area.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Definitions, Typologies of Forest Definitions, Evaluation Matrix, Ranking of Forest Definitions</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 86-101 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1055-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Carbone F Articoli Scientifici 2014-04-29 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Stato ed evoluzione temporale della composizione chimica delle deposizioni atmosferiche nelle aree forestali della rete CONECOFOR <p><b>Marchetto A, Arisci S, Tartari GA, Balestrini R, Tait D</b></p><p><b>STATO ED EVOLUZIONE TEMPORALE DELLA COMPOSIZIONE CHIMICA DELLE DEPOSIZIONI ATMOSFERICHE NELLE AREE FORESTALI DELLA RETE CONECOFOR</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network. Since 1997, atmospheric deposition was sampled and analyzed in the permanent plots of the Italian network for the evaluation of forest health (CONECOFOR), under the coordination of the Italian Forest Service. This paper presents the results of the activity carried out in 2009, when the EU-funded LIFE+ “FutMon” project allowed to extend the sampling network to 22 sites. Long-term trends will also be evaluated for the sampling sites with the longest time series. The sampling of open field bulk deposition was performed in a clearance close to the CONECOFOR permanent plots, while throughfall deposition and stemflow (in beech stand, only) were sampled in the plot. Deposition samples were collected weekly and sent to the laboratories, where they were analyzed for pH, conductivity, major ions, and total carbon and nitrogen. Most measured variables showed a strong geographical gradient. For example, nitrogen deposition was relatively high in the Po plain (where the emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are the highest) and surrounding hills, reaching 10-20 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the open field and 13-25 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the throughfall. Sulphate deposition also showed a marked geographical gradient. Deposition of marine aerosol also had an important impact on the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition in Italy, together with the episodic deposition of Saharan dust, which showed a marked gradient, with highest values in the southernmost plots. Trend analysis was carried out on 10 sites running since the beginning of the program. A general negative trend in sulphate concentration was detected, paralleled in most plots by a positive trend in deposition pH, in good agreement with the strong reduction in the emission of sulphur dioxide recorded in the last decades. Nitrogen concentration also showed a significant decrease in some plots. The total deposition of nitrogen exceeded critical loads in seven permanent plots.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forests, Atmospheric Deposition, Nitrogen, Trend, Sulphate</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 72-85 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1003-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Marchetto A, Arisci S, Tartari GA, Balestrini R, Tait D Articoli Scientifici 2014-04-22 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Recensioni: Un bel libro di zoologia forestale <p><b>Fanti P</b></p><p><b>UN BEL LIBRO DI ZOOLOGIA FORESTALE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: (n/a)</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: (n/a)</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 102-103 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0092-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Fanti P Recensioni 2014-04-22 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Futmon-mobile: una piattaforma informatica di mobile GIS e web-database per i rilievi fito-sanitari nel progetto FutMon <p><b>Colle G, Floris A, Scrinzi G, Clementel F</b></p><p><b>FUTMON-MOBILE: UNA PIATTAFORMA INFORMATICA DI MOBILE GIS E WEB-DATABASE PER I RILIEVI FITO-SANITARI NEL PROGETTO FUTMON</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Futmon-mobile: a mobile-GIS and web-database platform to assist phyto-patological survey of the Futmon project. The ICP-Forest ConEcoFor project has involved for more than a decade several Italian Forest Service teams in the phyto-patological monitoring of forests. The high number of survey plots, the multitude of data to be acquired and the yearly repetition of the ConEcoFor survey brought to the decision to manage the complete monitoring data-flow thorough a computer-based information system. The aim of this sub-task of the FutMon LIFE+07 project has been to optimize the survey management, the data-flow execution and the data control and analysis through the development of specific software applications. This work describes the Futmon-Mobile GIS software developed to assist the field survey of phyto-patological forest data and the Futmon-WebDB web-database developed to acquire the data from the field crews, to aggregate all the plots data and to perform the pre-processing for data submission to the european ICP-Forest database. This paper refers also on the experiences and evaluations about the introduction of the developed software in the survey protocol and some perspectives related to its possible evolution.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Monitoring, Phyto-patological Monitoring, Mobile-GIS, Web-database, GPS, Futmon, ICP-Forest</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 45-51 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1023-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Colle G, Floris A, Scrinzi G, Clementel F Articoli Scientifici 2014-04-18 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Dinamiche evolutive in boschi cedui di betulla (Betula aetnensis Rafin) nel Monte Etna (Sicilia) <p><b>Bagnato S, La Piana V, Mercurio R, Merlino A, Scarfò F, Sciascia N, Solano F, Spampinato G</b></p><p><b>DINAMICHE EVOLUTIVE IN BOSCHI CEDUI DI BETULLA (BETULA AETNENSIS RAFIN) NEL MONTE ETNA (SICILIA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin) coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily). The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin) following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily). We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks) or mixed ones (with birch); pure birch stands (typical) that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations) could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Betula Aetnensis, Mount Etna, Vegetation Dynamics, Coppice Selection System, Forest Restoration</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 52-65 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1191-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Bagnato S, La Piana V, Mercurio R, Merlino A, Scarfò F, Sciascia N, Solano F, Spampinato G Articoli Scientifici 2014-04-18 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti Tecnici: La realizzazione della carta delle formazioni naturali e semi-naturali e della carta forestale su basi tipologiche della regione Lazio <p><b>Chirici G, Fattori C, Cutolo N, Tufano M, Corona P, Barbati A, Blasi C, Copiz R, Rossi L, Biscontini D, Ribera A, Morgante L, Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>LA REALIZZAZIONE DELLA CARTA DELLE FORMAZIONI NATURALI E SEMI-NATURALI E DELLA CARTA FORESTALE SU BASI TIPOLOGICHE DELLA REGIONE LAZIO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Map of the natural and semi-natural environments and forest types map for the Latium region (Italy). The paper presents the main methodological aspects and the most important results achieved in the implementation of the “Map of natural and semi-natural environments” and of the “Forest types map” in Lazio region at a scale of 1:10.000. The project was carried out for the Agenzia dei Parchi and for the Area Foreste of Regione Lazio through a collaboration between e-GEOS , the University of Rome "La Sapienza", the University of Tuscia and Forestlab Centre , a spin- off of the University of Molise . The project is based on the integrated use of high-resolution satellite imagery and ADS40 false-color infrared digital orthophotos and led to the creation of two maps geometrically and thematically consistent with each other. The “Map of natural and semi-natural environments” is integrated with the pre-existing land use map of the Lazio region deepening the thematic detail up to the 6th Corine level. The “Forest types map” is based on a typological system organized in 17 categories and 36 forest types .</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Map, Land Use Map, Lazio Region, ADS40, Segmentation</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (2): 65-71 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1204-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Chirici G, Fattori C, Cutolo N, Tufano M, Corona P, Barbati A, Blasi C, Copiz R, Rossi L, Biscontini D, Ribera A, Morgante L, Marchetti M Rapporti Tecnici 2014-04-18 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Errori nella stima degli incrementi di volume in alberi forestali <p><b>Magnani F, Raddi S</b></p><p><b>ERRORI NELLA STIMA DEGLI INCREMENTI DI VOLUME IN ALBERI FORESTALI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Periodic tree and stand increments are often estimated retrospectively from measurements of diameter and height growth of standing trees, through the application of various simplifications of the general formula for volume increment rates. In particular, the Hellrigl method and its various formulations have been often suggested in Italy. Like other retrospective approaches, the Hellrigl method is affected by a systematic error, resulting from the assumption as a reference term of conditions at one of the extremes of the period considered. The magnitude of the error introduced by different formulations has been assessed in the present study through their application to mensurational and increment measurements from the detailed growth analysis of 107 Picea abies trees. Results are compared with those obtained with a new equation, which makes reference to the interval mid-point. The newly proposed method makes it possible to drastically reduce the error in the estimate of periodic tree increments, and especially its systematic component. This appears of particular relevance for stand- and national level applications.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Growth, Growth Analysis, Model, Percentage Increment, Picea abies</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (1): 38-44 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1182-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Magnani F, Raddi S Articoli Scientifici 2014-02-26 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Analisi storica e modellizzazione della dinamica del carbonio in foresta attraverso il Carbon Budget Model: un esempio per la Provincia Autonoma di Trento <p><b>Pilli R, Grassi G, Cescatti A</b></p><p><b>ANALISI STORICA E MODELLIZZAZIONE DELLA DINAMICA DEL CARBONIO IN FORESTA ATTRAVERSO IL CARBON BUDGET MODEL: UN ESEMPIO PER LA PROVINCIA AUTONOMA DI TRENTO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Historical analysis and modeling of the forest carbon dynamics using the Carbon Budget Model: an example for the Trento Province (NE, Italy). The Carbon Budget Model (CBM-CFS3) developed by the Canadian Forest Service was applied to data collected by the last Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC) for the Trento Province (NE, Italy). CBM was modified and adapted to the different management types (i.e., even-aged high forests, uneven-aged high forests and coppices) and silvicultural systems (including clear cuts, single tree selection systems and thinning) applied in this province. The aim of this study was to provide an example of down-scaling of this model from a national to a regional scale, providing (i) an historical analysis, from 1995 to 2011, and (ii) a projection, from 2012 to 2020, of the forest biomass and the carbon stock evolution. The analysis was based on the harvest rate reported by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (from 1995 to 2011), corrected according to the last INFC data and distinguished between timber and fuel woods and between conifers and broadleaves. Since 2012, we applied a constant harvest rate, equal to about 1300 Mm3 yr-1, estimated from the average harvest rate for the period 2006-2011. Model results were consistent with similar data reported in the literature. The average biomass C stock was 90 Mg C ha-1 and the biomass C stock change was 0.97 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, for the period 1995 -2011 and 2012-2020, respectively. The C stock cumulated by the timber products since 1995 was 96 Gg C yr-1, i.e., about 28% of the average annual C stock change of the forests, equal to 345 Gg C yr-1. CBM also provided estimates on the evolution of the age class distribution of the even-aged forests and on the C stock of the DOM forest pools (litter, dead wood and soil). This study demonstrates the utility of CBM to provide estimates at a regional or local scale, using not only the data provided by the forest inventories, but also by forest management plans.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Gestione Forestale, Utilizzazioni, Carbon Budget Model, INFC, Provincia di Trento</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (1): 13-28 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1138-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Pilli R, Grassi G, Cescatti A Articoli Scientifici 2014-02-25 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Monitoraggio estensivo delle foreste italiane: integrazione tra Inventario Forestale Nazionale e Rete europea di Livello I <p><b>Gasparini P, Di Cosmo L, Paletto A, Rizzo M, Saba Presutti E</b></p><p><b>MONITORAGGIO ESTENSIVO DELLE FORESTE ITALIANE: INTEGRAZIONE TRA INVENTARIO FORESTALE NAZIONALE E RETE EUROPEA DI LIVELLO I</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Extensive monitoring of Italian forests: integration of the National Forest Inventory with the European Network of Level I. Forest monitoring is important for enhancing our knowledge on such ecosystems and their changes in order to enable actions helpful for their protection. At the European level, several monitoring programmes are carried out at present to pursue a better knowledge of specific characteristics of forests. Among those, national forest inventories are carried out to give a picture of their status (forest area, forest types, timber volume, growth and others), whereas health status of forests has been monitored over twenty years thanks to a specific programme, the ICP Forests. Under LIFE+ programme 2007, the FutMon project funded country-level studies aiming at evaluating the possibility to merge national forest inventory and Level I sample plots in a unique set of plots for forest monitoring and survey protocol. The underlying idea is that a common set of plots would enhance efficiency either in terms of costs or in terms of scientific results. However, an important issue is to preserve the validity of the twenty-years-long existing data series. For this reason in Italy, in 2009 and 2010, an experiment was carried out by measuring a common set of variables both in the Level I plots and in a subset of the inventory plots, in order to evaluate differences and similarities of surveying variables in the two different plot samples. More specifically, the integration between the two programmes would imply a change in the crown-condition sample-trees selection criteria and the shift of the Level I network to the inventory one. On the basis of the results, from 2012 the National Forest Inventory protocol for sample-trees selection has already been adopted on the Level I plots, whereas the feasibility of shifting the Level I plots from the ICP network to the National Forest Inventory one is still under evaluation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Monitoring, Forest Inventory, Forest Crown Condition, ICP Forests Level I, Italian Forests</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (1): 29-37 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1017-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Gasparini P, Di Cosmo L, Paletto A, Rizzo M, Saba Presutti E Articoli Scientifici 2014-02-25 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Recensioni: La tecnica del fuoco prescritto <p><b>Leone V</b></p><p><b>LA TECNICA DEL FUOCO PRESCRITTO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Nella collana “Scienza e innovazione per i sistemi forestali ed ambientali” della Editrice Aracne è stato recentemente pubblicato il volume “La tecnica del fuoco prescritto” a cura di G. Bovio e D. Ascoli dell’Università di Torino.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wildfire, Prescribed Burning, Fire Smart Landscape Management, Piedmont</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (1): 1-2 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor094-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Leone V Recensioni 2014-02-07 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti di Progetto: Il monitoraggio dei boschi italiani <p><b>Pompei E</b></p><p><b>IL MONITORAGGIO DEI BOSCHI ITALIANI</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Long-term monitoring of the Italian forests. The long-term monitoring is an essential tool for the study of the state of health of European forest ecosystems over time, especially in relation to the adaptation strategies adopted in response to changes in climate. In 2008, at the European level, there was a need to review the various existing monitoring networks in the various States in order to plan an integration and a more rational use of the information from each detected. The Project for the integration of monitoring networks was carried out using the instrument of the European LIFE+ funding. The fundamental objective of the project was the renovation and expansion of the main European Networks Monitoring of Forests, improving its representativeness, effectiveness and harmonization between them. In addition, in the period 2009/2010 was carried out the extensive and intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe. The project, approved and co-financed by the European Commission, has been coordinated at the international level by Johann Heinrich von Thunen-Institute, Germany, and saw the participation of 24 EU member states and 38 partners.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Monitoring, Forest Health, LIFE+ Project, Forest Ecosystems</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (1): 3-7 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1013-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Pompei E Rapporti di Progetto 2014-02-07 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti di Progetto: Le condizioni dei boschi in Italia. Risultati dalle indagini estensive di Livello I (1997-2010) <p><b>Bussotti F, Cenni E, Bettini D, Sarti C, Stergulc F, Feducci M, Capretti P</b></p><p><b>LE CONDIZIONI DEI BOSCHI IN ITALIA. RISULTATI DALLE INDAGINI ESTENSIVE DI LIVELLO I (1997-2010)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The conditions of forests in Italy. Results from the extensive surveys of Level I (1997-2010). Monitoring of tree crown defoliation is carried out in Italy since the ’80, and in 1996 a comprehensive program of quality assurance has been implemented. Currently the monitoring network includes about 260 permanent plots and 7000 sample trees. The most representative tree species are: Fagus sylvatica (European beech), Quercus pubescens (downy oak), Quercus cerris (Turkey oak), Quercus ilex (holm oah), Castanea sativa (chestnut), Ostrya carpinifolia (hop hornbeam), Picea abies (spruce), Larix decidua (larch), Pinus nigra (black pine) e Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine). These species represent the 80% of the whole sample, but only European beech is evenly distributed in Italy. The most important trends at national level concern the critical sanitary conditions of Castanea sativa and Quercus pubescens, as well as the high defoliation levels of Pinus sylvestris. The importance of this program in the context of climate change studies is discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: CON.ECO.FOR., Crown Conditions, Defoliation, Level I</p><p><i>Forest@ 11 (1): 8-12 (2014)</i> - doi: 10.3832/efor1005-011<br/><a href="" target="_blank"></a></p><hr size="1"/> Bussotti F, Cenni E, Bettini D, Sarti C, Stergulc F, Feducci M, Capretti P Rapporti di Progetto 2014-02-07 Copyright (c) 2016, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved